Psychology 202- Exam 3 studyguide
Psychology 202- Exam 3 studyguide PSY 202
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This 14 page Study Guide was uploaded by Devan Atteberry on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 202 at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo taught by Gary Laver in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at California Polytechnic State University San Luis Obispo.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Devan Atteberry 3/11/2016 Psych 202 EXAM #3 STUDY GUIDE: Chapter 2: Theories of Personality (1) Personality= a distinctive and relatively stable pattern of behavior, thoughts, motives, and emotions that characterizes an individual (textbook) (2) Freud’s Psychodynamic Personality theories: Psychoanalysis= theory of personality and a method of psychotherapy, originally formulated by Sigmund Freud, that emphasizes unconscious motives and conflicts Emphasis on intraphsysic dynamics (within the mind) Assumption that adult behavior or problems are determined by childhood experiences . Unconscious feelings or thoughts (3) Structures of Personality: (1) The ID= the part of the personality in terms of unconscious energy and dynamics within the individual (textbook) Unconscious instincts . Libido . Death/ aggression instincts (2) The Ego= the part of personality that represents reason, good, sense, and rational self control (textbook) Like a referee works consciously/ unconsciously (3) Superego= the part of personality that represents conscience, morality, and social standards (textbook) Morality Pride/ satisfaction . Defense mechanisms: Repression= if threatening, it is suppressed from conscious Projection= feelings initially suppressed, but then put on someone else Displacement= direct feelings towards objects or people that aren’t actual source of emotion Regression= throwing a temper tantrum as an adult Denial= don’t recognize something unpleasant is happening . Development of personality: (1) Oral Stage (01 year) dependency on others Mouth is center of sensation (2) Anal Stage (23 years) sense of identity quickly developing learn selfcontrol (3) Phallic/ oepedial stage (36 years) gender identification and superego begins to develop Genitals center of sensation Oedipus complex= a child desires the parent of the other sex and views same sex parent as rival (textbook) (4) Latency stage (phallic to puberty) social skills and interactions refined learn to live in society (5) Genital stage (puberty) sexual energy emerges (4) Jungian theory: Collective unconscious= universal memories and experiences of humankind, represented in the symbols, stories, and images (archetypes), that occur across all cultures (textbook) Archetypes= image . Mandala> represents unity of life . Shadow archetype> dark side of human nature Involves introversion and extroversion Future goals= great motivators . Object Relations School attachment in early life prevalent in the development in human nature Need to find independence and dependence from others Response to loss or change Child needs recognition from mom st Really emphasize in 1 two years of life (5) Criticisms of Psychodynamic theories: (1) Violates principle of falsibility hard to confirm or not confirm (2) Drawing universal principles from the experiences of very few atypical patients makes it very easy to overgeneralize (3) Basing theories of development on retrospective accounts and fallible memories of patients is also risky memory can be inaccurate (6) Personality test: Myers Briggs type indicator> not scientific or reliable . Doesn’t predict personality or behavior in life . Objective tests (inventories) = standardized questionnaires requiring written responses; they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves> scientifically valid . Useful in research (7) Trait theories: Allports: many traits combine to give us our characteristics . Central (global) traitsabout 5 to 10 per person, dictates how we behave . Secondary traits changeable parts of a personality Cattel’s factor of analysis traits= statistical method for analyzing the intercorrelations among various measures or test scores; clusters of measures or scores that are highly correlated are assumed to measure the same underlying trait, ability, or attitude/factor (textbook) . Big Five personality traits: stable by age 30 (1) Extroversion vs introversion (2) Neuroticism vs emotional stability Neuroticism > negative emotions (3) Agreeableness vs antagonism (4) Conscientiousness vs emotional stability (5) Openness vs resistance to new experiences (8) Temperament= physiological dispositions to respond to the environment in certain ways; they are present in infancy and are assumed to be innate Reactivity, soothability, and positive/negative emotions Highly reactive (your kid) vs nonreactive (other people’s kids) Kagans study in children: 15% extremely reactive babies stay the same, 85% become average, and 0% becomes vivacious or fearless (9) Heritability= a statistical estimate of the proportion of total variance in some trait that is attributed to genetic differences among individuals within a group (textbook) . Behavioral genetics= a study concerned with the genetic bases of individual differences in behavior and personality . Computing heritability hard to measure directly Families are biased which isn’t good Adopted children easier to see what is nature vs nurture Identical vs fraternal twins > if more identical they are more alike than fraternal then its genetic (10) social cognitive learning approach to personality= holds that personality traits result from a person’s learning history and his/her expectation, beliefs, perceptions of events, and other cognitions Reciprocal determinism= the 2 way interaction between aspects of the environment and the individuals in the shaping of personality traits Nonshared environment= unique aspects of a person’s environment and experience that aren’t shared with family members (11) Influence of parents: (1) Shared environment at home has little if any influence on personality (2) Few parents have 1 type of rearing method that is consistent and use with all kids (3) Even if parents are consistent with there is little influence on how kid turns out (4) Do influence: religious beliefs, morals, intellectual/ occupational interests, skills, values, and quality of relationships . Influence of Peers: When home and peer environment clash > peer influence wins More important to be accepted by peers than parents/family Our disposition makes us choose groups of people (12) Individualist cultures= self is regarded as autonomous, and individuals goals and wishes are prized above duty relations with others (textbook) . Collectivist culture= self is regarded as embedded in relationships and harmony with one’s group is prized above individual goals/wishes (textbook) Individualist Collectivist . Independence, . Interdependent of achievement groups . Group harmony, duty, leadership obligation . Independent of groups and security . More weight toward individuals . Give priority to the needs of the attitude than group norms group . Culture and traits: Behaviors due to culture rather than personality o Cleanliness standards o Punctuality/ tardiness o Helpfulness Americans are more egotistic (13) Humanist Approaches to Psychology: (1) Maslow> selfactualization focused on and aspects of human nature: joy, laughter, love, happiness Peak experiences a moment of achievement or experience of beauty (2) Rogers> fully functional Unconditional positive regard= love or support given to another person with no conditions attached Conditional regard “love you if you do this or behave this way”> leads to suppression/denial of parts of personality (3) May>existentialism emphasize difficult parts of human nature Existentialism= a philosophical approach that emphasizes the inevitable dilemmas and challenges of human existence Personality represents: cope and struggle to find meaning to existence, personal freedom, how we face suffering and death Chapter 3: Development Over Life Span (1) Stages of prenatal development: (1) Germinal stage zygote forms (02 weeks) Forms placenta and umbilical cord . Screens out harmful things and gives nutrients to zygote (2) Embryonic stage (38 weeks) Rudimentary form of organs and systems develop Testosterone secreted to create male Most vulnerable stage 1 ½” tath (3) Fetal stage (9 to birth) At 28 weeks can survive by itself Further organ development . Risks during development: (1) Fathers contribution: If older: risk increases for autism, bipolar, schizophrenia If younger: can be premature baby, low weight (2) Moms contribution: German measles > deafness, or blindness X ray radiation> low IQ STDs> physical problems, retardation Smoking> infant death, premature Having 2+ drinks/day > FAS (fetal alcohol syndrome) > mental retardation (2) Physical/ Perceptual abilities of newborns/ infants: Motor reflexes= autonomic behavior crucial to survival (rooting reflex) Perceptual abilities can see it in all senses are operational but not developed (3) Contact Comfort Harry Harlow examined physical touch between baby and parent conducted study with baby monkeys . Monkeys preferred the terry cloth cuddly mother compared to the wire one 2/3 times . Separation and Security Mary Ainsworth Separation anxiety= the distress that most children develop (68 months) when their primary caregivers temporarily leave them with strangers o Lessened with lots of kids and people around Strange situation experiment: leave child with parent, with stranger, and all alone o Can be (1) securely attached cries when mom leaves (2) insecurely attached avoidant no reaction (3) insecurely attached anxious/ambivalent fusses o She concluded that babies attachment was result of moms behavior> she was wrong 2/3 children are securely attached no matter what (4) Language Development: (1) Start with cooing/crying and learn through parents talking (parentese) and baby talk (2) 46 months recognize their name, other words with emotions, know native language sounds (3) 6 months – 1 year know sound structures of own language, start to babble, name and gesture at 11 months (4) 18 2 years telegraphic speech= child’s first word combinations, which omit unnecessary words/ learn very quickly . Natural Capacity for language: All children go through some stages of linguistic development Combine words in ways adults wouldn’t Adults don’t always correct syntax but kids still learn to speak correctly Children invent own language when not exposed to another At 7 months they can derive simple linguistic rules of a string of sounds (5) Assimilation fit new info into current categories . Piaget’s stages of cognitive development: (1) Sensorimotor (02 years): coordinate senses with bodily movements; learn through concrete actions object permanence (2) Preoperational (27 years): lack reasoning, can’t grasp concept of conservation (3) Concrete operations (712 years): can categorize/ order things, understand identity, can +//x/ divide (4) Formal operation (12+): abstract thinking, think about future possibilities, can compare and classify (6) Modern view of cognitive development: (1) Development is influenced by culture (2) Developmental abilities evident and earlier than Piaget thought (3) Preschoolers aren’t as egocentric as Piaget believed develop theory of mind (4) Cognitive development happens in overlapping waves rather than stages (7) Kohlberg theory of moral development ability to understand right/wrong. There are three levels of why someone obeys: (1) Level 1: obey out of fear of punishment and it is in your best interest to obey (2) Level 2: want to conform with others and understand that you have to follow the law (3) Level 3: develop own standards based on universal human rights (8) Moral development child’s morality depends on their conscience and moral emotions Moral ability may be innate A child’s morality can be influenced, but it depends on the kid . Power assertion= a method of child rearing in which the parent uses punishment and authority to correct the child’s misbehavior (textbook) Do it because I am telling you to If overused in wrong context, child can have low selfesteem/ empathy or hostile . Induction= a method of child rearing in which the parent appeals to the child’s own resources, abilities, sense of responsibility, and feelings for others in correcting the child’s misbehavior (textbook) Better method than power assertion More positive (9) Gender identity= fundamental sense of being male or female (textbook) . Gender typing= society’s determination of what abilities, interests, and behaviors are deemed masculine or feminine . Gender schemas= beliefs about what it means to be male or female . Development: At 9 months> distinguish male and female faces At 1820 months> understand gender labels Once they understand labels they conform to what sex they believe they are At 5 years> develop gender schemas At 57 years> gender schemas become the most rigid As they age, schemas become more flexible (10) Brain development: Major pruning of neural connections Development of limbic system (emotions) Myelination of neurons occurs through teens to mid20s . Psychological distress in adolescence: Teen more conservative views on sex than parents Problems: (1) conflict with parents (2) depression and mood swings (3) increase rates of risky behavior Most teens say things are generally good in their lives Guys externalize/ girls internalize the turmoil (11) Erickson’s theory of development: (1) Trust vs mistrust (baby) develop trust (2) Autonomy (independence) vs shame/doubt (toddler) learn to be independent without embarrassment (3) Initiative vs inferiority (Preschool) control impulses (4) Competence vs inferiority (school) new skills acquired without feeling lesser (5) Identity vs role confusion (adolescence) who am i? (6) Intimacy vs isolation (young adult) (7) Generativity vs stagnation (middle years) continue to grow or stop (8) Ego integrity vs despair (old age) acceptance (12) Midlife (3565) actually a time of healthy psychological wellbeing and reflection Usually triggered by events, not age . Menopause= the cessation of menstruation and of ova; it is usually a gradual process lasting up to several years (4555) Symptoms include hot flashes, can cause depression or negative emotions Male menopause doesn’t occur (13) Mental aging changes: Bad: memory and mental functioning decline . Score lower on complex problem solving . Harder to spell familiar words . Cognitive retrieval skills are slow Good: crystallized intelligence remains unchanged (skills gathered over lifetime) o Can medicate to slow effects of aging mentally Best: as you age, you become happier, calmer, and cherish the positive in life Chapter 11: Psychological Disorders (1) Defining abnormal behavior: mental disorder= any behavioral or emotional state that causes an individual great suffering, is selfdestructive, seriously impairs the person’s ability to work or get along with others, endangers others or the community (textbook) Insanity (legal term) not aware of the consequences of their behavior Mental disorder is harmful dysfunction (2) DSMIV: provides a concise way to categorize disorders so that it can be treated/ studied accurately Contents: symptoms, age it begins, predisposing factors, sex ratios, prevalence, culture . Increase in # of disorders being identified Limitations: (1) danger of over diagnosis (2) Power of diagnostic labels people viewed as disease not a person suffering from it (3) Confusing serious mental disorders with normal problems (4) illusion of objectivity Pros of DSM: can distinguish which disorders are culture based and increase reliability of diagnosis (3) Projective tests= used to infer a person’s motives, conflicts, and unconscious dynamics on the basis of this persons interpretations of ambiguous stimuli reveal unconscious feelings . Rorschach inkblot test Pros establish relationship with patient Cons low validity with reliability . Objective tests (inventories) = standardized objective questionnaire requiring written responses, they typically include scales on which people are asked to rate themselves Assess specific psychological problems o More reliable o Beck mood inventory/MMPI Con: only as good as its questions (4) Phobias= an exaggerated unrealistic fear of specific situations, activities, or objects Social phobias fear of situations where you are watched by others out of fear of humiliation . Public speaking Agoraphobia fear of being trapped in a crowded public place, most disabling phobia . Obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) = an anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors (compulsions) designed to reduce anxiety Brain: in OCD brain it continues to send off false alarms/emotions even when event is over Hoarding is common for OCD . Generalized anxiety disorder = a continuous state of anxiety marked by feelings of worry and dread, apprehension, difficulties, in concentration and signs of motor tension PTSD= can relive trauma, sense of detachment, insomnia, and irritability Panic disorder: physical reactions (increase heartbeat, sweating) lead to fear of dying, going crazy, or losing control, can be delayed and happen anytime (5) Major depression = a mood disorder involving disturbances in emotion, behavior, cognition, and body function (textbook) Symptoms: lose interest in normally fun activities, hopelessness, low selfesteem, no “going out” . Bipolar disorder = a mood disorder in which episodes of both depression and mania occur (textbook) (6) Origins of depression (1) Genetic predispositions moderately heritable, results from low levels of serotonin (2) Violence, childhood abuse, and parental neglect (3) Loss of important relationships loss of loved ones can prolong depression (4) Cognitive habits negative thinking (7) Borderline personality disorder = a disorder characterized by intense, but unstable relationships, impulsiveness, selfmutilating behavior, feelings of emptiness, and a fear of abandonment by others (textbook) . Psychopathy = characterized by a lack of remorse, empathy, anxiety, and other social emotions Use of deceit/ manipulation and impulsive thrill seeking . Antisocial personality disorder (APD) = a personality disorder characterized by lifelong pattern of irresponsible, antisocial behavior (textbook) Lawbreaking, violence, and other impulsive reckless acts Often associated with psychopathy (8) Theory of antisocial/ psychopathic disorders: (1) Abnormalities in CNS emotionally flat don’t respond to threat of punishment Lack of empathy don’t feel anxiety of their actions and consequences (2) Impaired frontal lobe functioning: impairment leads to problems in regulating emotion and controlling reaction to frustration (3) Genetic influences several disorders involve genes that regulate impulse (4) Environmental events can potentially produce a violent/ impulsive individual based on the environment they grew up in Culture fosters APD (9) Biological model of addiction addiction is due to a person’s neurology and genetics Genetic vulnerability to alcoholism can be heritable if it begins in adolescence Alcohol sensitivity . High risk tolerance so you have to drink more . Low risk high sensitivity . Learning model of addiction learning experiences, culture, and environment can encourage/discourage abuse or addiction (1) Patterns vary throughout cultural practices more likely in societies that condone adult drunkenness (Ireland) vs condemning it (Italy) Countries where alcoholism is low: . Alcohol= rite of passage . Adults demonstrate correct behavior . Drunkenness is bad . Not associated with power or masculinity Alcoholism change when culture changes (2) Policies of total of total abstinence increase rate of addiction people aren’t learning to drink responsibly (3) Not all addicts have withdrawal symptoms if change the environment the habit is more likely to stop (4) Addiction isn’t dependent on the drug, but rather the reason for usage Coping drinkers have larger increase in addiction Alienated students get drunk more (10) Dissociative identity disorder = a disorder marked by the apparent appearance within one person of 2+ distinct personalities, each with its own name and traits; formerly known as multiple personality disorder – MPD (textbook) . It is real evidence: It occurs so that people can deal with trauma Can be revealed through hypnosis or other therapeutic techniques . It isn’t real evidence: Personalities may have been created through the power of suggestion by others Before 1980s very few cases reported After 1980s thousands reported possibly due to intro of TV? (11) Symptoms of schizophrenia: (1) Bizarre delusions false beliefs Delusions of identity “I am a famous person” (2) Hallucinations primarily auditory (3) Disorganized, incoherent speech jumbles words and phrases (4) Grossly disorganized and inappropriate behavior childlike to violent behavior (5) Impaired cognitive abilities poor problem solving and recall . Factors contributing to development: (1) Genetic predisposition risk of developing schizophrenia increases if you have a parent(s) or twin with it (2) Prenatal problems or birth complications malnutrition, diseases (influenza), brain damage (3) Abnormal brain development during adolescence schizophrenia prunes away neuron synapses Chapter 12: Approaches to Treatment and Therapy (1) Antipsychotic drugs = (neuroleptics) drugs used primarily for schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders, often misused for other disorders though reduces sensitivity to dopamine and increases levels of serotonin which inhibits dopamine can shorten schizophrenic episodes . Antidepressant drugs = used to treat mood disorders like depression and anxiety Helps produce norepinephrine and serotonin . Tranquilizers = often prescribed/misused to treat people who claim they are unhappy, worrisome, or have anxiety Increases activity of neurotransmitter GABA Temporarily helps people with anxiety attacks Easy to overuse . Lithium carbonate = used to treat bipolar disorder Can be toxic if overused Protects neurons from overstimulation by glutamate Moderates norepinephrine (2) Issues with drug treatment: (1) The placebo effect = the apparent success of a medication or treatment due to the patients expectations/hopes rather than the drug itself (textbook) Antidepressants are often placebos (2) High relapse and dropout rates if people don’t learn to cope they will relapse 5067% dropout because of side effects (3) Disregard for effective, nonmedical treatments popularity of drugs overrule other viable alternatives (4) Dosage problems (5) Unknown risks overtime and combination long term effects of many drugs is unknown Risky to do drug cocktails (6) Untested off label uses use certain drugs for other uses (3) Prefrontal lobotomy cut fibers from prefrontal lobe to other areas want to reduce emotional symptoms without affecting intellect Not scientifically tested . Electroconvulsive therapy = a procedure used in cases of prolonged and severe major depression, in which a brief brain seizure is induced (textbook) Improvement is short lived very ineffective with alcoholism and schizophrenia . Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) magnetic coil held to stimulate left prefrontal cortex Used to treat severe depression temporarily Patient is awake during procedure . Deep brain stimulation (DBS) surgery to implant electrodes and embed small box under the collarbone Used for Parkinson’s and epilepsy (4) (1) Psychodynamic theory: Goal: use insight and emotional release to reduce symptoms Principles: depth therapies concentrate on unconscious processes rather than superficial symptoms/conscious beliefs encourage discussion of past, explore fantasies, and focus on reoccurring themes . Transference = a critical process in which the client transfers unconscious emotions/reactions onto his/her therapist (textbook) (2) Behavior and cognitive therapy: . Behavior therapy = applies principles of classical/operant conditioning to help people change selfdefeating/problematic behaviors (textbook) (1) Exposure graduated exposure = a person suffering from a phobia/panic attacks is gradually exposed to it until the anxiety stops flooding = taken directly to the fear until his/her fear stops (2) Systematic desensitization = step by step process of desensitizing a client to feared object or experience based on counter conditioning VR virtual reality used (3) Behavioral selfmonitoring = keep careful data on the frequency and consequences of the behavior to be changed (textbook) (4) Skills training = teach client skills that they lack, as well as new constructive behaviors to replace selfdefeating ones (textbook) . Cognitive therapy = identify and change irrational, unproductive ways of thinking, and hence, to reduce negative emotions and their selfdefeating consequences (textbook) Rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT) = designed by Albert Ellis to challenge clients unrealistic or irrational thoughts Addresses when clients overgeneralize and catastrophize things Mindfulness and acceptance principle (3)Humanist and existential therapy: Humanist therapy = based on the philosophy of humanism, which emphasizes free will to change rather than past conflicts (textbook) Client centered (nondirective) therapy = designed by Carl Rogers, emphasizes the therapists empathy with the client and the use of unconditional positive regard Existential therapy = help clients explore the meaning of existence and face the great questions of life, death, freedom and loneliness (textbook) Choose own destiny Accept responsibility of one’s life (4) Family and couples therapy: Family therapy= whole family Family systems perspective = identify how each family member forms part of larger interacting system (textbook) Couples therapy learn to live with unchangeable behavior/characteristics of partner (5) Difficulties with evaluating psychotherapy: Testimonials are very suspect . Problems with testimonials: possible placebo effect, no control group . Justification of effort effect: put all this time/money towards something it has to work . Randomized controlled trials: helps with these testimonial problems assign people randomly to control groups . Scientist practioner gap: Practioners believe: therapy isn’t a technique but a relationship o Skills only acquired through clinical experience Scientists believe: practioners need to keep empirical findings about what works and what is harmful Gap formed due to increase in training therapy schools that don’t do research programs (6) Factors to successful therapy: Clients are: . Motivated to change . Have support of others . Agreeable/ cooperative Therapists are: o Empathetic, warm, and genuine . Therapeutic alliance = the bond of confidence and mutual understanding between therapist and client, which allows them to work together to solve the clients problems (textbook) (7) Best therapies for certain disorders: Depression: cognitive therapy is greatest success compared to drug treatments Anxiety disorders: . PTSD, agoraphobia, phobias exposure techniques . Panic disorder cognitive behavioral therapy . Generalized anxiety disorder cognitive behavioral therapy . OCD cognitive behavioral therapy Anger and impulsive violence: cognitive therapy is best because it reduces negative emotions and learn to control anger Health problems: cognitive and behavioral therapies Child/ adolescence behavior problems: o Behavior therapy for any treatment o Cognitive effective in mood disorders Relapses: to reduce relapses in depression, substance abuse, and schizophrenia use cognitive behavioral (8) When therapy is harmful: (1) Use of unsupported, potentially dangerous techniques (2) Inappropriate or coercive influence that creates new symptoms (3) Prejudice or cultural ignorance by the therapist tries to force values onto client (4) Sexual intimacies or other unethical behavior by therapist
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