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PACE / OTHER / OTH 20649 / How can a speaker best decide how do you arrange main points in a spee

How can a speaker best decide how do you arrange main points in a spee

How can a speaker best decide how do you arrange main points in a spee

Description

School: Pace University
Department: OTHER
Course: Public Speaking
Professor: Eric frederick
Term: Spring 2016
Tags: midterms, Tests, Public Speaking 200, Eric Frederick, A Speaker's Guidebook, and review
Cost: 50
Name: Midterm Study Guide for Public Speaking 200
Description: This is a fully developed study guide based on Eric Frederick's lectures and A Speaker's Guidebook: 6th Edition. It reviews every main concept discussed in class, has bolded test questions that WILL be tested, and includes key terms that will be on the midterm exam (3/16/2016). Happy midterms!
Uploaded: 03/12/2016
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Sarah Wisser


How can a speaker best decide how do you arrange main points in a speech?



Public Speaking 200

Midterm study guide

Ch 1 Becoming a Public Speaker

Rhetoric- practice of public speaking practiced in agora (public square/marketplace)

Canons of Rhetoric:

forensic oratory- legal speech to persuade

deliberative oratory- speech given in legislative/political context

epideictic oratory- speech given at/in special occasions  

Aristotle divided speech preparation:

1. invention- adapting speech to audience to make a case

2. arrangement- organize speech to best suit topic and audience

3. style- the way the speaker uses language to express ideas


What is dyad in oral communication?



We also discuss several other topics like Who is the father of history?

4. memory- practicing for artful delivery

5. delivery- vocal and nonverbal behavior during speaking

Four human communication forms:

1. dyadic- 2 people (conversation)

2. small group- more than 2 people

3. mass- communication between speaker and a large audience

4. public speaking- message with specific purpose to the many

Johari Window:

1. tells us about us (self)

2. tells us why we get nervous

Johari Window Chart

perceived by us (self)

closed to you

perceived by others

OPEN SELF

BLIND SELF

closed to others

HIDDEN SELF

UNKNOWN SELF (POTENTIAL)


What is your main point or thesis statement for your essay?



Overcome nervousness… by: Eric Frederick

1. you are enough We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?
Don't forget about the age old question of Why do soviet workers did not work very hard or produce quality goods?

2. it’s not about ME

3. preparation

4. focus on one person

5. you are in charge

Ch 2 Giving it a Try

T/F The specific purpose statement is the same as the thesis statement… FALSE T/F There are 2 general speech purposes… FALSE (inform, persuasive, ceremonial)

1. analyze audience

2. select topic

3. determine specific speech purpose (declares what you want your audience to know/ understand after they've listened to your speech; answers WHY?)

4. compose thesis statement (a short statement, usually one sentence, that summarizes the  main point or claim of your speech; answers WHAT do I want to convey?) 5. develop main points We also discuss several other topics like How is angular momentum calculated?

1. key arguments

6. gather supporting material

1. personal experience, interviews, statistics, etc.

7. separate speech into major parts

1. introduction

2. body

3. conclusion

8. outline speech

1. working outlines (complete sentences) Don't forget about the age old question of What is net capital outflow equal to?

2. speaking outlines (key words/phrases)

9. consider presentation aid

10. practice delivery of speech

Ch 12 Types of Organizational Arrangements

Difference between Topical and Spacial:  

Topical- Times Square, Statue of Liberty…Spacial- 5 Boroughs of NYC

Six commonly used patterns of arrangements:

1. Chronological- organizing in sequential order

2. Spatial- organizing based on order of physical proximity or direction relative to each other 3. Causal (cause-effect)- organizing points in order, first of causes and THEN effects or vice  versa

4. Problem-Solution- organizing speech so they demonstrate problem, then provide  justification for proposed solution We also discuss several other topics like How did colonialism affect the african economy?

5. Topical- organizing main points as subtopics or categories of speech topic 6. Narrative- speech unfolds as story with characters, plot, setting, and vivid imagery

Ch 14 Introductions

goals… arouse audience attention, establish credibility, preview main points

Gain audience attention:

quotes, story, pose questions, unusual info, humor  

-sensory language

-anecdote- story with a moral

-ethos- your good character- an audience wants to feel that they can trust you

Ch 13 Outlining the Speech

outline- framework of a speech… relies on coordinate and subordinate points Types of outlines

1. working outline- rough outline refining/finalizing specific speech purpose, main points, and  supporting material

2. speaking outline- delivery outline

3. sentence outline- each main/supporting point stated in sentence form 4. phrase outline- partial construction of sentences that presents precise wording of points 5. key-word outline- smallest possible units of key words associated with main points

Ch 15 Developing a Conclusion

Informative speech- challenge audience to use what they’ve learned in a way that benefits them Persuasive speech- challenge audience to act in response, challenge beliefs, etc.

Make memorable conclusion…

tell a story, anecdote, bookending (begin a story in intro and finish it in the conclusion)

Ch 7 Selecting a Topic

explore… consider purpose, time constraints, personal interests, current events, controversial  issues

brainstorming- problem solving techniques that involves spontaneous generation of ideas (word  association, topic mapping, internet tools, search engines, library portal)

general speech purpose- declarative statement that informs, persuades, or marks a special  occasion

Informative speech- increases understanding by defining something, describing something,  explaining, educating, enlightening, inspiring… (ex: journalist)

persuasive speech- a speech given to convince, change, modify, reinforce, etc… (ex: columnist) special occasion speech- used to entertain, mark a unique moment, celebrate, commemorate…

Storytelling

parts

1. protagonist

2. dramatic conflict/tension

3. resolution

process

1. know the story

2. put in life-like details

3. tell it like you lived it  

Ch 23 Informative Speech

enlighten rather than educate  

reportage- account of who, what, when, where, why

backstory- story that leads up to an event that listeners might find interesting  definitions… useful when clarifying controversial ideas

operational definition- describes what it does

definition by negation- defining something by explaining what it is NOT

definition by example- “health professionals include doctors”

definition by synonym- “A friend is a comrade”

definition by etymology- word origin

comparison vs. analogy:

comparison- 2 different things

analogy- 2 alike things

Ch 6 Analyzing the Audience  

audience analysis- gathering info about audience’s motivations

audience-centered perspective- take a poll and investigate…

avoid pandering- abandoning your own perspective;catering to audience’s whims

keep in mind…

attitude- general evaluation of people, ideas, events…

belief- how people perceive reality

value- judgements about what is good/bad

demographics- statistical characteristics of given population (age, ethnicity, gender, disability) use inclusive language: “we”

Hofstede’s Value Dimension Model

1. Individualistic cultures vs collectivist cultures

2. uncertainty avoidance—are we strict?

3. power distance—authority

4. masculinity and femininity—dress code

5. long-term vs short-term time orientation—GMO’s

Ch 4 Listeners and Speakers

listeners AND speakers co-create a speech’s meaning

hearing- physiological, largely involuntary process of perceiving sound

listening- take notice of and act on what someone says; respond to advice or a request selective perception- paying attention selectively to certain messages while ignoring others -influenced by interests, needs, values, etc.

dialogic communication- open sharing of ideas in atmosphere of respect

active listening- multistep, focused, and purposeful process of gathering info external listening distractions- outside forces that reduce listening rates and interfere with active  listening  

internal listening distractions- personal thoughts or feelings that compete for your attention scriptwriting- thinking about what you, not the speaker, will say next

defensive listening- deciding that you won’t like what the speaker will say or that you know  better

Ch 16 Language to Style the Speech

strive for simplicity

choose simple terms

use common words instead of jargon (specialized terminology developed within a  particular study)

be concise

use repetition

use personal pronouns (“we, us, I, you”)

concrete language- describe things you experience through your senses: smoke, mist, a shout avoid abstract language- words refer to intangible qualities, ideas, and concepts. These words  indicate things we know only through our intellect, like "truth," "honor," "kindness," and "grace" imagery- visually descriptive or figurative language

use descriptive language (“faint blue”, “sea blue”)

use Figures of Speech (expressions in which words are used in a nonliteral fashion)

simile- used to compare one thing or another  

metaphor- a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable avoid cliches- expressions that are predictable/stale

avoid mixed metaphors- compare unlike images or expressions  

analogy- extended metaphor that compares unfamiliar concept with a more familiar one avoid faulty analogies- inaccurate or misleading comparisons  

personification- endows abstract ideas/concepts/inanimate objects with human qualities understatement- draws attention to idea by minimizing importance  

irony- use humor/satire to suggest meaning other than what is being expressed allusion- makes vague references to give deeper meaning to message

hyperbole- uses obvious exaggerations to drive home point

onomatopoeia- imitates natural sounds in word forms in order add vividness avoid malapropism- inadvertent use of word/phrase in place of one that sounds like it denotative meaning- dictionary definition

connotative meaning- individual associations that different people bring to bear on a word example: “larger build” instead of “fat”

include repetition, alliteration, and parallelism

anaphora- repeat words at beginning of phrase

epiphora-repeat phrase at the end of successive statements

alliteration- repetition of same sounds (“down with dope, up with hope”)

avoid hackneyed language- poorly crafted/ lacking

parallelism- arrangement of words in similar grammatical/stylistic form

antithesis- setting off 2 ideas in balanced opposition to each other

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