Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 1 and 2 Study Guide
Anatomy and Physiology Chapters 1 and 2 Study Guide BIO 161-22
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Anatomy and Physiology 1 Exam 1 Study Guide Terms and de nitions Homeostasis a condition of equilibrium or balance in the body s internal environment Homeostatic Imbalance a disturbance in homeostasis resulting in disease or even death Autopsy a post Morten exam of the body and dissection of its internal organs to con rm its cause of death and is performed by a Pathologist Planes Are imaginary at surfaces that are used to divide the body Body Cavities Spaces within the body that help protect separate and support internal organs Interstitial Fluid The uid that lls the narrow spaces between cells and tissues and directly affects the proper functioning of cells Receptor Provides input to the control center Homeostatic Imbalances When homeostasis is disrupted disease disorder and even death may result Example You can t survive extreme high or low temperatures Basic Anatomical Terminology Anatomical position is standing erect facing forward arms at sides palms facing forward Directional Terms They are used to precisely locate one part of the body relative to another Atomic Mass The number of protons neutrons and electrons Atomic Number equal to the number of protons and neutrons an atom contains I n An atom that has lost or gained an electron Molecule two or more atoms sharing electrons Compound A substance that can be broken down into two or more different elements Isotope An atom that has a different number of neutrons and same number of protons the breakdown gives off radiation Catalyst speeds up a reaction by lowering activation energy Radioactivity Releases energy to try to become more stable Electrolytes Salts that ionize dissolve in water to form body uids Sweat Chemical bond occurs when atoms are held together by forces of attraction Prions small pieces of proteins that get in the brain and create holes in it Ex mad cow disease Free Radical A particle with an odd number of electrons produced by metabolic reactions radiation and chemicals bind to everything Ex cancer if you have too many Serous Membranes Covers the organs of the trunk cavities and line the cavity Abdominal Cavity Serous Membrane The cover many abdominal organs Covalent Bond The sharing of electrons There are polar and nonpolar covalent bonds Cohesion Water attracting to each other Adhesion Ability to stick to other substances Activation Energy The energy used to get A and B closer together to get C source Enzyme An organic catalyst Vaporization When water turns form a liquid to a gas Mixture A combination of elements of compounds that are physically blended together but not bonded together Solution A substance dissolved in another substance Example salt in water Colloid Solution that has particles in it but aren t dissolved Example milk Suspension Solution that has particles but unless you keep shaking it the particles will not stay mixed Example juice Acid A proton donor H When hydrogen loses an electron it s left with a proton which H If you add acid to a base you get water which is a byproduct Base Hydroxyl donor or a proton acceptor Anything that increases concentration of hydroxide OH donor Anatomy study of the structure and shape of the body and its parts Physiology study of how the body and its parts work or function Histology looks at tissues Chemistry the study of science and structure and the interactions of matter Anatomy Clinical connection Noninvasive diagnostic techniques palpation auscultation listening and percussion tapping are used to assess certain aspects of body structure and function gtpercussion things that are solid or hollow will sound different than they should if uid in there Levels of Cellular Organization Basic Maintenances of Life 1 Food 2 Water 3 Heat 4 Oxygen 5 Pressureblood pressure and breathing Basic Life Processes Metabolism sum of all chemical reactions in the body combination of anabolism and catabolism creates metabolism Differentiation a cell changes into another cell Ex skeletal nerve and muscle cells IEvery cell in our body has the same genetic material as every other cell in ourbody gtdifferentiation occurs before growth Reproduction organisms produced by offspring from their parents Growth We are always growing We start off small and get bigger Movement all organisms always move lntegumentary System skin hair nails sebaceous glands protection Skin if the largest organ in the body Muscular System muscles and tendons Produces movement protection and heat Skeletal System Cartilage bone marrow make blood cells ligaments bones sore phosphorus and they support and protect us Nervous System brain nerves spinal cord responds to stimuli Fastacting control system and responds to internal and external change Endocrine System thyroid pancreas pituitary gland adrenal glands Secretes regulatory hormones responds to changes chemical messengers cholesterol is the base for many hormones Cardiovascular System heart and blood vessels Transports materials in body such as water nutrients and hormones Lymphatic System ymph nodes spleen lymph vessels tonsils protects against pathogen aso known as immune system Respiratory System ungs nasal cavities trachea lungs gas exchange Keeps blood supplied with oxygen and removes carbon dioxide Digestive System esophagus both intestines stomach pharynx liver teeth breaks down food alows for nutrient absorption into blood eiminates indigestible material Urinary System kidneys urethra bladder eiminates nitrogenous waste reguates water and electrolytes lters blood Reproductive System contains body membranes reduces friction by secreting serous uid Produces offspring Homeostasis Is the condition of equilibrium or balance in the body s internal environment and is regulated by the body s regulatory processes Examples of homeostatic set point Body temp 986 F blood pressure 10070 mmHg Blood pH 74 blood glucose 80100mgdl gtYour body never stays at set point because of external in uences 986 is normal body temp gtThe survival of our body cells is dependent on the precise regulation of the chemical composition of their surrounding uid The uid is gtEndocrine and nervous system maintain homeostasis Negative Feedback Loop Sense a change and activates a mechanism to it Sends things All metabolic reactions take place in the cells of the body Positive Feed back loop Moves things away from set point gteads to change in same direction gtusuay happens for a short period of time Examples are blood clotting fever childbirth generation of nerve signals gtbody creates fever to try and ght infection This is bad because it makes you sicker Homeostatic Environment Receptor responds to changes in the environment stimuli sends information to control center Control Center determines set point anayzes information determines appropriate response sends messages to effector Effector provides a means for response to the stimuli gands and muscles are effectors lm 7 l f fm tl at l A A H 75ii affects ladyis Elia 7 temperature E39lTlIiilllJlLUE Enid temperature rises Show 312 3TH H v r Goinmml a imetfhaniszm i when badly temperature I EFE EE hill dl I t 39 kii Increased sweating Stimu lu a remuw Homeostasis restored a Negative feedback Blood vessels 3911115 land 93193 commands to l II1 skin Stimulus heat Control center body temp Receptors sense temp rising Control Center brain Effector sweat glands Response sweating Nine Abdominal Regions i39 Ellie quotFa i ll l region 39 l39 rialFi 39 rEgin 7 quoti 4 A 39 Quadra nts Rialthinner lel s agapeIr quiili di l Qu fil FlLli IL39LIIRi Rigi ll luluIier Lni nlm quadrant quadrim il illijg quotrm EE TiltIa memmlmp lm alumanti r Ki iyuwrhll ll39r quota Planes Sagittal divides the body or organ into left and right parts Midsagittal section divides the body or organ into equal left and right parts Frontal divides the body or organ into anterior and posterior parts Transverse divides the body or organ into superior and inferior parts Dorsal body cavity back part of the body crania cavity houses the brain spinal cavity houses the spinal cord Ventral body cavity front part of the body thoracic cavity houses heart lungs and other abdominopelvic cavity houses digestive system and most urinary system organs Body Cavities Spaces within the body that help protect separate and support internal organs Membranes never stick together Thoracic Cavity Serous Membrane The pericardium and pleura cover the heart and lungs respectively Pleura lungs Pericardium heart Peritoneum abdominal cavity Visceral pericardium covers heart Visceral on organs Parietalon walls Directional Terms Are used to precisely locate one part of the body relative to another Superior towards the head Inferior toward feet Medial towards body M Limb away from point of attachment Proximal closer to trunk Lateral away from midline Examples Thumb is distal to the elbow Bottom of the brain is ventral to the surface Elbow is distal to the shoulder Shoulder is proximal to the elbow Hip is inferior to the collar bone Heart is superior to the stomach Matter Matter exists in three forms 1Soid 2Liquid 3Gas gtA forms of matter are composed of chemical elements gtAtom is the smallest Why isn t a proton the smallest particle Answer They don t have unique chemical properties that are in atoms such as electrons gtA elements in the periodic table are made up of atoms gtThe elements in the outermost shell give it its chemical properties electron B Lllll39o l proton Elements 96 of our body is made up of four elements Carbon hydrogen oxygen nitrogen Oxygen contains the most percentage Electrolytes Salts that ionize dissolve in water to form body uids gtThey are capable of conducting electricity gtmbalances cause muscle cramps coma and brittle death gtWhen you sweat you dispose of electrolytes Chemical Bonds A chemical bond occurs when atoms are held together by forces of attraction gtThe number of electrons in the valence shell determines the likelihood that an atom will form a chemical bond with another atom Free Radicals A particle with an odd number of electrons produced by metabolic reactions radiation and chemicals gt that bind to everything gtCauses tissue damage gtAntioxidants neutralize free radicals gtExample free radicals can cause cancer Bonds lonic Bondtransfer electron An electromagnetic attraction between positive and negative atoms You need a cation and an anion to do this Covalent Bond strongest bond The sharing of electrons There are polar and nonpolar covalent bonds gtPolar electrons are shared unequally gtMost polar molecules are hydrophilic meaning they like water Example carbohydrates Polar covalent bond gtNonpolar electrons are shared equally gtMost non polar molecules are hydrophobic meaning they don t dissolve in water Example oil Hninpnluir mwulfelnll bonding Hydrogen Ile or HEH same charge on both nuclei 39 Electrons spend equal time near Uinclha rgledl each nucleus I gt I 5 In 39W LrIimlllu h Iaquot Hydrogen Bond weakest bond Electromagnetic attraction between molecules The bonds are created between polar molecules gtHydrogen bonds can t form from nonpolar molecules because they don t attract to each other There isn t a positive and negative charge Types of Chemical Reactions Synthesis Creating something anabolism AB gtC Decomposition Breaking something down catabolism C gtAB Exchange Reaction ABCD gtBD Oxidation Reduction Reduction is something that gains electrons oxidation is something that loses electrons na gtna is an example of reduction because the reaction is losing electrons c gtcl is an example of oxidation because it is gaining electrons Energy in Chemical Reactions Exergonic Energy Reaction that releases energy AB gtC Endergonic Energy EnergyAB gtC Example Photosynthesis light is the energy Activation Energy The energy used to get A and B closer together to get C source gtAll reactions have activation energy no matter if they re exergonic or endergonic energy gtBy lowering the activation energy enzymes make the reaction speed up gtEnergy is in all chemical reactions Valence Shells are not full and are unstable tend to gain lose or share electrons aow for bond formation which produces stable valence Inorganic vs Organic Compounds Organic usually ALWAYS contain carbon The only exception is carbon dioxide Inorganic usually lack carbon and are simple molecules gtWater is the most important and abundant inorganic compound in all living things Cation and Anion s Cation lon that donates an electron and becomes more positive once this happens Anion lon that receives electrons Once is gains an electron is becomes more negaUveExCL Decomposition Reactions Catabolism A large reaction is broken down to form smaller products breaks things down Reaction going this way lt Hydrolysis When water is split into two parts that contribute to the formation of new products Water is a Reactant Synthetic Reactions Anabolism Two or more reactants chemically combine to form a new and larger product builds things up Reaction going this way gt Dehydration Synthetic traction where water is a product Produces carbs proteins and lipids pH Scale pH scale measures concentration of protons gtThe lower the number the more acidic it is OacidosisThe higher the number the more basic gt74 is blood pH gtUrinary system and respiratory system are responsible for regulating pH The PH Emile ldllz lkaline ii 39I E E 9 1U 1139 112 iiii lldi i l l bile LlllIal gt14 has less protons and more hydroxyls gtThe lower the pH the more protons it has Buffer bring something to neutral in pH Protein structure and shape 1 Primary structure polypeptide chain 2 Secondary structure coiled or folded shape helix or pleated sheet 3 Tertiary structure occurs when chain of amino acids helix and it folds on top of itself to create a 3D structure gtStructures of how it will fold hydrophobichydrophilic amino acids or sulfur sulfur will try to form a disul de bond bridge 4 Quaternary structure association between two or more proteins Not all proteins have this step Enzymes gtOny function if they have their 3 structures gtOnce enzymes leave homeostasis they stop working gtremain unchanged and all work at normal body temp gtcertain enzymes need cofactors They sit away from active site but are there to help give it shape and function curamm I Nemactive Site of Entry me v Active Site Water s Thermal Properties High heat capacity High heat of vaporization Test Questions 1 egtwgtngt Electrons occupy what Electron shells Are electrons closest to nucleus most strongly attracted Yes Atoms are stable when what When outermost shell is complete When are atoms stable A atoms are considered stable when their outermost orbital has 8 electrons The exception to the rule of eights is shell 1 which can only hold 2 electrons 5 Explain a similarity and difference between ionic and hydrogen bonds A A difference is that ionic bonds are an electromagnetic attraction between atoms and hydrogen bonds are an electromagnetic attractiveness to molecules A similarity is that they are both due to attractiveness of electromagnetic forces 6 Which systems in our body maintain homeostasis A Endocrine and nervous system 7 Where is blood drawn from A Antecubital or dorsum 8 Why isn t a proton the smallest particle A They don t have unique chemical properties that are in atoms such as electrons 9 True or False All reactions have activation energy no matter if they re exergonic or endergonic A true 10 What is the base for many hormones A Cholesterol 11 Which of the following regions corresponds to the lower back A Lumbar 12 A cut that passes parallel through the body and divides the body into equal left and right halves in known as A Midsagittal section 13 The muscle known as the diaphragm separates the from the A Abdominal cavity pelvic cavity 14 Midway through a 5 mile workout a man swears and the sweat glands producing sweat are considered which part of the feedback loop A effectors gtreceptors pick up stimuli and cause an effect Sweat is an effect 15 An unspecialized stem cell becomes a brain cell during fetal development This is an example of A Differentiation 16 The thoracic cavity contains A Pericardial and pleural cavities 17 Which of the following is not associated with the thoracic cavity A peritoneum mediastinum 18 What controls everything in the body A Hypothalamus 19 Why do we need proteins A For wound healing and muscular contraction 20 Are intravenous solutions hypotonic hypertonic or isotonic A isotonic 21 Who discovered DNA A Watson and Crick 22 What describes potential A Concentration gradientelectrical gradient
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