Intro to Social Psych Exam 2 Study Guide
Intro to Social Psych Exam 2 Study Guide PSYC 3430 - 03
University of Louisiana at Lafayette
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Notetaker on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 3430 - 03 at Tulane University taught by O'Brien, Laurie in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 119 views. For similar materials see Intro To Social Psych in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
Intro to Social Psych Exam 2 Study Guide (Chapters 6-10) Goodluck! 1. Be able to differentiate between normative and informational social influence. • Informational influence : conformity occurring when ppl accept evidence about reality provided by other ppl ◦ Desire to be accurate ◦ Results in private acceptance • True acceptance • Change behavior and mind • Normative influence: conformity based on a person's desire to fulfil others' expectations, often to gain acceptance ◦ Desire to fulfill other's expectations ◦ Results in public conformity • Superficial change in behavior • No opinion change 2. What did Sherif’s studies of norm formation find? Sherif's autokinetic study • Autokinetic effect is an illusion • Dot in middle in dark room; dot didn't move; they asked how far the dot moved • Ppl were asked how far the light moved • Then they were in a group and not individual and at the end they determined it moved 2 inches; ppl adjusted with group norm • One year later - ppl were still influenced by the group norm • Demonstrates informational influence 3. What didAsch’s studies of group pressure find? Asch's line conformity study • Standard line vs comparison lines • Experimental condition - ppl in a group; actual participant was giving response last, listen to three or four ppl that would say answer was 1 (out of three) • 30% ppl would conform to wrong group norm • Normative influence 4. What did Milgram’s obedience studies find? Milgram's classic obedience research • Studying "effects of punishment on learning" • Person learns he will be "teacher" • Person's job is to administer shocks of increasing intensity (15v-450v) when confederate makes a mistake • At 150 v c refuses to go on • At 330 v c falls silent • How many ppl go on to 450 v? ◦ 67% • Ppl less likely to obey with background info on conformity 5. What factors increase conformity? • Group size - as size of group increases, conformity increases (but plateaus at groups of 3) ◦ Social impact theory: ppl we are close to have more impact than those who are more distant ◦ Cohesion : "togetherness" or "we" feeling of group • Standing alone ("lone deviant") - other dissenters decreases conformity • Status - conform to high status ppl more • Gender - women more likely to conform than men • Age - adolescents more likely to conform than children and older adults 6. How does prior commitment affect social influence? • Once a person has verbally committed to an opinion they’re more likely to stick to it so as not to seem weak per say; less open to influence 7. What is reactance and when does it happen? • Motivational response = reactance ◦ Desire to protect freedom when threatened ◦ Change in opposite direction • Bathroom graffiti study (pennebaker and sanders) ▪ More likely to put on wall if there was a stern sign saying not to write on wall; when someone seems to be taking away a freedom 8. How is the central route different than the peripheral route to persuasion? • central route - high effort processing; message content; high motivation and ability • peripheral route - low effort processing; message cues; low motivation or ability 9. What characteristics of the communicator affect persuasion? Acommunicator is said to be credible when he or she is perceived as both an expert and • trustworthy • Credibility • expertise - knowledge, intelligence • trustworthiness - self interest • likability • similarity • attractiveness 10. How does mood affect persuasion? • People pay attention to the information that’s inconsistent with their current mood; positive mood = more attention to arguments that disagree with our beliefs; negative mood = more attention to arguments that agree with our beliefs 11. What is the difference between a life cycle and generational explanation of age differences in attitudes? • Stable = measure attitude and behavior close in time, more likely correlated. - Ex =Attitude toward having children at age 22 vs. age 32. • Accessibility = automatic cueing of attitude with presentation of object - Study: rate attitudes toward products (gum, candy bars) - accessibility measured by how long to respond to questions - choose 5 of the 10 products to take home (two rows of 5) as a reward - accessible = high tat-behavior consistency - inaccessible = closer item was chosen 12. What is attitude inoculation? • Metaphor for using a vaccine as a metaphor • Expose to weak arguments • Increases resistance 13. What does the research say about subliminal persuasion? • RATS was superimposed on tv at a threshold that was too quick for conscious retaining; Words or images not consciously perceived • Believed to influence judgements • Less effective outside the lab - Subliminal effects require: • Correct lighting • Correct distance from image • Fixation on focal point • Lack of distraction 14. What are groups and how do they vary in entitativity? • Interaction of some sort • Myers: 2 or more ppl who, for longer than a few moments, interact with and influence one another and perceive one another as 'us' • Group definitions vary in content ◦ Direct interaction ◦ Membership in social category ◦ Common fate ◦ Perception of 'us' • How 'groupy' is a group? ◦ Entitativity • Low to high entitativity - Ppl in line at a bank -> racial religious, gender groups -> coworkers, committees -> friends, family - Collective -> social categories -> task groups -> intimacy groups 15. What is social facilitation and how does it affect task performance? The social facilitation effect refers to the strengthening of dominant responses in the presence of others • Social facilitation theory (original) ◦ Performed better in presence of others; cyclists, kids reeling in fishing line • The Zajonc Solution ◦ Found sometimes being around others made them perform poorly or worse ◦ Proposed an explanation for why the presence of others improves or harms ◦ Mere presence creates physiological arousal • When an animal is alone, lower baseline arousal ◦ Arousal facilitates dominant responses - most likely in a given situation; if task easy perform well and vice versa • Easy task = accurate performance • Hard task = inaccurate performance 16. What is social loafing and how does it affect task performance? • Tendency for ppl to exert less effort when they pool their efforts toward a common goal than when individually accountable ▪ Cheerleaders to cheer and clap alone or in a group • The more the ppl, the individuals put less effort • Presence of others lets us "off the hook" ▪ Performance of individual undetermined ▪ Reduce individuals' effort toward collective tasks • Social loafing less likely to occur if ▪ Individual performances can be identified ▪ Task is important ▪ Ppl believe own efforts essential to success ▪ Group expects to be punished for poor performance ▪ Group is small or cohesive Social loafing outside lab • Under communism: ◦ Private plots vs collective plots • In Russia: 1% of land, 27% of output ▪ Private farms only constitute 1% but accounted for 27% of output, more food from smaller amount of land so more individual profits • In Hungary, own 13% of land, 33% of output • Incentives can increase how hard ppl are working • Found in collectivist countries, too (japan, thailand, taiwan, indian, malysia), but less common • Other examples ◦ Public tv, union dues (require ppl to pay, if not required some elect not to do it so creates social loafing) 17. What is deindividuation and when will it occur? • Loss of self awareness and evaluation apprehension; occurs in group situations • Traditional View ◦ Increased arousal + increased anonymity = reduced personal responsibility • Modern view: makes group norms more salient 18. What is group polarization and why does it happen? When group discussion strengthens an attitude shared by group members ◦ Similarity of members ◦ Most of democratic group will have more extreme demo views and vice versa with republicans ◦ Discussion strengthens initial leanings 19. What is groupthink and how can it be prevented? • when a group of people make faulty decisions because of group pressures; tend to be irrational it can be prevented by integrating groups with more diversity 20. What are some different types of leadership? • Autocratic leadership – Organised, gave orders, aloof, focussed on task in hand • Democratic leadership – Calls for suggestions, discussed plans, behaves like other members • Laissez-faire leadership – Leaves the group to its own devices, very low level of intervention – 21. What is the difference between prejudice, stereotypes, and discrimination? • Stereotype: a belief about personal attributes of a group of people • Prejudice: negative (or positive) feelings towards a person based on their membership in a group • Discrimination: unjustified negative behavior toward a group or its members • Affect (prejudice) - behavior (discrimination) - cognition (stereotypes) 22. What personality variables affect prejudice? Why do we rely on stereotypes? • We tend to be cognitive misers • Easier to sort things if we use st. • Helps us form impressions, making us feel like we know something about people • S are easy and well learned When are we likely to use st? • When we're presses for time • Tired • Mentally busy • Emotionally aroused 23. What is the relationship between self-esteem and prejudice? • Need for self esteem ◦ Social identity theory • Self concept and esteem are based on group memberships ◦ Minimal groups paradigm - looking at minimal conditions required for discrimination to occur b/t groups ◦ Basking in reflected glory • T shirts after win for football game for home team ◦ Pp chart ◦ Memberships in groups provide ppl with a sense of identity and self esteem 24. How does realistic group conflict theory explain prejudice? • Competition ◦ Realistic group conflict theory • Limited resources leaders to competition • Competition leads to prej and discrim ◦ Examples • Immigration • Territory - china and south asian nations • Resources - food, water, money 25. What is stereotype threat? ◦ The experience of anxiety in a situation in which a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about his or her social group • Any group that experiences neg stereotypes can experience stereotype threat • Stereotype boost - enhanced performance due to a positive stereotype (aka stereotype lift) 26. How do people cope with stigma? Dimensions of stigma (jones) • Concealability: the condition hidden or obvious? To what extent is its visibility controllable ◦ What if ppl find out? Who should I tell? • Origin/controllability: under what circumstances did the condition originate? Was anybody responsible for it, and what was the person doing or trying to do when it occurred? ◦ Anorexia • Course: what pattern of change over time is shown by the condition? What is the ultimate outcome or outcomes? ◦ Cancer - associated with death • Disruptiveness: does it block or hamper interaction and communication? ◦ Deaf • Aesthetic qualities: to what extent does the mark make the possessor repugnant, ugly, or upsetting? ◦ Facial disfigurement • Peril: what kind of danger is posed by the difference, and how imminent and serious is this danger? Predicaments of stigma • Awareness of the devalued quality of ones social identity • Experience with prej and discrim • Attributional ambiguity • Stereotype threat ◦ The experience of anxiety in a situation in which a person has the potential to confirm a negative stereotype about his or her social group 27. What is the just-world phenomenon? • people's tendency to believe that the world is just and that people get what they deserve; ppl want to believe the world is fair so they search for ways to try to rationalize injustice often blaming the victim 28. How do social psychologists define aggression? Defining aggression • aggression ◦ Physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone • Hostile aggression ◦ Lash out bc you're angry; primary goal to hurt • Instrumental aggression ◦ Intend to hurt someone in the service of another goal ◦ Ex: terrorism Aggression as nature • Instinct theories ◦ Aggression is instinct ◦ Circular reasoning • Why is everyone aggressive? Bc it's instinctual • Genetics ◦ Personality and temperament ◦ Twin studies support a role of genetics • Biological factors ◦ Testosterone plays role ◦ But, testosterone influenced by situation ◦ Bidirectional relationship bt test and agg 29. What is the distinction between hostile and instrumental aggression? • Hostile aggression ◦ Lash out bc you're angry; primary goal to hurt • Instrumental aggression ◦ Intend to hurt someone in the service of another goal ◦ Ex: terrorism 30. What is a culture of honor and how does it relate to aggression? Culture of honor (cohen) • Responding to insults ◦ Northern vs southern white men ◦ Pass confederate in hallway • Blocking most of aisle and bumped into participant and called them an asshole • Results ◦ Greater effect on southern ◦ Threatened masculinity ◦ Testosterone rises • Wanted to see how assertive the p's would act ◦ Walk down narrow hallway ◦ Had another man who was huge and walked straight down 31. How do pain, heat, and frustration affect aggression? • Provocation • Situational cues ◦ Weapons effect: the tendency of weapons to increase the likelihood of aggression by their mere presence • Frustration ◦ Blocking of expected goal ◦ Produces anger ◦ Sometimes aggression is displaced 32. What is the social learning theory of aggression? Social learning theory • Behavior is learned through the observation of others as well as through direct experience of rewards and punishments • Bobo doll study (bandura) 33. What impact does the media and video games have on aggression? • Violent media increases aggression ◦ Affect size ◦ Children and adults ◦ Immediate and longterm • Mechanisms of influences ◦ Changes ppl's values and attitude ◦ Imitaiton ◦ Desensitization ◦ Cultiavtion Video games and aggresison • Meta analysis of 381 video games studies (130296 participants • As opposed to nonviolent video games, violent games: ◦ Increase arousal ◦ Increasse aggressive thinking ◦ Increase aggressive feelings ◦ Increase aggressive behaviors ◦ Decrease prosocial behaviors 34. What is the weapons effect? • This states that the presence of a weapon will make people act more aggressively 35. What is displacement? • The redirection of an attitude (usually aggression) toward someone or something 36. What are effective vs. ineffective methods for reducing aggression? Reducing aggression • Idea that venting will reduce future aggression is false; actually increase ◦ Catharsis hypothesis purposed by freud "let it out" • Punish aggression ◦ results in negative consequences Effectively reducing aggression • Cooperation - reward it ◦ Rewards non aggressive behavior • Model peaceful behavior • Discourage excessive drinking • Apologize and encourage apologies • Reduce weapon access • Empathy
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