chapter 15 and 16 study guide
chapter 15 and 16 study guide Chem 116
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This 2 page Study Guide was uploaded by ntombizodwa makuyana on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Chem 116 at Arizona State University taught by Dr cabraic in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 80 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry II in Chemistry at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Study Guide Chapter 15 Must be able to answer the question: When is equilibrium achieved? That is rate of forward equal to the rate of the reverse. The meaning of the Equilibrium constant Kc and how to write it Take note of the phase states of reactants and products when writing the equilibrium constant The concentration of solids and pure liquids are not included when writing the equilibrium constant. Kc= [ products]^p/ [reactants]^b where p and b are the molar ratios from the balanced equation Must know the factors that affect Kc Know where to use Kp which is the equilibrium constant for gaseous reactants and products Know how to convert Kc to Kp Must know equilibrium constants do not have units since they are ratios Know the direction of the chemical equation and K When the equation for a reversible reaction is written in the opposite direction, the equilibrium constant becomes the reciprocal of the original constant. Heterogenous reactions- reactions where the reactants and products are in different phases and homogenous reactions- reactions where reactants and products are in the same phase. Must be able to define reaction quotient Qc and its formula. It is calculated by substituting initial concentrations of the reactants and products into Equilibrium constant expression. Kc Must be able to define Le Chatelier’s principle and to predict the direction of the reaction Adding or subtracting reactant or product can shift the direction of the reaction but that does not change the equilibrium constant. Le Chatelier’s principle does not apply when pure solids and liquids are added or removed. Must know the effects of temperature, catalysts and pressures on a reaction and be able to predict the direction. Chapter 16 Acid- base Equilibria Must know the Arrhenius acid/ base, Bronsted acid/ base and Lewis base/ acid Know strong electrolytes and weak electrolytes Strong acids and strong bases are strong electrolytes: dissociate completely Weak acids and weak bases are the weak electrolytes: dissociate partially Auto ionization of water Ion- product constant (Kw)- is the product of molar concentrations of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions Kw=[H^+][OH^-] pH=-log[ hydrogen ions] Know how to calculate the acid-dissociation constant for weak acids. Remember to use ICE tables to questions associated with weak acids. Know how to calculate the percent ionization. For a weak bases, know how to calculate base ionization constant Must know the relationship between Ka and Kb. Ka *Kb =Kw Know the acid-base properties of salt solutions Know the factors that affect acid strength When the hydrogen is bonded to another element, the acidity is dependent on : H-X bond strength H-X bond polarity Conjugate base stability Oxyacids Z-OH , The strength depends on whether: Z’s electronegativity Z’s oxidation state Be able to define lewis acid/ base Acid- electron acceptor. It can be neutral or have a negative charge Base- electron donor. It can be neutral or have a positive charge Chapter 17 The effect of a common ion in the shift of equilibrium Know how the buffer works? Buffer- a solution that resists a change in pH Know the composition of a buffer and should be able to calculate the pH of a buffer.
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