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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Week 8 Notes - Class Notes

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CSU - BC 103 - Life 103 Week 8 Notes - Class Notes

School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Week 8 Notes
Description: These notes cover part of Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology, Plant Responses to Stimuli, and Light.
Uploaded: 03/11/2016
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background image Life 103 Notes  *adapted from the lecture notes of Dr. Dale Lockwood*    Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology ctn.  •  Vegetative Propagation and Agriculture  -Humans have devised methods for asexual propagation of angiosperms 
-Most methods are based on the ability of plants to form adventitious roots 
or shoots 
•  Clones from Cuttings  -Many kinds of plants are asexually reproduced from plant fragments 
called cuttings 
-A callus is a mass of dividing undifferentiated cells that forms where a 
stem is cut and produces adventitious roots 
•  Grafting  -A twig or bud can be grafted onto a plant of a closely related species or 
variety 
-The stock provides the root system 
-The scion is grafted onto the stock 
•  Biotechnology  -Plant biologists have adopted in vitro methods to create and clone novel 
plant varieties 
-Transgenic plants are genetically modified (GM) to express a gene from 
another organism 
 
~Take a gene from one organism and move it to another organism  -Humans have intervened in the reproduction and genetic makeup of 
plants for thousands of years 
-Hybridization is common in nature and has been used by breeders to 
introduce new genes 
•  Plant Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering  -Plant biotechnology has two meanings: 
 
~In a general sense, it refers to innovations in the use of plants to         make useful products    ~In a specific sense, it refers to use of GM organisms in agriculture        and industry  -Modern plant biotechnology is not limited to transfer of genes between 
closely related species or varieties of the same species 
•  Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs)  -Organisms that contain genes from an unrelated species 
 
~Used for research, gene therapy, agriculture, and medicine           production  •  The potential to reduce hunger  -Genetically modified plants may increase the quality and quantity of food 
worldwide  
-Transgenic crops have been developed that: 
 
~Produce proteins to defend them against insect pests      -Insects try to eat the plant and then they die  
background image   ~Tolerate herbicides      -The plants have grown resistant to certain herbicides so,            when applied, they can kill the weeds without killing the          plant      ~Resist specific diseases  -However, farmers are prevented from storing seeds of transgenic crops 
-Nutritional quality of plants is being improved 
•  Bt Genes  -Bacillus thuringiensis 
 
~Bacteria that contain proteins that kill insects    ~Bacteria can be used as a pesticide or larvacide      -Endospores      -Crystalline form of endotoxins  -The cry gene has been inserted into plants because the sprayed form 
killed all insects (which was bad for the ecosystem), while the injected 
form doesn’t 
 
~Cotton, corn, potato (potato was discontinued)  •  Bt Benefits  -Toxin is specific to two insect orders 
-Does not affect non-target species unlike sprayed form 
-Safe for humans 
-Dramatic reduction in pesticide usage 
•  Bt Costs  -Farmers beholden to corporate products 
-Non-target species can be affected (relatives of pest species) 
•  Biofuels  -Energy sources derived from living sources 
 
~Bio alcohols      -Ethanol, Sugar Cane, Corn, Switchgrass    ~Biodiesel      -Recycled cooking oils, Animal fats, Plant based oils  •  Algal Biofuels  -Algae used to produce oil, gasoline (with refining), alcohol, hydrogen  •  Biofuels Benefits  -Can be more carbon neutral 
-Can remove dependence on foreign sources of energy 
-Can produce less pollutants 
•  Biofuels Costs  -Removes agricultural lands from food production, thereby increasing the 
price of food 
-Can use more fossil fuels to produce than is saved 
 
Plant Responses to Stimuli 
•  Mechanism of Signaling (see textbook figure 39.3)  -Reception 

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School: Colorado State University
Department: Biology
Course: Biology of Organisms-Animals and Plants
Professor: Jennifer Dewey
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: Biology
Name: Life 103 Week 8 Notes
Description: These notes cover part of Plant Reproduction and Biotechnology, Plant Responses to Stimuli, and Light.
Uploaded: 03/11/2016
5 Pages 12 Views 9 Unlocks
  • Better Grades Guarantee
  • 24/7 Homework help
  • Notes, Study Guides, Flashcards + More!
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