GEOG 1000, Exam 2 Study Guide
GEOG 1000, Exam 2 Study Guide GEOG 1000
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rosemarie Pacitto on Thursday March 10, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOG 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Scott Wade in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 131 views. For similar materials see People Places and Environments in Geography at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/10/16
Study Guide 2 People, places, and environments Weather: atmospheric conditions- short time period Climate: Average atmospheric conditions- long period of time Modern atmosphere (o.6 BYA- present) • Nitrogen (78%) • Oxygen (21%) • Argon (0.93%) • Carbon Dioxide (0.036%) Layers of the Atmosphere • Troposphere (tropopause)= surface à 11 miles (gas and weather) • Stratosphere= 11 miles à 31 miles • Mesosphere=31 miles à 50 miles • Thermosphere= 50 à 300 miles • Exosphere ++++ Insolation= energy intercepted from the sun • 1 sec= 1 week of human energy consumption • “short wave” radiation Solar radiation= absorbed and released as long waves (infrared) Terrestrial radiation= energy being released as earths surface cools Albedo= he proportion of the incident light or radiation that is reflected by a surface (earths albedo= .32%) Greenhouse effect: • Natural phenomenon • Warms earth by 63 degrees F • Earth frozen and lifeless without it Factors affecting special variation in air temperature • Latitude (equator and suns rays) • Differential heating and cooling (pavement vs. grass, land vs. water) • Elevation • Cloud cover • Air movement • Earth axis inclination/ earth revolutions or seasons Maritime climate= climate influenced by oceanic air patterns (Greenville, NC) Continental climate= climates that do not have the influence of neighboring large bodies of water (Oklahoma city, OK) Lapse rate=degrees F at sea level (80F)/ Ft in elevation (13,000) Temp= 80 -(13x3.5)= 34.5 F Temperature inversion= warm air on top o cold air causes problems with pollution June 21 = summer solstice (when the sky reaches it’s highest point in the sky at noon) st December 21 = winter solstice (when the sun reaches its lowest point in the sky at noon) Equinox=12 hours of light, 12 hours of day Air pressure • Has weight • Decreases as you rise in elevation • Measured with barometer Convectional Winds (local and regional winds) • Diurnal monsoon= local winds reverses itself twice a day • Seasonal monsoon= reverses itself twice a year • Land breeze • Sea breeze • Mountain breeze • Valley breeze GLOBAL CIRCULATION • 0,30,90 latitude pressure cells • Wind belts= trade winds (0-30), westerly’s (30-60), polar easterlies (60-90) • Coriolis effect= north: right, South:left (the process of moving from high to low pressure, wind veers toward the right of the direction in N. Hemisphere, and towards the left in the S. Hemisphere) • Rising air= precipitation Jet stream • Regional of winds in the upper part of the troposphere • Very fast winds • Separate colder air from subtropical air steam Ocean currents • Wind drives surface currents • Counterclockwise movement • Cold currents west coast • Warm currents east coast El Nino • Sea surface temperatures warmer than usual • Due to air pressure winds • Wetter than normal La Nina • Water cooler than usual • Dryer • Cold water currents Precipitation • Rain, slow, sleet hail • Things needed 1. Atmospheric moisture 2. Condensation nuclei (fine particles that are formed from the condenation of vapor when it contains so much water) 3. Rising air= precipitation Types of atmospheric lifting 1. Convectional precipitation = heat from earths surface, storms in the afternoon. Local differential heating/ cooling of earths surface 2. Convergent 3. Orographic precipitation= mountains (air moving up the side of mountains), dry side= rain shadow (dry slop on the covered side of mt. range) 4. Frontal precipitation: air mass • Moisture= maritime, continental • Temperature= polar, tropical • 4 air masses = Maritime Polar, Maritime Tropical, Continental Polar, Continental Tropical warm front= cold air on top of warm air, forms precipitation and clouds cold front= cold air pushes warm air 3 types of cyclonic storms 1. Midlatitude Cyclones • 30-60 degree latitude low pressure storms • enormous and frequent • midlatitude weather matters • fronts • nor’easters 2. Tropical Cyclones (tropical storms, hurricanes, typhoonrd, cyclones, willy- willys) 3. Tornadoes à all centered on low pressure àall 3 typically rotate cyclonically • Counter clockwise in the N. Hemisphere • Clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere • (coriolus effect) The Saffir- Simpson Hurricane scale Measures hurricanes on a scale of 1.5, based on barometric pressure, wind speed, and damage. The enhanced fujita scale (EF) Scale of tornado intensity that links reported damage to wind speed… ranges from EF0, a weak tornado to EF5, a violent one. Leading cause of death by hurricanes: carbon monoxide poisoning Central U.S= tornado alley Wladimir Koppen= designed the best known climate classification system ( Koppen System) Climographs= show average daily high and low temperatures for each month, the average precipitation for each month, and the probability of precipitation of any particular day in a designed month. Moving from the Equator to the Poles (I. through V.) I. Humid Tropical (A climates) A. Tropical Rain Forest 1. Hot all year 2. Wet all year 3. Lush, canopy forest vegetation 4. Notoriously poor soils 5. Equatorial B. Savanna 1. Hot all year 2. Wet summer, dry winter 3. Grasslands with widely spaced trees (Savannah Woodland) C. Tropical Monsoon 1. Hot all year 2. Very wet summer (wetter than normal savanna), dry winter 3. Forest vegetation II. Dry Land (B Climates) A. Desert 1. Hottest temperatures on earth recorded in hot deserts 2. Great daily temperatures are possible 3. Along with polar regions, has the least precipitation 4. Erg (sand sea) covers relatively small percentage of desert landscapes 5. Reg (desert pavement) is more typical 6. Vegetation: sparse shrubs, grasses, cacti, OR even nonexistent B. Steppe 1. Warm to hot summers, warm to cold winters 2. Dry, prone to drought, but moister than deserts 3. Grasslands 4. Good soils - grain producing regions III. Humid Mid-latitude (C climates) A. Mediterranean 1. Warm to hot summers, mild winters 2. Dry summer, wet winter 3. Summer wildfires, winter mudslides 4. Chaparral vegetation (scrub oak & bushes) 5. Typically west coast in location B. Marine West Coast 1. West coast, typically north of Mediterranean climates 2. Mild summer, cool to cold winter 3. Ample precipitation in winter 4. Low rainfall in summer 5. Forest vegetation C. Humid Subtropical 1. East Coast 2. Hot summer, mild winter 3. Ample precipitation 4. Forest vegetation 5. Southeast US, including Greenville NC IV. Severe Mid-latitude (D climates) A. Humid Continental 1. Hot Summer a. Hot summer, cold winter b. Ample precipitation c. Forest vegetation 2. Warm Summer a. Warm summer, cold winter b. Ample precip, but less than hot summer variety c. Forest vegetation B. Subarctic 1. Mild, short summer, long, cold, harsh winter 2. Vast, stunted coniferous forest (Boreal forest) V. Polar (E climates) A. Tundra 1. Very brief spring-like summer, long harsh cold winter 2. Little precipitation 3. Permafrost 4. Shrub/grassland vegetation 5. Latitudinal tree line B. Ice Cap 1. No month averages higher than freezing temps. 2. Permanent ice 3. As little precipitation as deserts VI. Highland (H climates) A. Mosaic of micro-climates which may resemble any of the above climates B. Climate zones correspond with elevation C. Changeable weather (warm to cold, clear to stormy very quickly) Permafrost= permanately frozen layer of of ground that can as much as 1500 meters deep Chaparral= vegetation consisting chiefly of tangled shrubs and thorny bushes. Erg dessert: is a broad, flat area of desert covered with wind-sweptsand with little or no vegetative cover. Reg desert: a desert surface covered with closely packed, interlocking angular or rounded rock fragments of pebble and cobble size Biosphere • Supports life on earth (land air water) • Troposphere= air • Hydrosphere= water • Lithosphere=land Renewal cycle= hydrogen cycle • Pathway or cycle that compounds go through in our environment • Comes down as precipitation • To renew fresh water on the surface of the earth Ecology= the study of how organisms interact with one another and with their physical environment. IPAT equation: I=PAT I=impact of the environment P= population A= affluence or standard living T= technology Environmental Justice movement Desalination= cleansing seawater of its salt and mineral content Eutrophication= enrichment of waters by nutrients (nurtient overload) Dead zone= high levels of nutrients from agricultural runoff (low oxygen) Thermal pollution= occurs when water has been heated is returned to the environment and has adverse effects on the plans and animals in the water body Polychlorinated hiphenyls (PCBs)= family of related chemcials used as lubricants in pipelines and in a wide variety of electrical devices, plants, plastics. Heap-leach mining= involves pouring large amounts of cyanide onto piles of low- grade ore in order to extract the gold (contaminates ground water) Point-source pollution= (ex: effluent from factory pipe) Non Point-source pollution= (ex: fertilizer, biocides) Water usage activities worldwide • Agriculture: 78% • Industry= 18% • Municipal= 4% Human modification of Rivers and Streams 1. Urbanization • Expansion of cities • Increased flash flooding 2. Channelization • Wetland elimination • Increased flookpeaks • Wildlife elimination 3. Damns (the good) • Hydroelectric power • Water supply reservoir • Municipal industrial and energy • Recreation • Flood control 4. The bad and the ugly.. • Inundate farmland • Relocation of ppl • Sediment trap • Barriers to anadromous fish • Temperature alteration Diversion (Aral Sea) • Central Asia • Transfer water out of place (body of water) to somewhere needed • Once the 4 largest lake in the world, has lost most if its water because of diversion schemes • Climate change • Windborne salt/ toxins • Fishery destroyed • Decimated forests/ wetlands WATER POLLUTION POINT SOURCE (effluent from factory pipes) Non point source (fertilizer, biocides) Industry Fuel tanks Mining Municipal water waste Clean water act of 1972 • Nationwide controls for polluting industries • Funded new sewage treatment plants • many rivers and lakes have recovered • developing counties lack these controls • Motivation for clean water act? 1969 Cuyahoga River caught on fire in Cleveland, Ohio Impact on air and climate • Air pollution • Acid rain • Ozone depletion • Global climate change Air pollution factors • Population density • Industrial density • Atmospheric dispersal • Sunlight • Natural: volcanoes, pollen Photochemical smog- Photochemical smog is the chemical reaction of sunlight, nitrogen oxides and volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere, which leaves airborne particles and ground-level ozone Ozone= gas molecule consisting of 3 atoms of oxygen formed when diatonic oxygen is exposed to ultraviolet radiation Dangerous in the lower atmosphere, but important in the upper atmosphere Ozone layer= a layer of ozone in the high atmosphere that protects life on earth by absorbing ultraviolet radiation from the sun Chlorofluorocarbons= family of synthetic chemicals that have significant commercial applications but whose emissions are contributing to the depletion of the ozone layer. Sunspots= a spot or patch appearing from time to time on the sun's surface, appearing dark by contrast with its surroundings. Astronomical cycle= a general term for the three overlapping cycles of the Earth's orbit (100,000 years), its wobble (26,000 years), and its tilt (46,000 years). It alters the timing of global warming and cooling, and glacial movement. The changes occur by altering the angles and distances from which solar energy reaches Earth. IPCC support statements Snowball Earth describes a theory that for millions of years the Earth was almost entirely or wholly covered in ice, stretching from the poles to the tropics. Ozone Layer Depletion Montreal Protocol (1987) • International treaty • Phase out of CFCs • Reduced CFCs by 96% INTERNATIONAL AIR Pollution Agreements • 1979 Convention on long-range trans boundary Air pollution (acid Rain) • 1997 Kyoto Protocol (greenhouse gases) • 191 countries signed and ratified Acid Rain • Rain is more acidic than normal • Burning of fossil fuels contributes to this • Volcanic eruptions as well Evidence of recent warming: • Measured rise in global temperature • Retreating glaciers • Permafrost • Thinning arctic sea ice • Earlier spring blooms Greenhouse gases • Carbon Dioxide • Methane • Nitrous Oxide • Chlorofluorocarbons Consequences • Costal tropics most vulnerable • Tropical diseases • Agricultural productivity shifts • More extreme weather • Habitat disruption and extinction Human impact on land: Mining- mountain top removal Dumping Subsidence= ground sinks Reclamation Take a mine and restore to natural vegetation Impact on Plants and Animals • Habitat destruction • Hunting and commercial exploitation • Invasive (exotic) species • Biocides Ecosystem • Self- regulating association of plants and animals (biotic) and physical and chemical environment (abiotic) • Under constant change Food chain Pathway- energy and nutrients move through ecosystem Habitat Destruction • Deforestation • Urbanization • Agriculture • Large dams and reservoirs Exotic (invasive) Species Asian Carp: Asia > Mississippi River Basin Fire Ant: S. America> SE U.S Piranha: Amazon > SE U.S Python: Asia|Africa> FL everglades Wooly Adelgid: Asia> Eastern U.S Zebra Mussel: W Asia> Great Lakes Largemouth Bass: U.S> Japan Rabbit: England> Australia • Myxoma Virus, calici virus • Rabbit proof fence • 1859: 12 rabbits • 1950: 600 million • erosion, desertification
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