HA & P Second Lecture Studyguide
HA & P Second Lecture Studyguide Bio 2010
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kelsie Carter on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio 2010 at University of Colorado Colorado Springs taught by Sabine Allenspach in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 63 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology in Biology at University of Colorado Colorado Springs.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Chapter 3: The Cellular Level of Organization 1. germ cell vs. somatic cell A. germ cell (sex cells): reproductive cells, spermozoa, oocyte B. somatic cells: soma = body, all cells except sex cells 2. cell membrane (plasma membrane) A. function: a. separates cytoplasm from extra cellular fluid b. structural support c. receives signals from other cells d. allows ions and water to exit B. phospholipid bilayer a. hydrophilic heads: toward watery environment b. hydrophobic fatty-acid tails: inside the membrane, can isolate c. barrier to ions and water: soluble compounds, hydrophilic and hydrophobic C. membrane proteins a. integral proteins: channel or carrier protein, within the membrane b. peripheral proteins: inner or outer surface c. anchoring proteins (stabilizers): attach to inside or outside structures, also stabilizes d. recognition proteins(identifiers): identify if a cell is normal or abnormal e. enzymes: catalyze reactions f. receptor proteins: find and respond to ligands g. carrier proteins: integral proteins, which transport solutes through the membrane h. channels: integral protein, which regulates water flow and proteins through the membrane 3. organelles NONMEMBRANOUS A. cytoskeleton: structural protein for shape and strength B. microvilli: attach to the cytoskeleton, increase surface area for fat absorption C. centrioles: form spindle fiber apparatus during cell division D. cilia: move liquid past the surface of the cell E. ribosomes: build polypeptides a. free ribosomes: are in the cytoplasm, manufacture proteins for the cell b. fixed ribosomes: are attached to the ER, manufacture proteins for secretion F. proteasomes: breaks down proteins, contains proteolytic enzymes, and remove proteins from the cytoplasm MEMBRANOUS G. endoplasmic reticulum: a. smooth ER: synthesizes lipids and carbohydrates I. phospholipids II. cholesterol III. steroid hormones (estrogen, testosterone) IV. glycerides (in the liver and fat cells) b. rough ER: active in protein and glycoprotein synthesis and helps fold polypeptide structure in the ER (cisternae) H. golgi apparatus: consist of 4-6 stacked, flattened membranous sacs a. modifies and packages secretions so they can be released exocitotically from the cell (hormones and enzymes) b. renewal and modification of the plasma membrane c. packages special enzymes in vesicles to be used in the cytoplasm I. lysosomes: powerful enzyme containing vesicles a. primary lysosomes: formed by golgi apparatus and are inactive enzymes b. secondary lysosomes: formed by fusing to damaged organelles and enzymes are then activated J. peroxisomes a. are enzyme contiaing vesicles b. break down fatty acids, organic compounds c. produce hydrogen peroxide d. replicate division e. catalase: breaks down hydrogen peroxide into H and O, can create free radicals (which can cause damage) (antioxidants can repair damage from free radicals) K. mitochondria: 38 ATP produced a. glycosis: break down of glucose to pyruvate, 2 ATP are produced in the cytosol b. citric acid cycle: break down glucose with two cycles, 2 ATP are produced c. electron transport chain: 34 ATP are produced L. spindle apparatus: formed my microtubules M. cilia: a. 9-0 array: 9 triplet microtubules arranged at a right angle b. 9-2 array: 9 duplet arranged in a circle surrounding 2 in the middle 3. transport mechanisms A. active transport: requires energy B. passive transport: no energy required C. osmosis: movement of water through selectively permeable membrane D. simple diffusion: net movement of ions from an area of high concentration to lower concentration until equilibrium is established E. facilitated diffusion carrier-mediated diffusion: is passive, carrier proteins transport molecules too large to fit through the channel proteins a. molecule binds to receptor site on carrier protein b. protein changes shape, molecules pass through C. receptor cite is specific to certain molecules F. carrier-mediated transport: active transport proteins a. move substances against concentration gradient b. energy is required c. ion pump moves ions d. exchange pump: counter transports occurs G. leak channels: remain open at all times, allow ions to go in and out 4. exocytosis: granules, droplets are released from the cell molecules 5. pinocytosis: ingestion of extracellular fluid 6. phagocytosis: ingestion of solid particles, occurs in white blood cells, microphages, mast cells, and dendritic cells 7. clinical note: Alzheimer’s Disease A. common B. progressive degeneration of human brain structure and unction C. results in deterioration of mood, behavior, functional ability, cognition and memory D. stress caused by Alzheimer’s results in phospholipid altercations in the brain, this causes disruption in the function of the brain’s cells Chapter 6: Osseous Tissue and Bone Structure 1. skeletal system: A. support B. movement C. blood cell production D. calcium storage and other minerals 2. microscopic anatomy of bone tissue A. dense matrix: deposits of calcium salts and osteocytes (mature bone cells, around blood vessels) B. canaliculi: form pathways for blood vessels and the exchange of nutrients and waste C. periosteum: covers outer surface of the bone, has 2 layers outer (fibrous layer, denser) and inner (cellular) D. bone matrix: made up matrix proteins (organic components of bone) and minerals (inorganic compounds) E. circumferential lamellae F. periosteal artery and vein G. interstitial lamellae H. nerves I. blood vessels J. perforating canal K. central canal L. lymphatic vessel M. compact bone N. spongy bone O. trabeculae P. osteon Q. concentric lamellae 3. classification of bones 4. bone matrix A. inorganic components: minerals, 2/3 is calcium phosphate and reacts with calcium hydroxide which creates hydroxyapatite B. organic components: matrix proteins, 1/3 is made of proteins (collagen) it builds the framework of bones 5. bone cells A. 2% of bone tissue is cells B. osteocyte- mature bone cells, don’t divide, repair damaged bone, maintain protein and mineral content, connect cytoplasmic extensions through canaliculi in lamellae C. osteoblasts: immature bone cells, osteoblasts surrounded by bone become osteocytes I. osteogenesis: creation of bone tissue II. osteoid: matrix produced by osteoblast but hasn’t undergone calcification D. osteoprogenetor: stem cells, mesenchymal cells that divide and differentiate into osteoblasts, in the endosteum and inner layer of the periosteum, they assist in fracture repair and maintain population of osteoblasts E. osteoclasts: giant multinucleated cells, absorb and remove bone matrix, secrete acids and protein digestive enzymes to dissolve bone matrix and release stored minerals which help with reabsorption 6. endochondrial ossification A. as cartilage enlarges, chondrocytes near the center of shaft increase, matrix is reduced and form struts that begin calcify, chondrocytes die and disintegrate, creating cavities within cartilage B. cells of the periosteum convert to osteoblasts. Cartilage calcifies, blood vessels grow, and a periosteal bone collar forms around diaphysis C. primary ossification center form: blood vessels penetrate the cartilage, fibroblasts differentiate into osteoblasts- produce spongy bone D. remodeling occurs creating medullary cavity, osseous tissue of shaft thickens, growth involves increase in length and diameter E. secondary ossification centers form in epiphysis, capillaries and osteoblasts have migrated to epiphyses F. epiphyses fill with spongy bone replacing the hyaline cartilage. Metaphysis (cartilaginous region) also call epiphyseal plate separates epiphysis from diaphysis. Bone replaces cartilage within diaphysis and epiphysis, except articular and epiphyseal cartilage. G. at puberty: production of epiphyseal cartilage slows and osteoblasts activity increases causing epiphyseal closure. Epiphyseal line remains 7. intramembranous ossification A. mesenchymal cells differentiate into osteoblasts, start sevreting organic components of matrix, ossification centers are formed. Osteoid becomes mineralized forming bone matrix, calcification process B. osteoblasts that are trapped differentiate into osteocytes. Developing bone grows outward from ossification centers creating spicules C. blood vessels branch and grow between spicules. Rate of bone growth accelerates due to supply of nutrients and oxygen D. continued deposition of bone close to blood vessels results in a plate of spongy bone E. subsequent remodeling produces osteons. Osteoblasts on bone surface and CT around bone become the periosteum 8. epiphyseal plate= growing child Epiphyseal line= adult 9. blood supply of a long bone A. nutrient artery and vein: single strain of large blood vessels, enter diaphysis through a nutrient foramen B. metaphyseal vessels: epiphyseal cartilage ensuring that bone growth occurs C. periosteal vessels: blood to superficial osteons, secondary ossification centers 10. long bone anatomy A. proximal epiphysis B. distal epiphysis C. metaphysis D. diaphysis E. articular cartilage F. spongy bone G. red bone marrow H. endosteum I. compact bone J. periosteum K. medullary cavity (contains yellow bone marrow) 11. periosteum A. isolating bone B. participates in bone growth and repair (cellular layer) C. provide route for nervous supply 12. endosteum A. an incomplete cellular layer B. lines trabeculae C. lines central canal of osteon D. like the periosteum but inside E. contains osteoblasts, osteoclasts and osteoprogenerator 13. drawing of a long bone Chapter 7: the Axial Skeleton 1. bones of the axial skeleton A. skull (8 cranial bones, 14 facial bones), potect the brain B. bones associated with the skull (6 auditory ossicles) (hyoid bone) C. vertebral column (24 vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx) D. thoracic cage (24 ribs(7 true, 5 false) sternum, thoracic vertebrae, costal cartilages) E. articulations= connects with other bones F. bone markings= landmarks, areas of muscle and ligaments attach 2. foramens and their location 3. fetal skull- fontanelles (soft spots) A. anterior fontanelle= frontal, sagittal, coronal suture B. occipital fontanelle= lamboid and sagittal suture C. sphenoidal fontanelle= squamous and coronal suture D. mastoid fontanelle: squamous and lamboid sutures 4. hyoid A. supports the larynx B. attaches muscles of the larynx/pharynx and tongue 5. false ribs= do not directly attach to the sternum True ribs= connected to the sternum by costal cartilages (hyaline) 6. structures of vertebrae A. vertebral body B. vertebral foramen C. pedicle D. lamina E. spinous process F. transverse process G. vertebral arch 7. vertebral column curvatures A. cervical B. thoracic C. lumbar D. sacral 8. hard palate 9. sutures A. coronal suture B. squamous suture C. occipitomastoid suture D. lamboid suture 10. drawing 11. clinical note: cleft palate A. genetic defect B. failure of palatine bones and or palatine process to fuse medially C. causes difficulty in breathing, sucking, mastication and speech D. treatment involves surgery to ensure the ability to eat, speak, hear and breathe normally 12. clinical note: spinal curvature A. lordosis: also called swayback, the spine of a person with lordosis curves significantly inward at lower back B. kyphosis: is characterized by and abnormally rounded upper back (more than 50 degrees of curvature) C. scoliosis: has a sideways curve to their spine, curve is often S-shaped or C- shaped a. to surgically repair rods are attached to the spine and doing a spinal fusion which stabilizes and reduces the size of the curve and stops it from getting worse Chapter 8: the Appendicular Skeleton 1. bones of the appendicular skeleton A. scapula B. clavicle C. humerus D. radius E. ulna F. hand (carpals, metacarpals, phalanges) G. coxal H. femur I. patella J. tibia K. fibula L. foot (tarsals, metatarsals, phalanges) 2. bone markings 3. articulations 4. differences between male and female pelvis A. broad pubic angle B. smoother and lighter C. less curvature of the sacrum and coccyx D. enlarged pubic outlet 5. herniated disc A. degeneration: disc weakens (aging) B. prolapse: slight impingement into the spinal cord C. extrusion: nucleus breaks through but stays within disc D. sequestration: nucleus pulposus breaks through annulus fibrosos and lies/leaks outside of the disc E. 90% of disc herniation’s occur in lower back (L4/L5 and L5/S1) 6. hip joint 7. shoulder join 8. muscle origins
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