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KSU / BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY / BIO 10110 / Why is reproductive isolation so important to speciation?

Why is reproductive isolation so important to speciation?

Why is reproductive isolation so important to speciation?

Description

School: Kent State University
Department: BIOLOGICAL DIVERSITY
Course: Biological Diversity
Professor: Mark kershner
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: Biology, Biology Diversity, Bio, Biological Sciences, and Study Guide
Cost: 50
Name: Bio Diversity Exam 2 Study guide
Description: This is the study guide that I made that covers all of the material that we went over for exam 2. The information stops at viruses, any material we covered after that will be on the exam 3 guide.
Uploaded: 03/12/2016
4 Pages 199 Views 4 Unlocks
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Biology Diversity Exam 2 Study Guide


Why is reproductive isolation so important to speciation?



Why is reproductive isolation so important to speciation?

Steps of Speciation 

1.) Populations of same species become isolated from each other – leading to genetic divergence 2.) As isolation occurs, genetic variability may accumulate to point that breeding is compromised (not 

blocked)

3.) If mating is no longer possible between the populations, the genetic divergence has resulted in separate  species. If mating occurs normally, no speciation occurs.

Define the following terms 

Reinforcement                     Gradualism                             Protein Synthesis               Adaptive Radiation             Punctuated Equilibrium       Capsid

Extinction                            Cladogram                              Bacteriophage


What might happen if reproductive isolation is incomplete?



Adaptive Radiation Scenario A 

Lots of food (or breed sites)               No/Low Competition                No/Low Speciation (No Adaptive Rad.) Adaptive Radiation Scenario B We also discuss several other topics like What is the most successful animal phylum?

Low food availability (or low breeding sites)               HIGH competition for food or breeding    

            Increased                   Stay on new food                      Can lead to some individual            Speciation                   (Don’t go back)                          shift to new food sources

Differentiate between Allopatric and Sympatric speciation. We also discuss several other topics like How can a speaker best decide how do you arrange main points in a speech?

What is it called when every organism gets 2 names?

Hierarchical Nomenclature 

         Domain

            Kingdom


What process has occurred when two populations of the same species become reproductively isolated from one another and independently evolve to the point that they can no longer interbreed?



              Phylum

               Class

                 Order

                    Family

                     Genus

                       Species

What are the 3 domains?

What are Phylogenetics?

Phylogenetic Tree We also discuss several other topics like Who is the father of history?

Lamprey          Shark       Salamander       Lizard          Tiger       Gorilla            Human

                                                                                                                              Bipedalism                                                                                                               

                                                                                                              No tail as adult                                                                                               Hair/fur

                                                                                               

                                                                  

                                                                           Amniotic Membrane Don't forget about the age old question of What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?

                                                                           (Membrane surrounds embryo)                                                            Lungs

                                       Jaws

                                        

               Vertical Column    

Common

Ancestor                                        

             

Lytic Cycle We also discuss several other topics like Why do soviet workers did not work very hard or produce quality goods?

1.) Attachment­ penetrate cell and injects viral DNA into cell

2.) Synthesis­ viral DNA takes over cellular replication/protein synthesis machinery to  make parts of new virions

3.) Assembly­ all viral pieces come together, forming viruses

4.) Release­ new virions rupture/lyse cell; leaving/entering environment to infect other bacteria Lysogenic Cycle (host cell does not die)

1.) Propogation­ it replicates with bacterial genome when host cell divides 2.) Induction­ viral DNA exits genome and goes into LYTIC CYCLE

What is PHAGE CONVERSION?

Describe Phage Therapy and Lysin.

What is the morphology of the FLU VIRUS?

Differentiate H­Antigens and N­Antigens.

What are the particular types of H&N Antigens called?

What are antibodies?

    A(H5N1)     Avian (Bird) Flu  (1996)   HIGHLY PATHOGENIC Reservoir: Where virus starts; carrier of virus; genetically, not affected negatively

Wild Bird Population: Gulls, ducks, geese; feces/saliva

           Cycled

            HOST JUMP

Domestic Birds: Chickens, turkeys

              

           Cycled

           HOST JUMP

Humans: (No human  human transmission)

    H1N1  Swine Flu If you want to learn more check out How does the hubble telescope rotate in space?

1.) H­Antigen contacts receptor

2.) Virion is taken into cell (in a endosome/vacuole)

3.) Virion breaks out of endosome

              RNA  Nucleus

                            Takes over cellular replication/synthesis

4.) New virions form

 Leave host cell through N­Antigen: which allows new virions to “bud” out of host cell  Infection continues

 Host cell continues to produce new virions

How do we classify FLU viruses?

Describe HIV.

HIV Treatments 

1.) Entry Inhibitors: Block binding of gp120 spikes with T­cell receptors  prevent uptake of virus 2.) Gene Therapy

3.) Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors: Block DNA/provirus synthesis  prevents insertion into host cell  genome  blocks virion replication

4.) Protease inhibitors: Target synthesis stage, particularly capsids  preventing exit from cell 5.) Combination Treatments: “Cocktails” of all 3 drug types

Describe Ebola.

Ebola Transmission 

Fruit bats find fruit producing trees

           Cycles                                                                                                      Humans come into contact with                                                                                                                                      Infected body fluids Eat, drop half­eaten fruit, and produce feces

                                                                                                                          

Hunti

Poachi

                                        Gorillas, Chimps, and Duikers feed on fruit             Become infected with virus from                                                                                                                            Fruit bats saliva/feces

What is SARS? How is it transmitted?

What drives a HANTAVIRUS outbreak?

Fill in the blanks.

Increased __________  Increased __________  Increased _________  Increased contact with ________  through ________.

What is a POX VIRUS?

True/False (If false, why?)    Viruses cannot infect other viruses.

What is a MAMA VIRUS?

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