British Literature Test 2 Study Guide
British Literature Test 2 Study Guide EH 203
Jacksonville State University
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British Lit – Test 2 Renaissance Tragedy • Influences: earlier Religious Drama, general Christian themes, colorful portrayal of devil characters (Beelzebub, Iago) • University drama/academic plays – highly refined, law students, Latin references • Private drama – the court masques – elaborate staging, formal, presented exotic settings & costumes • Popular drama – inn yard plays, non dramatic entertainment (bear-bating), less aristocratic pageantry, folk dancing (Morris dancing), May Day festivities • Definitions of tragedy o Aristotle § Catharsis – action that is serious & complete with incidents that arise pity & fear § Language – pleasurable & appropriate § Chief characters are of noble personage & perform noble actions § Plot • Involves a change in protagonist’s fortune – fall from happiness to misery • Organic unity – events follow one another because of one another • Involve a reversal – change from one state of things to the opposite • Discovery – change from ignorance to knowledge § Protagonist is not a perfectly good or ba d man – misfortune brought on by poor judgment not by vice or depravity § Parallel plots – unity of time, place, & action; expansive action, years of events in a single play § Greek Drama – absences of violence on stage, formal chorus of speakers in unison or 1-person chorus (Faustus & Henry V) o Revenge Tragedy – draws from the sensationalism of Seneca § Private revenge – justified & necessary § Self-recognition of error – comes too late to prevent downfall o Penguin Dictionary of Theatre on Seneca § Roman playwright, wrote 9 tragedies § Dramas were considered more to be read than performed & contain many scenes that would be impracticable on stage § Plays have an individual climate of horror & brutality – may reflect atmosphere of Nero’s court o Disguises of character – someone pretending to be someone else o Disguises of motive – announcing oneself as one kind of person but secretly having other motives o Stage conventions - aside & soliloquy • Marlowe’s specialties o Present a hero with over arching drive for power & control, the o ver-achiever o Examine the rise & fall of a character who had great ambitions but have a fatal blind spot o Born the same year as Shakespeare, perfected blank verse, plays show tragic downfall of over -achiever • Shakespeare o Became known as the playwright who co uld best combine sub-plot & main plot & weave multiple plots o Late comedies – classified as romances o The Dark Lady is the subject of many sonnets; Wrote over 150 sonnets • Webster o Representative of the bleaker & darker plots of English tragedy o Duchess of Malfi – follows the Duchess’ fortune until she dies & he switches to the downfalls of those who caused her death (Bosola & her brothers) o Author of Renaissance tragedy set in Italy, wrote for the same company as Shakespeare, known for dramatic action that suddenly reveals a new twist in the scene • In later Renaissance Drama, violence on stage becomes important unlike Greek Dramas o Using pig/animal blood King Lear • Recognized as Shakespeare’s bleakest tragedy because o Flawed King Lear & innocent Cordelia die o On-stage blinding of Gloucester o Aspects of dialogue suggesting gods have abandoned mankind • Flaw – capacity to make mistake or error, usually through wrong information • Characters o King Lear – aging king of Britain, tragic hero, goes mad, dies of grief over Cord elia’s death § 2 errors: giving up political responsibility by transferring power to his daughters; & trusting Goneril & Regan over Cordelia § Kent, Gloucester, Fool, Cordelia – most loyal subjects § Hallucinates that Goneril and Regan are on trial before himsel f, Edgar, and the Fool § Confused in the end – wants Cordelst to still be alste, doesn’t know Kent o Goneril – Lear’s oldest daughter, vicious, 1to flatter him, 1 to insult him, throws Lear & knights out of her house, Wife of Duke of Albany, plots against Albany § Plots against Regan out of lust for Edmund - poisons Regan but kills herself when Edmund dies o Duke of Albany – Goneril’s husband, kind & generous § Contrast to malicious wife, criticizes her for her behavior towards her father § Realizes too late that he is aligned with Edmund & Regan § Active in supporting Lear, charges wife with adultery o Oswald – Goneril’s steward/chief servant , tripped by Kent in disguise, attempts to kill Gloucester § Killed by Edgar for being loyal to Goneril & trying to kill Glouceste r o Regan – Lear’s middle daughter, ally to Goneril, flatters Lear & then abuses him, wife to Duke of Cornwall, aids husband in blinding Gloucester & throws Gloucester out of the castle § Becomes a widow & feels she should marry Edmund • Poisoned by Goneril so s he can have Edmund o Cornwall – Regan’s husband, equally vicious as Regan, disrespects Lear, puts Kent in the stocks, blinds Gloucester § Sends men to capture Gloucester and sends Edmund and Goneril to tell Albany that the French landed § When Cornwall's forces bring in the captured Gloucester, Cornwall and Regan pull out Gloucester's eyes as punishment for his treachery. § Cornwall's Servant attempts to stop him; they end up dueling. Although Regan stabs the servant in the back, Cornwall receives a wound that will eventually kill him. – killed by his own servant b/c the servant thinks it is wrong that he blinded Gloucester o Cordelia – Lear’s youngest daughter, disowns b/c she refuses to flatter him, remains loyal to Lear, virtuous & mild, hung by the captain Edmund sent to kill her & Lear § Speaks in an aside before answering “Nothing” to her father in Act 1 § Presence at Lear’s revival makes him think he’s in Heaven § After she & Lear are captured, she says, “Shall we not see these daughters & these sisters?” o King of France – Cordelia’s husband, benevolent character, takes Cordelia without dowry § Sends Cordelia back to England with the French army to rectify the wrongs caused by Goneril & Regan against Lear § Only appears in the 1 scene o Burgundy – refuses to marry Cordelia after Lear says she will have to be married without a dowry o Kent – nobleman equal to Gloucester , communicates by letter & messenger to Cordelia from the stocks § 1 scene – banished by Lear b/c he tries to intercede on Cordelia’s behalf § Caius – disguise he takes on to continue to serve Lear § Kills himself to follow his master o Fool – Lear’s jester, riddles, offers insight into Lear’s mistakes & consequences, loyal to Lear § After last appearance – Lear says his poor fool is hanged, no actual scene for his death § Plays logic games with Lear, criticizes the way Lear treats his daughters, says a snail would know better than to give his shell (house) to his daughter o Gloucester – earl/nobleman, loyal to Lear, misjudges his children, trusts Edmund over Edgar § Receives a letter about the French invasion § Edgar pretends to lead him to the edge of Dover Cliff § Death reported by Edgar as “His heart . . . burst . . . smilingly.” o Edgar – Gloucester’s older/legitimate son, seems naïve § Disguises himself as a madman/beggar & save s his own life from the death sentence – “Poor Tom” § Helps Gloucester & Lear avenge wrongs committed by Edmund § As “Poor Tom” leads his father to the cliffs of Dover to commit suicide, but he just led him to a spot of flat land & let him faint o Edmund – Gloucester’s younger/illegitimate son, resents that his birth deprived him of legal status/inheritance, turns Gloucester against Edgar § Tells the audience he will betray his father to Cornwall § Captures Lear & Cordelia during the battle between Britain & France • Puts them in jail & sends a captain with secret orders to kill them § Not a full tragic character § Gives orders to make sure King & Cordelia are hanged § Exposed when he duels with Edgar – treason by having relationship with Goneril § Offers love to both sisters – makes the plot more sinister o Gentleman – sent by Kent with his purse & an identifying ring to tell Cordelia what is going on with her sisters • Character Deaths o First Servant (4.1.87) – killed by Regan o Cornwall – hurt (4.1.85), killed by servant (4.2.70) o Oswald (4.7.245-250) – Edgar kills him & then finds letter evidence in his bag o Edmund – hurt (5.3.150), dies (5.3.294) o Gloucester’s death reported (5.3.199) o Regan – claims to be sick (5.3.96), body brought in (5.3.237) o Goneril – body brought in (5.3.237) o Cordelia (5.3.257) – pg.1337, Lear is delusional that she is revived o Servant who killed Cordelia – killed by Lear o Lear (5.3.311) o Kent (5.3.321) – not official • Lose track of where Cordelia & Lear are when they are dealing with Edmund’s treason issue o Edmund has to send something of his to reverse the order to kill them § Tries to redeem himself § Slimy character – proud of adulteress behavior • Reference to gods – not a Christian world view – Juno, Jupiter, classical gods • Reference to heaven Fortune’s wheel – o Lear wakes up & says he is bound upon a wheel of fire (4.7 – Revival scene) § Full blown mad in the storm, retrieved from the storm, given clean clothes, wakes up from a traumatic experience § 4.7 – reads like a tragic comedy, Lear is reunited with his daughter • a lot of ‘forgive me’, very emotional o Edmund – the wheel has come full circle • Source material– Shakespeare uses 2 sources with more favorable endings o Lear plot – anonymous play called The True Chronicle history of King Leir, and his three daughters, Gonoril l, Ragan, and Cordella – published in 1605, written in 1590s § Source is based on Geoffrey & Monmouth § Reunion scene – Cordella & Leir is reminiscent of Romance formula § Shakespeare takes that away with the action of Edmund ordering their deaths & what result s because of this • Harsh tragic dimension – Edgar guiding blind Gloucester, it was a fault not to reveal himself until it was too late § Christian redemption – erased by Shakespeare • Cordelia can be seen as a martyr like character § It was published just as Shakespeare’s version hits the stage § Very good evidence that Shakespeare adapted from it § In the source Cordelia lives and she finds her father and it’s a happy ending § In LEIR there is an actual scene where the plotting of the sisters. Shakespeare is adept enou gh in his writing to just allow this to emerge without writing a specific scene o Material from mythic history, legends, stories, etc o Gloucester plot Sir Philip Sidney’s The Countess of Pembroke's Arcadia § Duke Gloucester’s plot (good son vs bad son) § The main characters come up on an already blinded father and are told of the plot against him by his bastard son who is the equivalent of Edmund. o Both of these sources have much a much happier end than the Shakespearian version § He creates a much bleaker outcome • He does this by having Edmund cross into the other plot (King Lear and his daughters) with dubious intent • Two sister plot against the youngest and there is a reunion scene and then more bad stuff happens o The main characters come upon an already blinded fat her & are told of the plot against him by his bastard son (Edmund). The good son (Edgar) consoles the blinded father (Gloucester). Edmund shows remorse & is forgiven. • Shakespeare’s Cymbeline – a Shakespearean Romance o Altars the principle source in the oppo site way – makes forgiveness & making up prime values in resolving this tragi-comedy or Romance o The wager plot is from Boccaccio’s Decameron where the equivalent to Iachimo & is exposed & punished with a brutal death • Double plot o What Edmund does to Glouces ter & Edgar is parallel to what Goneril does to Regan & Cordelia § Changes from good fortune to bad • Aristotle never said people had to die in Tragedies - Oedipus is an example • Most of the tragic characters make their own forms of mistakes- these are determined by the type of character they are • Not only does the flawed King Lear die he make mistakes that he is almost immediately sorry for- He only realizes he fate way late in the play • (1.1.269-270) - Raegan and Goneril are talking and Cordelia has just fin ished o France has just won the honor of being betrothed to Cordelia § He says now that you will be Queen of France bid farewell to your sisters § She replies “The jewels of our father, with washed eyes / Cordelia leaves you. I know you what you are/ And like a sister am most loath to call/ Your faults as they are named” (1.1.268 -271) • She insinuates that her sisters are bad § She does try to say take care of our father. She then proceeds to say that she really does not like leaving him in their hands despite the fa ct that Cordelia has been disowned. • ““Love well our father!/ To your professed bosoms I commit him/ But yet, alas, stood I within his grace,/I would prefer him to a better place./ So farewell to you both.”(1.1.271 -275) § Her sisters reply with Your father d iscarded you and you are now spoiled goods • “Prescribe not us our duty./ Let your study/ Be to content your lord, who hath received you/ At Fortune's alms. You have obedience scanted,/And well are worth the want that you have wanted”(1.1.276-279) § Cordelia makes one last dig about not trusting her sisters before she leaves • “Time shall unfold what plighted cunning hides;/ Who covers faults, at last with shame derides. / Well may you prosper!”(1.1.280-282) • The King of France and Cordelia leave and Reagan and G oneril are left to plot for the rest of the scene. o Here is where we see their cunningness, guile and their almost eagerness to do bad to their father o They talk about him being too old to make decisions o They also think we know he is a misfit old man who ha s spouts of anger and we better find a way to control that o Their father is going to shuffle between the houses of these two and they plot to find a way to not make it hospitable for him § This is very much against the grain , You are supposed to entertain roy alty when they visit • Through a conversation at the beginning of the play Gloucester owns up to Edmund being his bastard child and he raised him anyway o His trust in Edmund is narrative (We haven’t gotten the bad side at that point) st • In Edmunds 1 Soliloquy we find out the kind of person he actually is • Main part of the action is when Lear pulls out a map and decides he wants to split the kingdom into three parts and sort of retire o Giving up one’s kingdom is just not done (in normal society) o This seemed to make sense to Lear. He is feeling old and would like to arrange his heritage while he is still sane. He is sorting out his affairs. o This could weaken the kingdom. They could be easily attacked from outside forces of the kingdom could be destroyed by arguments within the factions. o Lear is using this opportunity to match up his daughter Cordelia and her two suitors § Kind of a competition of the largest dowry and etc. • Edmund entraps Edgar by forging a letter that looks like Edgar inviting Edmund to kill their f ather or do something to take over his position o At first Edmund says “you don’t want to see this father” but Gloucester insists on it. Gloucester takes it as the truth. o From this point on Edgar has to be hunted down as a traitor § He disguises himself as a nearly naked beggar, Mad Tom § Different people encounter him but don’t know it’s Edgar • Lear asks each daughter in birth order how much they love him o Raegan and Goneril answer we love you! You have all my love! o Cordelia is standing there wondering how she is going to answer this question. She loves her father but she wants to be more honest with him. She says I love you like a daughter should but I have to save some of my love for my future husband. This is not said with malice but is not taken well by Lear . § Lear goes into a rage and abusive degradation of Cordelia. § He decides that any suitor can have her, she is disowned, and that he will re -divide up the kingdom between the two other daughters. • Cordelia’s two suitors (Burgundy and France) have different r eactions to her disownment o Burgundy is more traditional so he loses interests when there is no longer a dowry o King of France is like I will take her with no dowry. She is beautiful, she is strong, she is colorful, etc. • Duke of Kent tries to stand up for Co rdelia. He wants to put Lear in a better frame of mind to see more clearly. This doesn’t work. Kent is bashed by Lear. o If he is caught retuning to the kingdom, he can be killed o Kent comes back in disguise as a world class servant (Caius) • Gloucester is going to get in trouble for wanting to aid Lear o He wants to help because Lear is thrust out into the storm o His daughter kicks him out and is sent to the second daughter o The second daughter vacates her home and says you can’t say here o The daughters become abus ive - Their excuse is the knights are causing to o much trouble o Gloucester’s punishment is being blinded • Cornwall dies trying to blind Gloucester. Then Raegan kills a servant in order to pay for her husband’s death • Kent is put in the stocks as punishments f or his misbehavior o He is corresponding with Cordelia in hopes that she will bring the army of France to help sort out the kingdoms bad state. • When Lear is pushed out into the storm he is pushed into a temporary state of madness. o Important aspect of the middle part of the play o He is so disoriented that he can’t think or see straight o He meets Mad Tom(Edgar) in the height of the storm and is spooked by what he think s is a spirit § Mad Tom tells him that he must behave better toward the lowly of the Earth • Gloucester is dumped out into the wild but is provided a guide who is Mad Tom (Edgar) all cleaned up. o Edgar the good son ends up with his real father that doesn’t know its him o He promises to take Gloucester to the edge of Dover Cliff because he wants to commit s uicide o Edgar fakes the edge of the cliff and makes it seems as if Gloucester has fallen off the cliff (In reality he just fell on his face) - ***Edgar’s aside is important. o Mad Tom says it is a miracle Gloucester survived. Gloucester believes him andgive Gloucester hope • With Cornwall dead, Edmund is trying to get a raise in status o Raegan makes it know n that she is interested in Edmund. Edmund toys with both Raegan and Goneril. o Albany needs to be told that there is something going on with Edmund and h is wife. Spenser - The Faerie Queen Book 2, Canto 12 • Amoretti – sonnet sequence, shows that he used his poetic skills as a courtship effort • “Epithalamion” – celebration of marriage poem • Characters o Redcrosse – Book 1 hero, wins Una as his bride, h as to kill a dragon but stands for holiness o Britomart – female knight, stands for chastity, represents Queen Elizabeth § Name: Britain + god of war o Sir Guyon – knight of the Faerie Land, on a quest to destroy the Bower of Bliss § Practicing temperance of ingesting/drin king & sex/lust o Palmer – Guyon’s traveling companion, right hand man/sidekick/guide , uses his staff to make beasts back off, tells the knight that it is necessary to surprise Acrasia § Magic staff – made from the same wood as Mercury’s Caduceus o Ferryman – driving the boat o Acrasia – organizer of Bower, must be captured, has men in her Lair o Verdant – Acrasia’s lover, caught in the net with her, man Acrasia is sucking the soul out of o Grille – seen in the shape of swine/hog, one victim not changed back to human f orm o Genius – stanza 47 – presiding spirit, turns out to be bad o Excess – stanza 57, allegorical, immodestly dressed lady crushing grapes into a golden goblet o Unnamed maidens/Damzelles – pg.940, stanza 63, in the fountain • Headnote – pg.775 o Spenser writes just before Shakespeare; his original spelling is preserved § Highly educated, likes to make allusions § Character names are not real characters but the author calls them up as compariso– example (Stanza 44, pg.395) o Fluid – follow main characters through a journey, navigate new worlds o Characters – briefly name them & introduce them later o Structure – § Stanzas - Spenser constructed his own stanza form – 9 line stanzas § 6 books, 12 cantos per book, 72 total cantos o Book 3 – romance-like • Book 2, Canto 12 – The Bower of Bliss o Bower of Bliss – excess of bodily pleasure going on o Guyon is on his way to face Acrasia & destroy the Bower of Bliss o Traveling for 3 days rd § 3 day - hear a roar, Palmer takes the wheel to avoid the Gulf of Greediness where ships are swallowed up & the Magnes/the Rock of Vile Reproach, which is a cliff that draws ships to it & crushes them • Allegorical examples of dangers of luxury & indulgence § See Wandering Islands – Ferryman informs Guyon that anyone who steps on the islands will never be able to leave § On one island they see Phaedria – she follows them in her boat & is flirtatious, Palmer sends her away § Hidden Quicksand of Unthriftiness – see a ship full of riches stuck § Whirlpool of Decay § Sea Monsters – Palmer hits the sea with his staff & the mons ters flee in fear § Woman crying for help – Guyon wants to go to her, Palmer warns him to not listen b/c she is just trying to lure them § Mermaids – try to tempt passers by singing to come rest with them, Palmer advises Guyon to ignore them § Finally spot land, thick fog covers the ship, they are attacked by violent birds, remain on course & weather clears § Reach land – Guyon arms himself, he & Palmer go onto the land § Beasts coming toward them – Palmer repels them with his staff § Bower of Bliss – beautiful imitations of nature • Wall surround the bower & a gate decorated with the story of Jason & Madea • Genius – mistaken for good/wise but is actually destruction/falsehood o Entice Guyon to enter, Guyon throws down the Genius’ bowl of wine & breaks his staff § Inside Bower • Guyon doesn’t let the beauty get to him • Next gate – made of grape branches to tempt visitors, some grapes are golden • Excess – immodestly dressed lady crushing grapes into a golden goblet o Offers the wine to Guyon but he throws it on the ground & breaks it • Huge fountain – decorated with pictures of young boys playing, 2 naked women in the fountain bathing o Palmer intervenes to stop Guyon from temptation § Center of the Bower • Hear music & follow it to Acrasia • Acrasia has a new lover – she lulled him to sleep & is sucking out his soul • Palmer & Guyon approach her & capture her & her lover in a net the Palmer made for this purpose o Put Acrasia in chains & set lover (Verdant free) o Guyon destroys the Bower of Bliss o Attacked by beasts again – Palmer scares them off § The beasts used to be men but were transformed by Acrasia § Guyon feels bad for them & Palmer uses his staff to change them back • Barely men after the change, some are angry that they were changed & that Acrasia is captive • Puzzles, allegorical epic, separate kni ghts for separate books • Guyon’s quest – get to a place to demonstrate his temperance • Stanza 47 o Genius – footnote 9 – mirror of the bad Bower of Bliss, darker image first o Sir Guyon passes by & sees this § Frequently Guyon is doing violence to the scene he se es b/c they are bad guys even though they are alluring, shows he can break apart seemingly pleasant scene • Stanza 49 o Tosses over bowl • Stanza 57 o Comely dame/Excess o Guyon is extra violent, throws cup down • Stanza 63 o Naked Damzelles – one pops up & one goes down (Stanza 66), temptation/alluring • Notice colors, vivid description – silver, golden ivy, Jasper, Laurel trees • Stanza 69 o Palmer announces they are nearing the Bower of Bliss – but they have to surprise § Names Acrasia – referred to as Witch (72.2), & Enchantress (81.8, 85.2) • Stanza 79.1 – Verdant is sleeping by Acrasia • Stanza 81 – climax of the story • Stanza 82 o 82.8 – man sleeping next to Acrasia named Verdant – let go after council • Stanza 86 o Grille is introduced – named by the narrator twice • Stanza 87 o Palmer re-speaks his name & has last lines, giving guidance o Palmer breaks up the spell on the men • Spenser also wrote sonnets o Sonnet sequence – becomes popular with him & Sir Philip Sidney & Shakespeare § Dedicated to someone they love § Sidney – forbidden love Lady Mary Wroth • Crowne – 14 interlocking sonnets – Mary, her Uncle Sidney, & her father Robert Wroth wrote crowns o Mary’s crown is the longest written in English • Born Mary Sidney in 1586 or 1587 - picture of Sidney family on pg. C 1 o Eldest of 11 children • Married James VI of Scotland – became James I after his father died o Allowed Mary to be in the court of King James • Had classical education • Performed in private theatre – masque, couldn’t be on public stage • Wrote 1 surviving play – Love’s Victory • Ben Johnson dedicated play The Alchemist to her • Has a secret affair with her cousin – have 2 children • Her Uncle Sir Philip Sidney also wrote poetry • She lost favor in the court & began writing long prose romance, in the style of SiArcadia • 1621 – published The Countess of Mongomery’s Urania o Seen as slander against people of the court & Wroth was forced to withdraw the book o Characters in Urania § Pamphilia – woman § Amphilanthus – man • Contemplates what it is to be in love & not be loved back • Sonnet 77 pg.1570 – part of the crown o Footnote o Woman’s value – being faithful to lover § Men & women should honor - Made this a universal virtue § Classical labyrinth – guide • Love is her guide when she’s lost & needs a thread Sir Thomas Wyatt, the elder • Wyatt pg. 646 – in court of King Henry VIII early o May have seen/heard execution of Anne Boleyn from prison window o In prison b/c Henry VIII doesn’t like him o Travels to Italy & introduces Petrarchan sonnet form to England § Pg.647 1 paragraph § Made up a new rhyme scheme – English sonnet • 3 types of sonnets: Italian, Petrarch, & English sonnet (3 quatrains & rhyming couplet ) o Short life b/c he was sickly • How the nature of religion changes during Henry VIII’s reign – Church of England o No more religious plays o Edward XI – on the thrown for a short time, endorses father’s anti -Catholicism o Bloody Mary – executes a lot of protestants & non -Catholics o Ethzabeth – has Catholics executed o 5 wife – Catherine • Poetry in the short form is being perfected Henry Howard • pg.661 – executed by King Henry VIII • Last person Henry ordered to be executed b/c his associations with rest of Howard family o Cousin to one of Henry’s later wives • Just after Wyatt, wrote Elegy for Wyatt • Perfected English sonnet form • Chose a verse form that was starting to be revived earlier st o 1 English poet to publish in blank verse § Unrhymed iambic pentameter – blank verse § Marlowe perfected blank verse on stage • Translator of Petrarch, Tudor writer, relative of Henry VIII’s later wife, transThe Aeneid into blank verse Sir Philip Sidney • Considered a thinking man’s poet • Pg.1084 – headnote o By the time he began writing poetry, styles of writing were used & old • Uncle to Lady Mary Wroth • Known for his long romance – The Countess of Pembroke’s Arcadia • Sonnet sequence pays tribute to a love affa ir not fulfilled John Donne • Clergyman, Dean of a Cathedral • Poetry probably circulated but never published in his lifetime • Biography pg.1370 • Wrote sermons & sonnets, known for clever aubades (highlights lovers who regret parting, must take place at sune)s • Metaphysical poetry o Philosophical or spiritual, 1century poets o John Donne, John Cleveland, Abraham Cowley, Richard Crashaw, George Herbert, Andrew Marvell, & Henry Vaughn o Poets linked by style & modes of organization, against Elizabethan love poet ry § Frequently take the form of arguments that yoke wit & originality with powerful emotions o Elements: § Analytical approach to subject matter § Intellectual tone § Colloquial language § Rhythmic patterns that are often tough or irregular § Metaphysical conceit o Metaphysical conceit § Use of paradox, images from arcane sources not usually drawn upon by poets & original, complex comparison between 2 highly dissimilar things • Conceit – forced metaphor - an elaborate & often surprising comparison between 2 highly dissimila r things • “The Flea” – pg. 1373 o Flea has a link between person the speaker is addressing & the speaker § Their blood in mingled in the flea o Humorous o Stanza 3 - Lover crushes the flea o Consummate love = apology for killing the flea • “Break of Day” & “The Sun Rising” - love poems with context of Aubade o Aubade – love poem expressing regret of lovers that have to part at dawn • “Break of Day” – pg. 1380 o Humorous o Time to go, regret, parting • “A Valediction: Forbidden Mourning” – pg.1385-1386 o Valediction definition o Conceit o Our love is stronger than love that has to deal with physical separation o Stanza 2 § Profanation – not religious § Laity – everyone § Love is private o Stanza 3 § Earthquakes, learning about the movement of fears o Stanza 4 § Everyone else just has physical love § These lovers have a deeper love o Stanza 7 § Gold is malleable & can be stretched very fine • Lovers can be separated & still connected o Central comparison – compass (measure & draw) § Circumference – full circle, never disconnected o Series of different comparisons to illustrate the powerful, unique relationship • “Good Morrow” • Holy Sonnets o Sonnet 7 pg.1411 § Conceit – death is not death, life after death § Confession for forgiveness § Desperate for immediate attention § Rising dead souls into heaven, needs to know how to rep ent o Sonnet 10 § Paradox § Addressing Death § Echo – sleep is a kind of death, different death, temporary death § Tells Death to die o Sonnet 14 § Asking for traumatic experience to test his faith, prove he can withstand temptation § Conceit – usurped town § Paradox § Overwhelm me, wants to feel challenged • “Good Friday, 1613, Riding Westward” o image of Christ on the cross George Herbert • Follower of John Donne, deeply religious • Concrete poetry – modern term for pattern poetry or shaped verse o Shape poetry o Associated with the R enaissance, 17 century, & modern period • “Easter Wings” – pg.1709 o Poem shape looks like wings sideways o Addressed to Lord o Hopeful that with prayer he can come back to God • “The Altar” – pg.1707 o Careful spacing, justified text o Strong, solid base on altar o Dedicating whole life to the service of God • “The Pulley” – pg.1721 o Not as much of a shape poem o Imagine God finding a way to reel you back in o Analogy – resting & coming back to God John Webster Duchess of Malfi • Duchess of Malfi o Characters § Cardinal – Ferdinand & Duchess’ brother, keeps Julia as a mistress, Killed by Ferdinand • Rips Duchess’ ring off her finger, poi sons his mistress § Ferdinand – Duke of Calabria, Cardinal & Duchess’ brother, hires Bosola as a spythinks he is a werewolf (Lycanthropy) • Kills his own brother/Cardinal after Cardinal is wounded by Bosola; offers Duchess a dagger to kill herself • Flamboyant, negative moral character § Duchess of Malfi – Ferdinand & Cardinal’s sister , tricked into believing her husband & child are dead § Cariola – Duchess’ woman, begs not to be murdered § Bosola – hired by brothers to spy on Duchess , tortures Duchess with madmen & her coffin • Told by Ferdinand that he was not supposed to kill Duchess & he will not get paid • Realizes he did wrong • Stabs Antonio by mistake, k ills Cardinal, dies from wounds § Antonio – treasurer, proposed to by Duchess, marries Duchess, has one remaining son in the end § Antonio’s eldest son – only surviving relative of Duchess § Delio – Antonio’s friend, houses Antonio & surviving son § Julia – Castruccio’s wife, Cardinal’s mistress , flirts with Bosola § Old Lady - the butt of Bosola’s gruesome jesting § Echo – changes the meaning of repeated phrases, echoes Antonio § Castruccio – old lord, Julia’s husband § Marquis of Pescara – nobleman with superior ethical sense § Count Malateste - nobleman, proposed by Ferdinand as a second husband for the duchess. § Silvio – a lord of Milan § Roderigo & Grisolan – gentlemen attending the duchess § Doctor - employed to treat Duke Ferdinand in his madness, extreme self-confidence leads him to a beating by the madman § Madmen – used to torture Duchess § Executioners – strangle Duchess, Cariola, & 2 children • Disruption of moral order – like in King Lear o Lear – siblings willing to get rid of family – “filial ingratitude” o Malfi – brothers don’t want their sister to marry again § Set up a spy in her household to report any suspicion of marriage • Duchess is a fraternal twin • Selects husband in secrecy, has child o Private marriage to Antonio – proposes to him o Calls forward her maid to witness marriage o Pledge bond = marriage – legit to them (like Shakespeare) • Brothers want to expose Duchess • Subsequent scenes – someone behind the scenes witnessing & comes out to turn the tables on everyone – sinister use of hiding • Bosola exposes Duchess, Brothers torture Du chess o King Lear – § Edgar pretends madness as a disguise b/c if he doesn’t disguise himself he will die § Lear has stress madness/disoriented § Edgar cures Gloucester by making him think he survived jumping off Dover cliffs– reason to live o Torture duchess by exposing her to mad people – test her stamina to withstand o Performed madness • Set in Italy – less morally upright • Tragic form • Pg. 1581 (1.3)– Proposal scene o Brothers are leaving & set rules for Duchess to follow while they are gone, Bosola has been hirespyo o Metaphoric language – “into a wilderness” o Antonio is beneath Duchess in status o Proposal begins (line 110) § Antonio is stunned Duchess is offering a ring to him § Kneels out of shock, she lifts him up to be equal with her (line 123) o Cariola – hidden to be witness to the marriage, makes it legal § Soliloquy – pledged to keep the secret but knows it won’t turn out well • Bosola realizes Duchess is pregnant – audience knows more than Bosola, Duchess doesn’t realize how much Bosola knows • Pg.1601(3.2) – scene begins playful & turns sinister b/c of hidden character o In Duchess’ bedchamber, Ferdinand is hidden (no one knows) o Antonio & Duchess are very intimate o Antonio & Cariola play joke on Duchess by leaving the room so she would be talking to herself o Duchess completely gives herself away to Ferdinand o Historical case retold – Webster is the 1 to make the Duchess sympathetic § Heroic & noble tragic characters – admirable & strong o Reversal of fortune for Duchess o Ferdinand tells Duchess he will never see her again • Duchess has to cover for what Ferdinand heard o Sends Antonio & their oldest son away “for stealing” § Bosola can’t let on that he knows more • Pg.1612 (3.4) – Cardinal’s installment o Pulls ring off Duchess’ finger o Antonio, Duchess, & children are banished • Pg.1618 (4.1) – Ferdinand comes to see Duchess in the dark o Gives her a dead man’s hand to touch – makes her think it could be Antonio’s o Tortures Duchess – wants her to think Antonio & children are dead § She’s not told until she’s on her dying breath that they are alive • Act 4, scene 2 o Ethos – present madness on stage – spectacle § Release madmen on Duchess o Bosola has agreement with Ferdinand - disguises himself to kill Duchess § Brings in tomb & executioners, kills Cariola & children too § Cariola – contrast to Duchess – fought death, made excuses o Ferdinand admits that he & Duchess are twins § Regrets everything & tells Bosola that he never ordered Duchess dead & refuses to pay Bosola • Bosola – secondary tragic character o Pg.1629 – soliloquy o Tries to offer Duchess hope in her deat h pg.1629 o Wants revenge for what he has to do • Doctor Scene o Ferdinand has gone mad o Light entertainment – Doctor thinks he can heal Ferdinand by scaring him • Act 5, scene 2 – hidden character o Pg.1634 – Julia is Cardinal’s mistress, but is attracted to Bosola o Cardinal tells Bosola to kill Antonio – he must not know that Duchess is dead o Bosola is there to get info from the Cardinals o Julia puts Bosola in her cabinet to hide him from Cardinal o Julia knows too much, Cardinal makes her pledge secrecy & kiss a book he has painted with poison – he doesn’t trust her o Cardinal thinks he killed the only person who knows anything § Bosola reveals himself – plays that he is still on the Cardinal’s side o Bosola’s soliloquy – discomfort of being haunted by Duchess’ death • Act 5, scene 3 – Echo scene o Echo is counter, haunting, slightly changes Antonio’s phrases • Act 5, scene 4 – Chaos o Cardinal sends people away b/c Ferdinand is sick o Pescara, Malateste, & Roderigo - sent away & think it’s a joke when the Cardinal calls for help o Bosola stabs Antonio in the dark – calamity § Convenient accident, bleak ending of tragedy § Determined revenge – this was mistake o Ferdinand stabs Cardinal, Bosola kills Cardinal o Delio – Antonio’s right hand man, ends the play § Guardian to Antonio’s estate & Duchess /Brother’s Kingdom, & Antonio’s son John Milton – Paradise Lost (Books 1, 2, 9, 12) • Poet – England’s prophetic bard o Alludes to crises in his own life – vocation choice, death of friends, marriage disappointment, blindness o Wrote about Western concepts tak ing form in his lifetime: companionate marriage, new science, freedom of the press, religious liberty & toleration, republicanism o Wanted to glorify England & the English language in poetry o Wrote pastoral elegy “Lycidas” – one of the greatest funeral elegie s § Explores Milton’s deep anxieties about his vocation, terrors of morality in language, & apocalyptic diatribe to corrupt Church of England clergy o Wrote a funeral elegy for sister Anne’s daughter & educated her sons • Style o Pastoral – mode of early poems o Epic poems – mode of end poems o Models – Virgil & Spenser o Began by writing occasional poetry in Latin o Achieved a stylistic tour de force – wrote companion poems in octosyllabic couplets with entirely different sound, rhythm, & moods o Revolutionized genre with Petrarchan metrical structure with an urgent rhetorical voice & using the small sonnet form • Resembles Spenser in use of myth & archetype & readiness to juxtapose biblical stories to classical stories • Comes from Bourgeois family – cultured, staunchly protestant • Wrote “antiprelatical tracts” – denounces & satirizes bishops • Fought for reformed poetry, domestic liberty through needful divorce, & free press to reform English culture • Wanted to educate readers in moral & political wisdom & virtue • Pg.1900 – description of how Milton almost defied definition of Epic to write Paradise Lost • Working on behalf of a more democratic rule • 1660 – The Restoration – return to the monarchy • Milton has potential to be executed o Friends that knew he was a good poet saved him o Saw himself as more of a political exile o Spent 10+ years working for the commonwealth o Loosing his eyesight – tried leeches to heal his eyes o Some people see autobiography in his Satan character § Bad guy in revenge tragedy • “When I consider . . .” – pg.1942 o Sonnet on admiring Shakespeare o Knows he is near blind o Asking if he has to work for God even though he’s blind o Answered by Patience – reconciliation can be faith oriented without preaching everyday – patience & waiting • Paradise Lost - Books 1, 2, 9, 12 o Characters § Adam – 1 man and representative of humankind § Eve – 1 woman, representation of womanhood, approached by Satan as a serpent, falls to temptation of the fruit – characteristics: dreams, sleeping, weakness § God – all-knowing, all-powerful being, foresees Satan’s activities & humanity’s fall, extends His grace & brings forth good from evil § Messiah – only son of God, created to overthrow Satan & his legions in the War in Heaven, granted His wish to sacrifice Himself to redeem humanity § Michael – warrior angel that comes to Adam to foretell the future of mankind, chief of angelic forces in the War in Heaven, God’s messenger to tell Adam & Eve of their banishment & death § Gabriel – chief of the angelic guards in Paradise, leader in the War in Heaven § Raphael – God’s messenger to warn Adam of Satan & of Adam’s passionate adoration for Eve • Tells Adam of the battle of the rebellious angels § Uriel – regent of the sun, angel, fails to see Satan in disguise as a lesser angel & directs the ev il spirit to Paradise, tells Gabriel that an evil spirit entered § Abdiel – angelic servant of God, rewarded by God’s praise & the first blow against Satan in the war against rebel angels § Satan – Lucifer, chief of fallen angels, adversary to God & humanity § Sin – Satan’s daughter, born from Satan’s brain without a mother, keeper of Hell’s gates, mother of Death § Death – son of Sin & Satan, rapes Sin & causes a pack of dogs to torture her, wou ld kill his mother if he knew it wouldn’t cause his destruction § Beelzebub – Satan’s chief lieutenant, works Satan’s will § Belial – fallen angel, favors peace & no fighting, twelfth of Satan’s 12 desciples § Moloch – fiercest fallen angel, for open warfare, encourages other fallen angels to renew the battle § Mammon – materialistic fallen angel, favors pe ace, wants to raise an empire to rival Heaven • Digger in the earth , makes Mulciber’s work possible § Mulciber – aka Vulcan, Mammon’s chief engineer & architect, in favor of open warfare § Urania – muse whom Milton considers Christian , Milton calls on for inspiration o Epic, epic heroism o Protagonist – domestic couple instead of martial heroes – heroic martyrdom o Aspects of Epics § In media res – Books 5,6,7 are backstory - in the middle of things • Raphael tells Adam how the world began § Focus on patience of Adam & unde rstanding of Eve rather than battle hero o The Fortunate Fall – allowance God made room for to let Adam & Eve to make a choice b/c of future actions to come (Passion) o Epic Simile – “as when”/ “as whom” – multi-line comparison to a familiar association, usually include allusions § Pg.1950 – compare to other giant creatures § Pg.1951 – landscape of hell to other things that have been written about § Pg.1986 – Satan is getting the key out of Hell, sneaking out • Classic simile to ships hitting rocks to Satan leaving Hel l § Pg. 2115 – Columbus • Adam & Eve ate the fruit, fallen, realize they are naked, ashamed • Nakedness to how Columbus found America o Pandemonium – location where the fallen angels meet o Pg. A 48 – diagram that Milton follows § Ptolemy’s theory was replaced by Cope rnicus’ § Ptolemy – sun revolves around planets § Copernicus – planets revolve around sun § Milton met Galileo, knew of Copernicus, chose to use Ptolemy’s work o Milton is the “I” voice at some places o Calls out to Urania – muse of astronomy & Moses’ inspiration – pg.1946 o Flashy showoff of classical & biblical references o Fallen angels licking their wounds in dark space § Satan wants to create counterforce for revenge for being kicked out of Heaven nd o Beelzebub – 2 in command to Satan – advocate, doing major speech mak ing before Satan o Pg.1952 line 263 – glad to be the ruler, assertion of badness o Satan addresses the assembly – pg.1963 line 756 § Mulciber – another name for Vulcan, open war § Belial – pg.1967-1969 § Mammon – make the most, pg.1969 § Beelzebub – destroy practice, pg.1971 • Pg.1972 – corrupt them or bring them to our side – infiltrate paradise o Satan volunteers – Beelzebub made the speech to lead up to the heroic moment o End of Book 2 § Milton organizes Unholy Trinity – Death, Sin, & Satan • Counter to Holy Trinity – Father, Son, & Holy Spirit § Satan negotiates to get key out of Hell § Chaos – personified, lets Satan out of hell o Book 3 § Pg.1991 line 227 - Milton’s is original with the idea that Messiah/Son volunteered • God knows it is going to happen • Defeat death by rising from the dead o Book 5 – Abdiel chooses not to fall o Book 6 – Abdiel says “Better to serve in Heaven” – counter to Satan’s line earlier o Book 9 § Satan is manipulative & slips past Uriel • Uriel reports the slip to Gabriel, Gabriel warns Adam § Climax pg.2108 line 781 • Eve wowed by upright/talking serpent speaking o Tells her she can have parallel powers • Before – Eve is introduced, has a foreboding dream o Given task of encouraging Adam to let them work separately – advantage to serpent § Conceit – work for Paradise • Both eat fruit, fall begins • Philosophical thought o Eve contemplates keeping knowledge from Adam o Adam knows it’s bad, Eve doesn’t • Adam feels he has to eat it too b/c he makes the choice to be doomed with– partnership o Pg.2102 – Can I get another wife/give up anoth er rib § Eve is part of him – honorable decision o Pg. 2114 – 2116: Bickering o Satan thinks he will be received as a hero when he returns but receives boos in the form of hisses Aemilia Lanyer st • 1stnglishwoman to publish a substantial volume of substantial poe ms • 1 Englishwoman to make an open bid for patronage • Part of a family of court musicians who came to England during Henry VIII • Poetry suggests she resided for some time in the bookish & cultivated household of Margaret Clifford • Published in her lifetime – Renaissance Era • Mistress to Henry Carey – marries her off to Lanyer when she gets pregnant • Salve Deus Rex Judaeorum o Volumes of poems, feminist o Series of dedicatory poems to former & would -be patronesses to praise them as a community of contemporary good women o Title poem – meditation on Christ’s passion § Comparable to Donne & Crashaw § Contrast good women in Passion story to the weak, evil men • Eve’s Apology o Apology – support or defense o Eve is not a character but is referenced o Based on Pilate’s wife – biblical - “Apostrophe” to Pilate § Apostrophe – direct reference to someone not present o Addressed Pilate’s wife in 3person – pg.1346 (line 90) o Pg.1435 – Eve’s only fault was too much love (line 57) o Fortunate fall – God gave Adam & Eve free will o Don’t blame Eve for the fall of man o Pilate’s wife’s attitude Alexander Pope - Rape of the Lock • Characters o Betty – mentioned at the end of Canto 1, praised for wonders she hasn’t really created , making up of Belinda should be credited to Sylphs o Baron – constructs a pyre that contains former love letters to set on fire as part of a ritual while he was praying to get a lock of Belinda’s hair o Ariel – sylph in charge of other sylphs, gives epic speeches to rouse his troops to defend their lady § Sylph in charge of Belinda’s lap dog o Brilliante – sylph in charge of earrings or drops o Zephyretta – sylph in charge of Belinda’s flutt’ring fan o Crispissa – sylph in charge of the lock of hair o Momentilla – sylph in charge of the watch o 50 sylphs assigned to the seven -layered petticoat o Thalestris – name of the virago or Amazon -like woman who befriends Belinda & attacks her enemies o Umbriel – gnome who travels to the Cave of Spleen to request the supply of emotional winds that will color the later action o Clarissa – assists the Baron’s seizure of the lock by providing her scissors, later ridicules the fuss over the loss of the lock o Berenice – Egyptian queen whose locks are referred to in the last few lines § Pope’s readers would know the story of her hair being pronounced a new constellation her court astronomer – allusion to known event o Shock – Belinda’s lap dog • Inspiration: Homer’s The Odyssey, Virgil’s The Aeneid, Milton’s Paradise Lost, Boileau’s Le Lutrin (mock heroic satire on clerical infighting over the placement of a lectern) • Pope turned real events into a literary parody/mock epic o Real feud began when a man cut off a lock of a ladies’ hair • Pope adds “Machinery” o Supernatural characters that protect Belinda • Epic expectations o Battle scenes – green felt of a card table as battle grounds for a fight between face cards (one-upping each other) – card game Ombre o Voyage to the underworld § Milton begins in the underworld § Pope has gnomes – Umbriel finds bag of spleens & the release of the bad odor causes ruckus over who cut the lock of hair o Happy ending – § Apotheosis – giving larger stature to a being • Lock of hair à constellation o Standard features of an epic: a dream message from the gods, arming the heroes, sacrifice to the gods, exhortation to the troops, single combat, epic feast, journey to the underworld, general combat, intervention of the gods, Apotheosis st nd • 1 – 1712: poem & 2 cantos; 2 – 1717: 5 Canto expansion o 1717 – added machinery of sylphs, gnomes, card game, & Clarissa o At the same time – translating Greek epics o Used rhyming coupl ets • Robert cuts Arabella’s hair Terms • Anagnorisis – recognition, discovery • Aside – character remark intended for the audience & not other characters • Catharsis – emotional even though you know the outcome • Hamartia – trait, overly translated as tragic flaw, not being able to figure out what is right – ex) hubris/excessive pride • Soliloquy – characters speaking thoughts aloud • Alliteration – repetition of the first consonant sound • Conceit – elaborate comparison • Enjambment - the continuation of a sentence without a pause beyond the end of a line, couplet, or stanza. • Epic Simile – aka heroic simile, detailed comparison in the form of a simile that is many lines in length. • Iambic - poetic verse that is made up of iambs, which are metrical "feet" with two syllables. In certain types of iambic poetry, each line consists of one or more iambs – component of blank verse • Pentameter - a line of verse consisting of five metrical feet, or (in Greek and Latin verse) of two halves each of two feet and a long syllable – component of blank verse • In Media Res – in the middle • Metaphor – comparison between two dissimilar things • Oxymoron – contradicting consecutive words, condensed version of a paradox • Petrarchan Sonnet – Howard & Wyatt – octave & sestet • English Sonnet – 3 quatrains, ends in a rhyming couplet • Spenserian Sonnet - lines are grouped into three interlocked quatrains and a couplet and the rhyme scheme is abab, bcbc c Dates • 1616 – Shakespeare’s death • 1603 – Elizabeth dies, James VI of Scotland à King James I • 1623 – Shakespeare’s works published in the Folio • 1667, 1674 – publication dates for Paradise Lost • 1660 – transition of power, restored monarchy – The Restoration • 1621 – Countess of Montgomery’s Urania - Wroth
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