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This 15 page Study Guide was uploaded by Kristen Lynn on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to ANFS101010 at University of Delaware taught by Griffiths,Lesa G in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 141 views. For similar materials see Animals, Science and Society in General Science at University of Delaware.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
ANFSlOl Professor Lesa Griffiths Lecture 1 In this course classify animals according to their role instead of their species 1 Formation ofthe Bond Anthropomorphism assigning human emotions and characteristics to animals a Bonds tend to form between different species under different circumstances than what humans usually have Familiar communication two species bond when they can communicate in familiar ways Well informed about behavior two species bond when one species is wellinformed about the behavior of the other species The paradox humans in general know very little about animal behavior nor do they have a sense of familiar communication with animals And yet humans have an extremely strong bond with animals So how does this happen The answer is anthropomorphismwe THINK that we communicate with animals and they understand us we THINK that we have an in depth knowledge of animal behavior The key concrete glue for the bond between humans and animals is anthropomorphism because it is in our nature to extend our own emotions and characteristics and apply them to animals Examples of anthropomorphism gt gt We use human words to describe animal behavior ex The dog looks sad lonely bored 9 therefore we use facial expression to connect with animals Animal behavior can sometimes seem human ex Dog sitting in front of TV can be interpreted as watching TV as a human would Animals tolerate our behavior ex When human dress up their dog in a costume causing humans to think that the animal likes them Humans vent to their animals ex Girl put her head on horse and talks about the bad day she had The horse keeps his head still and allows her to vent causing the girl to believe he is listening to her Commercials elicit a human animal bond in you by displaying human empathy in the animals Neoteny the retention of childlike characteristics These features elicit a caregiving response in humans Physical characteristics high dome forehead big round eyes amp shortened muzzle Vocalization higher pitch like that of a child Behavior incapable of caring for oneself Allelomimetic Behavior when an animal mimics the behavior of its social group whether that group consists of the same animal or humans This behavior causes us to immediately jump to conclusions and anthropomorphize However it is most likely linked to survival ex Stampeding in horses lead animal detects danger and leaps its herd follows without question Social Support the animal becomes apart of our Relaxation petting a dog can decrease blood pressure Shared experiences we relate getting through a bad time with an animal Reasons to move on loss of a loved one 9 taking care of your animal is a reason to get up and move on as well as reinstate a sense of normalcy to your life Nostalgia fond memories Longterm relationships help to cement bond Rescued animals notion of rescuing an animal contributes to an even stronger bond Symbolic all of these reasons can become symbolic for us All four topics Anthropomorphism Neoteny Allelomimetic Behavior amp Social Support help to cement the humananimal bond 2 Consequences of the HumanAnimal Bond Positive Consequences for humans A Health Studies have shown increased survival rates in cardiac patients cardiac surgery can cause depression and having a pet increases the survival rate lower blood pressure triglycerides and cholesterol Longer survival rates for elderly retirees a purpose taking care of another life exercise walking dog increases social activity 50 reduction rate in minor health problems may be too busy taking care of pet to report such minor aches and pains Reduction in fear dog owners feel safe having a dog as a form of protection B Psychological Studies show an increase in selfesteem and empathy in children who own a pet as well as adults ex In prisons Lowered rates of depression among elderly persons Fewer physical and psychological symptoms after losing a loved one Increase socializing potential especially for children and physically disabled ex Walking a dog you may run into another dog walker Your dogs want to play which facilitates a social interaction between owners Aids in social emotional and cognitive development ex Speech impediment may cause a child to avoid speaking out loud but they may feel secure enough to talk to their pet Thus encouraging the child and boosting confidence Improved morale and selfreported health Fewer psychosomatic symptoms minor reported 9 Nowadays animals are used in many different therapeutic roles C Misc Educate children about life events ex Death Pets can result in greater family cohesion more family time and fun Petowners score higher on measures of responsibility dependability nurturing helpfulness benevolence amp lack of gem Positive Consequences for Animals Most of us would love to describe our relationship with animals as mutualistic both sides benefit form the relationship However there is little data available to describe our relationships with companion animals except most being well cared for vet visits Negative Consequences for Humans A Conspecifics behavior in which animals that are in the same environment compete for resources such as food territory mates and social rank C Many of the animals we interact with are in social groups and that s why our companion animals adapt so well to being apart of our group they enjoy being a part of the pack However there are still a limited amount of resources in the home Animals are also driven by dominance hierarchies there is usually a quotbossquot in the animal social group which is why trainers tell owners to become the top dog or alpha 9 Conspecific behavior can result in negative behavior B Destruction of property animals can destroy personal property due to separation anxiety not being house trained etc Physical Injury if your animal has not been trained properly they could bite or scratch you cats could be fighting and you could accidentally be scratched D Separation Anxiety a strong attachment obviously exists 9 leads to anxiety when companions and owners are separated seen in both human and animal Negative Consequences for Animals The human animal bond is not always enduring Behavioral problems can arise often contributed to by owner Including gt Aggression owner fails to properly train their pet gt Separation anxiety owner leaves animal alone a lot causing anxiety gt Obesity owner overfeeds pet out of lovequot resulting in weight gain health problems Lecture 2 1 Pets and Companion Animals Our relationships with companion animals contribute to our physical mental emotional and social health Statistics Commonality starting with most common pet species mg Cats Birds Fish Ferrets Rabbits Hamsters Guinea Pigs Gerbils Turtles Snakes Lizards Livestock Many US households have more than one type of pet about 15 have at least one cat and one dog AVMA study indicates 574 own at least one pet 372 have at least one dog amp 324 have at least one cat Cats have passed dogs in pet popularity although majority of households have at least one dog more than those having one catHouseholds usually only have ONE dog while households with a cat usually have MULTIPLE cats Pet Industries Overall pet industries including pet food supplies grooming boarding amp pet sitting generates approximately 50 billion Pet food industry dominates the market grossing approx 19 billion annually Who has Pets Companion Species Most likely families with children Least likely older people above 65 who live alone More likely greater the household income homeowners larger household occupant numbers Purpose of the Pet amp Companion Animal Industry To support the animals in service and companionship to people Health humancompanion animal bond is now recognized as a contributing factor in the physical mental emotional and social health of the owner Companionship most common Role of Companion Animals Pets vs Livestock If we interact with the animal for pleasur Pet If we interact with animal to utilize them Livestock Example of how we classify animals according to m rather than species Not all companion species qualify as pet ex Barn cats are use for utility rather than pleasure even though cats are seen as pets Not all livestock species quality as utility some people have cows as pets even though cows are seen as livestock used for milk and meat B Classifying Pets 6 different categories Includes ornamental pets status symbols playthings hobby animals helpers amp companions Notice that companion animals are listed as a TYPE of pet they are not one in the same Companion animal an animal whose owner has an intense emotional tie to the animal Ornamental Pets Decorative pretty Enhance environment ex Fish tanks used to calm in doctor s office Seldom Handled ex finches Sometimes Named Brightly Colored birds fish most often used as ornamental Not generally considered companion animals Status Symbols origin of the animal is probably tribal usually rare amp unusual making them expensive and gives their owner a sense of prestige sometimes purebred admired and cared for while it brings prestige however they usually become too costly Poisonous snakes big cats vicious dogs wolves origin wolves hanging around tribes brought great status to the clan 3 Playthings Sport and recreation hunting dogs race horses Living toys for small children During their prime they may be object of considerable attention but may be discarded when they lose their skill or appeal ex hunting dogs get old and therefore slower duller senses Temporary shortlived may even be destroyed Enthusiasm without this the animal is in jeopardy Hobby Displayed in organized shows Collected and bred specifically for these shows competitions Owners often belong to clubs and societies meet to display and show pride in collections Complex Owners I Show animal owners have extensive knowledge of the breed I Animals are usually very well cared for I However sometimes the animal is simply seen as a prize and will be discarded after it is not longer useful Helpers Workers Perform vital services ex Police dogs searchandrescue dogs water rescue dogs and drug dogs in airports Complex relationships Service dogs 9 of the population has disability Helper dogs are held in very high regard even long after they are no longer needed and are unable to provide their service unlike many other types of animals we talked about Most transitional once they can no longer be a helper they transition into companion role 6 Companion Animals Treated as a subject not an object Council for Science and Society states the companion animal is typically treated as a subject as a personality in its own right irrespective of other considerations With companion animals it is the relationship itself which is important to the ownerquot Relationships include family member child friend servant amp partnership Companion animals are most popular in Mountain region 9 Why are dogs and cats such suitable companion animals They form durable bonds with humans do no usually run away Easily house trained Powerfu1 nonverbal communication I Postures gestures dog wags tail happycat wags tail mad cats puff up to show they are angry I Facial signals gta11 still anthropomorphism I Sounds dog barks growls cat hisses C Historical Perspective Dogs Gray wolf Canis lupis gave rise to the first domestic animal 9 dog humans and wolves share many of the same social characteristics living in clans hunting together motive for why wolves moved into human campsites to scavenge scraps from hump encampments Cats Cats were not domesticated until after settled agriculture while dogs occurred during hunting nomadic times Grain stored by farmers attracted many wild rodents which in turn attracted wild cats Evidence Egyptians had domestic cats as long as 6000 yrs Ago Somehow cats became associated with Satan worship and witches this resulted in a large number of cats being killed 9 led to an increase and spread of rats 9 helped spread the Black Death in Europe First cat show in England 1871 D Genetics and Breeding Programs In companion animals breeding is completely different from the breeding of livestock Breeding is based on phenotype its physical looks ex Colors patterns coat etc and pedigree ancestry ex Blue merle When you breed individuals that are related ex to get blue merle genes you also concentrate all the bad genes ex blue merle that has blue eyes often deaf 9 lots of genetic disease in bred animals Genetic disease from breeding is a huge red ag in livestock and is never repeated whereas in breeding dogs cats people do it repeatedly for People who breed usually have minimal knowledge of genetics resulting in many consequences deafness blindness disease Between 400450 dog breeds US dog registry for purebreds AKC American Kennel Club registers more than 170 recognized breeds 9 AKC classifies PUREBRED dogs into seven categories by function W PONP SJ39erSNNtquot Hound Working Terrier E31 Most popular breeds Lab German Shepherd Yorkie 2010 Nonsporting Herding Miscellaneous 9 Breeds of Cats Selected by human preference been around for hundreds of years natural breed ex Abyssinian Birman Burmese Chartreux Maine Coon and Egyptian Mau Breeders change natural breeds through selection human developed breeds ex Bombay Himalayan Spontaneous mutations development of new breeds as a result ex Scottish Fold American Curl American Bobtail Munchkin No predictability at first but after years of breeding and predictability is high you can say you created a new breed 9 Breeds of Other Pets rabbits are separated into distinct breeds began being domesticated as a foodfiber species not usually registered Reproductive Management A Dog Girl dog bitch Puberty begins 69 months decided by rate of maturity factors percent of mature size and weight as well as sex Ovarian or estrous cycle of dog is monoestrous having one period cycle per year Estrus heat or standing heat time of ovulation when animal can become pregnant Time between cycles 413 months 7 average Exterior signs of heat include behavioral changed marking territory swollen vulva light bloody discharge from vulva Heat is in uenced by burge of hormone progesterone and estrogen Estrus occurs 23 days after standing B Cat Female cat queen Signs of heat estrus restlessness vocalization amp marking territory Unique mating induces ovulation similar to rabbits high prolific animals can breed every single time she mates Puberty begins 418 months average 10 months Seasonally polyestrous during the breeding season she has MANY cycles When her breeding is dictated by photoperiod daylight 9 generally from March to September when daylight is longer Average length of estrous cycle in the queen is 1421 days Estrus usually lasts 7 days followed by a period of recess and then estrus again 9 Critical to neuter cats bc of how prolific they are Lecture 3 1 Nutrition of Pet Species Body that governs and regulates nutrition in the pet sector AAFCO Association of American Feed Control Officials AAFCO is more specific and strict than the FDA s regulations AAFCO regulates feed labeling product name nutrient analysis nutritional adequacy feed directions 2 cups a day and calorie amounts Note natural amp premium have no meaning in pet food labels Product Name names can only include certain words according to specific conditions as a result of 4 AAFCO rules 1 The 95 rule if a product is listed in the name then at least 95 of it has to contain it ex beef chicken fish however this does NOT count water percentage 2 The 25 rule if the product name calls itself a quotdinnerquot ex beef dinner tune entree then only 25 of the product must contain it 3 The 3 rule if the product claims it is food with something then it is only required to have 3 of that product ex dog food with beef 4 The avor rule the product can claim it is avored as long as the taste is detectable by the animal ex chicken avored dog food Net Quantity Statement this tells the quantity of each product in the container Ingredients are listed in descending order by weight however this includes water weight The quantity statement must state a guarantee for its minimum percentage of protein and fat as well as its maximum percentage of fiber and moisture bc they dilute Nutritional Adequacy Statement the most common word located on this statement is complete every mouthful is balanced for that animals nutritional needs other words include perfect scientific or 100 nutritious Nutritional Adequacy Statement also has to state the appropriate life stages in an animal for which the product is suitable maintenance growth puppykitten reproduction all life stages Feeding Directions must be on label to tell you how much food should be given to the animal Calorie statements on label are voluntary Other label claims trends of premium and gourmet labeled on bag but none of these words hold any real standing and have real meaning Natural can only be used in reference to the entirety of ingredientsnot just a couple of ingredients in the food USDA official seal only appears on pet food if it meets strict standards of the national organic program AAFCO also provides guidelines for food that control breath odor and reduction of plaque and tartar Human Gradequot and Human Qualityquot are NOT allowed on pet food 2 Challenges to Companion Animal Health Unlike veterinary care of livestock veterinary plan disease management health management and disease prevention vaccines are managed in an individual manner livestock whole herd or ock is vaccinated at once Cancer the uncontrolled growth of body cells or tissues this can affect nearly all organ systems some breeds are more susceptible to certain kinds of cancers Allergic Skin Disease skin problems can arise due to allergies common in dogs cats 9 results in itching hair loss and in ammation of the skin commonly due to environment ex eas Endocrine Diseases affect disorders of the endocrine system most common diabetes these diseases are seen mostly in middleaged animals 3 Trends in the Pet Industry Humanizing pets increasing trend of anthropomorphism has resulted in growth of the pet industry due to high demand for pet products and services Highest demand is by Baby Boomers have a lot of disposable income recently becoming emptynesters 9 get pets to fill void and drive up increase spending Percentage of spending mostly on food and veterinary care Baby boomer s desire to provide for pets increased resources for pet ownership adoption security and companionship a pet offers protection have increased pet industry Registered animal purebred numbers are declining Pet food now focuses on more than nutrition 9 they wish to mirror human preferences in pet food ex organic kosher vegetarian Remember cats are carnivores so be careful 1 in four dogscats are obese Vet expenditures are increasing 810 a year 4 What do you need to know to feed an animal Weight Age Is it a carnivore omnivore Breed tells us when the dog will mature What nutrients does it need Decided by what it is doing 9 term to describe if it is doing work can encompass growing pregnant lactating real work race horse rescue dog Where do we get the nutrients What are the feed sources ingredients lots of grain available in US cheap 9 lots of grain and corn meal in dog food even though it is bad for dogs Ingredients feedstuffs 9What nutrients are in the ingredients feed analysis which are usually published what quality and quantity of these ingredients How does one formulate the diet so the nutrient requirements are met amp balanced Using public data nutrient requirements composition of feedstuffs you can calculate amount Labels for livestock feed can say things like variety of grain productsquot instead of corn meal 5 Introduction to Nutrition Nutrient a chemical element that aids in the support of reproduction growth lactation and maintenance of life Nutrients include water protein fat vitamins and minerals How are Nutrient used Balanced Ration all the required nutrients are there in addition to the correct proportions Required nutrients maintenance reproduction lactation growth work Classes of Nutrients A Water Most overlooked but most critical Cheapest nutrient to obtain Water is 90 ofa developing embryo and 70 of a newborn is water Living organisms can only handle 20 water loss before death FUNCTIONS medium for chemical reactions transports nutrients through blood regulates body temperature SOURCES metabolic water feed drinking water B Carbohydrates Energy Basic building block that form carbohydrates glucose carbon hydrogen and oxygen carbs chains of glucose linked together Carbs are either burned up and used for energy or stored as fat and used for later converted to glycogen SOLUBILITY and DIGESTIBILITY how carbs are described 9 Determined by the number of monosaccharides and the way they are linked Disaccharides two monosaccharides linked together by linkages that are easily ruptured soluble Polysaccharides mostly found in livestock feed some like starch found in corn are easily digested linkages rupture while others like cellulose found in grass are not readily digested don t have enzymes needed to break linkages No animals possess enzymes to survive on cellulose alone grasshay C Proteins Composed of chains of amino acids Contains carbon hydrogen and oxygen like carbs as well as 16 nitrogen Number of amino acids and order of amino acids determines their FUNCTION Essential Amino Acids vs NonEssential Amino Acids ALL essential for life and needed for body function However some can not be made within the body Essential can not be synthesized by the animal on its own NonEssential can be synthesized by the animal on its own added to pet food to provide essential protein First limiting amino acid present in the diet in least amount relative to need most important to be provided in pet food bc you have the least amount of it ex cow needs to make COW amino acids so you feed it Cornbut it is still missing W 15t limiting amino acidso you feed it Wheat as well COrn Wheat COW 9 excess protein results in pee Ruminant vs Nonruminant amino acids D Fats and Lipids sources of energy nutrients we burn up to run or synthetic and breakdown processes 225 more potent energy source than carbs more expensive than carbs so rarely used in animal food composed of chains of 3 fatty acids hooked to a glycerol triglycerides Differences between fats unsaturated and saturated UNSATURATED Oils double bonds reactive less stable SATURATED Solids animal fat such as butter no double bonds more stable FUNCTIONS fats aid in vitamin absorption cushion and protect vital organs product palatability avor is contained in the fat feed quality effects fat can be used for pet food E Vitamins essential organic compounds catalytic help enzymes to function and react aid in the proper utilization of carbs fats and proteins Fat Soluble Vitamins vs Water Soluble Fat Soluble A D E amp K must attach themselves to lipoproteins to move through blood because they are not water soluble Water Soluble can be absorbed directly into bloodstream and excess buildup is excreted in urine F Minerals Solid inorganic crystalline elements make up our bones and teeth as well as components of certain enzymes Can not be decomposed or synthesizedminerals wont burn ash Minerals are classified on amount required for nutrients MACRO large amounts needed make up teeth and bones calcium phosphorus salt MICRO small amounts needed Minerals are naturally present in natural feedstuff plants soil stage of harvest FUNCTIONS many structure bones regulation blood nerves absorption hormone action transmission of nerve impulses maintain osmotic pressure maintain pH Minerals CAN be M Chapter 7 What are the different types of plants animals eat Cereal grains energy Legumes protein beans soybeans and pasture forage alfalfa Grass preserved form hay Silage made from different plants Other forbs and shrubs 9 All EXCEPT cereal grains are considered foragesroughages What are pastures Collections of plants that ruminants 4chamber stomach requires regurgitation of cud and reeating it to break down cellulose and nonruminant able to digest cellulose roughages in their hind gut herbivores graze and eat Can be natural vast spaces Or manmade where livestock producers selected specific plant seeds excess is usually saved and made into hay to eat later Examples of plants selected for pastures manmade Combo of grass and legumes pasture alfalfa Ex Kentucky bluegrass dense sod high palatability tolerates high stoking densities Orchardgrass Timothy grass Perennial ryegrass Reed canarygrass Tall fescue deep rooted persistent sod Aggressive grass that will dominate pastures so it is not easily restrained Types of legumes found in pastures Nonruminants Wild white clover most common Alfalfa high yield forage quality and compatibility with other grasses These legumes are known as forage bc they do NOT have beans omnivores and carnivores who lack a substantial hind gut needed to break down and digest high percentages of cellulose They are monogastric Their diets mainly involve cereal grains which are easily digestible wheat rye oats corn Cereal grains provide energy for nonruminants but where does their protein come from Legumes BEAN type not forage type soybean Other forage besides legumes alfalfa and wild white clover Silage occurs when a plant is harvested while it still has considerable moisture It is then chopped up and put into a silo storage container where microbial growth ourishes in the moist environment The microbes create acids that preserve the plant material which is know as silage Most common type of silage corn silage
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