SOCI: Chapter 2, Section 1&2
SOCI: Chapter 2, Section 1&2 1300
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by Crystal Tran on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to 1300 at University of Houston taught by Luis L Salinas in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 46 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Sociology in Sociology at University of Houston.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
Section 1 Building Blocks of Sociological Research II research methods are tools a means to an end not an end in and out of themselves quantitative research 0 relies on statistical analysis of data qualitative research 0 relies on words observations or pictures as data building blocks of research 0 ways of asking questions 0 approaching data collection 0 making generalizations Research Topics to Research Questions challenge is making a researchable question from a subject 0 requires narrowing and focusing o breaking the topic down into several parts and deciding which one to research 0 narrowing way of creating manageable bite of a larger topic for easier transmission of its significance quality of question based on sociologically relevant and feasible 0 lead us to think more specifically about a topic and turn or ideas into a hypothesis hypothesis 0 tentative prediction that we have about what we are going to discover before we begin the research conducting a good literature review before forming a research question is essential helps narrow down interests to questions and to know if the question had already been covered six questions to ask a potential research question Do I already know the answer Is the question researchable Is the question clear Does the question have a connection to social scientific scholarship Does the question balance the general and the specific Do I care about the answer How Do We Know What to Study many sociologist ask questions with personal significance such as experiencing something firsthand or observed by those close to them factors that shape sociologists choices 0 epistemology study of what we think we can know about the world different views in terms of how they actually claim to know something and what counts as evidence what counts as knowledge about the world 0 positivism an epistemology that believes the only way to gain knowledge is to use the logic of the natural sciences includes distancing ourselves from what we study using universal standards to advance truth claims determining cause and effect and generalizing from part to whole 0 interpretivism an epistemology that insists that the social sciences CANNOT follow the logic of natural sciences because our object of investigation is too different goal understanding how people give meaning to social life objects and processes goal understanding how people make sense of social reality and navigate social interactions social scientists are the interpreters of people s interpretations o theoretical traditions conceptual frameworks that sociologists use to imagine and make sense of the world wwwr theoretical models often meant to remain implicit in sociological research because they are the lens through which we see the world and the main processes groups and categories ex German theorist Max Weber social world comprised of status groups ex social and political theorist Karl Marx social world divided based on social classes 0 values the belief system that shape sociologists view of and perspectives of the world we study 0 code of ethics set of guidelines that outline what is considered moral and acceptable behavior social scientists must commit to protecting those we study and not bring harm requires us to disclose our identity as researchers informed consent the voluntary participation of someone in a research project based on a full understanding of possible risks and benefits involved maintain confidentiality institutional review boards IRBs 0 established to help researchers foresee any potential dangers and to safeguard the ethical standards of their work 0 required at all universities that receive research funds from the federal government 0 review researchers proposals before any work can begin in order to assess their potential harm and benefits of the research for participants 0 evaluate whether ethical procedures will be in place and followed by researchers Section 2 Moving from Research Questions to Research Methods operationalize o researchers defining the methods and the techniques to be used to access and define the concepts that are being investigated cream g survey xinterview ethnographic research standardized questions to large groups of people reveals patterns of behavior among large groups of people used for studying opinions indepth oneonone interviews with their respondents shows the thought processes that lead people to have certain opinions or engage in certain behaviors not the best way to learn about what people actually act much less the invisible influences that shape those behaviors observing or participating in people s everyday lives and interactions how people interact rather than how they say they act studies people s motivations the most timeintensive form of data collection can take months of negotiating and establishing rapport before gaining the approvals to study it embed themselves in subjects everyday lives often do for so long they have a hard time ending the research and exiting those lives experiment historical research artificial situation to watch how people studying records and documents to respond understand how people places or things worked in the past
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