Study Guide for Test 1
Study Guide for Test 1 PHIL 390 001
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PHIL 390 001
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Joseph Liverman on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to PHIL 390 001 at James Madison University taught by W. O'Meara in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Special Topics in Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Phil 390 Study Guidg Key Terms Metaphysical Method The idea that the truth is this unchanging deep entity which transcends humanity Dialectical Method The idea that truth changes across cultures and throughout time Principle of Contradiction The principle that you can t have two opposite statements both be true For instance if 2 2 4 is true it is not possible for 2 2 7t 4 Homo homini lupus est A Latin phrase roughly translated as quotA man is a wolf to another manquot Golden Rule quotDo unto others as you would have them do unto youquot Materialism The Philosophical idea that the most fundamental aspect of reality is matter there are no intangible things They are merely manifestations of the physical world This is NOT Marx s Materialism Fixed Drive A drive that is the same across all cultures It can be channeled but not removed For example the desire to have sex to eat and to have human relationships Relative Drive A drive that is created by a society and is not common to all human beings For instance the desire to attain great wealth Marx would argue is exclusive to capitalistic societies Species character The essence of man that which is universally human quotand which is realized in the process of history by man through his productive activityquot Key Concepts Force being a catalyst Marx believes that in order for any real and lasting change to be made there must rst be an enormous amount of social and political change beforehand It is not the force that creates change but rather it ushers in a new era that has already been determined by pre existing social and political changes Human productivity leading to ful llment Spinoza Goethe Hegel and Marx all believed that man is only ful lled insomuch as he is productive In other words if a man is not productive if a man does not work create or do something to change his external reality he is not ful lled at all In fact he is most likely very miserable Capitalism stealing souls Marx believes that capitalism in a sense robs man of his humanity he believes that it steals a man s soul from him It forces man to accept money as an end rather than a man and ensnares him in a perpetual state of greed and severs him from his natural state Communism as the cure to this soullessness Marx believes that the cure to the inhumanity caused by capitalism is communism By removing the cultural forces which caused man to worship wealth in an almost idolatrous way Marx believes that man will view productivity and human relationships as the end thus reuniting him with his soul and with nature Alienation Marx believes that man is alienated from reality which is caused by capitalism In other words he believes that capitalism alienates man from his own reality it robs man of experiencing himself as an acting agent which brings about change and instead isolates man from his actions which in a capitalist state are merely done as a reaction to whatever nancial burdens he may feel Existential Egotism The act of caring simply for one s own existence and not having any sort of cause to live for aside from this Marx believes that this develops out of capitalism and totalitarianism these philosophies train man to believe in the state s narrative and deprives him of any internal sense of purpose or meaning Key Distinctions Fixed vs Relative Desires Fixed drives are those which are fixed within humans and can be redirected or channeled by a society but not removed Examples include libido hunger and the desire for human connections Relative drives are drives that society creates but don t exist inherently in man for instance the desire for money glory or fame Having vs being Marx distinguishes vs having and being because he believes that the latter is far more ful lling and much closer to our natural state He believes that a rich man may have many things but only have them as a collector of sorts Being something however is far more ful lling and much different To be loved to be honored to be adored are all far more ful lling than merely having things Communism vs Crude Communism Crude Communism to Marx is a type of Communism which removes man of any properties unable to be possessed by all For instance talent is the example which is given Communism on the other hand seeks to bring out the talent in everyone by removing their nancial dependence and encouraging them to be productive for its own sake ThesisAntithesisSynthesis This is essentially the culmination of Hegel s work Hegel discusses the dialectical method which is a phenomenon which can be observed all throughout history What happens is that an idea is postulated from there a reactionary postulates an opposite idea in retaliation Then over time a third thesis is postulated the synthesis which blends both together For instance this can be seen in Philosophy First Plato claimed that everything was merely a re ection of an immaterial world of ideals Then Aristotle claimed that the opposite was true that all immaterial things are simply abstractions of the physical world Finally many philosophers blended these two opposing philosophies and postulated that there are multiple types of existence some things are immaterial and some are material Poverty vs Wealth Marx believes that true poverty lies in those who have no human connections and are needy for such things while true wealth lies in those who have an abundance of social connections and meaning in their life Thus a very nancially successful man can live in poverty and a very nancially poor man may live in wealth
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