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Midterm Study Guide for Public Speaking 200

by: sw94382n

Midterm Study Guide for Public Speaking 200 20649

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This is a fully developed study guide based on Eric Frederick's lectures and A Speaker's Guidebook: 6th Edition. It reviews every main concept discussed in class, has bolded test questions that WIL...
Public Speaking
Eric Frederick
Study Guide
midterms, Tests, Public Speaking 200, Eric Frederick, A Speaker's Guidebook, review
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by sw94382n on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 20649 at a university taught by Eric Frederick in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 55 views.

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Date Created: 03/11/16
Sarah Wisser Public Speaking 200 Midterm study guide Ch 1 Becoming a Public Speaker Rhetoric- practice of public speaking practiced in agora (public square/marketplace) Canons of Rhetoric: forensic oratory- legal speech to persuade deliberative oratory- speech given in legislative/political context epideictic oratory- speech given at/in special occasions Aristotle divided speech preparation: 1. invention- adapting speech to audience to make a case 2. arrangement- organize speech to best suit topic and audience 3. style- the way the speaker uses language to express ideas 4. memory- practicing for artful delivery 5. delivery- vocal and nonverbal behavior during speaking Four human communication forms: 1. dyadic- 2 people (conversation) 2. small group- more than 2 people 3. mass- communication between speaker and a large audience 4. public speaking- message with specific purpose to the many Johari Window: 1. tells us about us (self) 2. tells us why we get nervous Johari Window Chart perceived by us (self) closed to you perceived by others OPEN SELF BLIND SELF closed to others HIDDEN SELF UNKNOWN SELF (POTENTIAL) Overcome nervousness… by: Eric Frederick 1. you are enough 2. it’s not about ME 3. preparation 4. focus on one person 5. you are in charge Ch 2 Giving it a Try T/F The specific purpose statement is the same as the thesis statement… FALSE T/F There are 2 general speech purposes… FALSE (inform, persuasive, ceremonial) 1. analyze audience 2. select topic 3. determine specific speech purpose (declares what you want your audience to know/ understand after they've listened to your speech; answers WHY?) 4. compose thesis statement (a short statement, usually one sentence, that summarizes the main point or claim of your speech; answers WHAT do I want to convey?) 5. develop main points 1. key arguments 6. gather supporting material 1. personal experience, interviews, statistics, etc. 7. separate speech into major parts 1. introduction 2. body 3. conclusion 8. outline speech 1. working outlines (complete sentences) 2. speaking outlines (key words/phrases) 9. consider presentation aid 10. practice delivery of speech Ch 12 Types of Organizational Arrangements Difference between Topical and Spacial: Topical- Times Square, Statue of Liberty…Spacial- 5 Boroughs of NYC Six commonly used patterns of arrangements: 1. Chronological- organizing in sequential order 2. Spatial- organizing based on order of physical proximity or direction relative to each other 3. Causal (cause-effect)- organizing points in order, first of causes and THEN effects or vice versa 4. Problem-Solution- organizing speech so they demonstrate problem, then provide justification for proposed solution 5. Topical- organizing main points as subtopics or categories of speech topic 6. Narrative- speech unfolds as story with characters, plot, setting, and vivid imagery Ch 14 Introductions goals… arouse audience attention, establish credibility, preview main points Gain audience attention: quotes, story, pose questions, unusual info, humor -sensory language -anecdote- story with a moral -ethos- your good character- an audience wants to feel that they can trust you Ch 13 Outlining the Speech outline- framework of a speech… relies on coordinate and subordinate points Types of outlines 1. working outline- rough outline refining/finalizing specific speech purpose, main points, and supporting material 2. speaking outline- delivery outline 3. sentence outline- each main/supporting point stated in sentence form 4. phrase outline- partial construction of sentences that presents precise wording of points 5. key-word outline- smallest possible units of key words associated with main points Ch 15 Developing a Conclusion Informative speech- challenge audience to use what they’ve learned in a way that benefits them Persuasive speech- challenge audience to act in response, challenge beliefs, etc. Make memorable conclusion… tell a story, anecdote, bookending (begin a story in intro and finish it in the conclusion) Ch 7 Selecting a Topic explore… consider purpose, time constraints, personal interests, current events, controversial issues brainstorming- problem solving techniques that involves spontaneous generation of ideas (word association, topic mapping, internet tools, search engines, library portal) general speech purpose- declarative statement that informs, persuades, or marks a special occasion Informative speech- increases understanding by defining something, describing something, explaining, educating, enlightening, inspiring… (ex: journalist) persuasive speech- a speech given to convince, change, modify, reinforce, etc… (ex: columnist) special occasion speech- used to entertain, mark a unique moment, celebrate, commemorate… Storytelling parts- 1. protagonist 2. dramatic conflict/tension 3. resolution process- 1. know the story 2. put in life-like details 3. tell it like you lived it Ch 23 Informative Speech enlighten rather than educate reportage- account of who, what, when, where, why backstory- story that leads up to an event that listeners might find interesting definitions… useful when clarifying controversial ideas operational definition- describes what it does definition by negation- defining something by explaining what it is NOT definition by example- “health professionals include doctors” definition by synonym- “A friend is a comrade” definition by etymology- word origin comparison vs. analogy: comparison- 2 different things analogy- 2 alike things Ch 6 Analyzing the Audience audience analysis- gathering info about audience’s motivations audience-centered perspective- take a poll and investigate… avoid pandering- abandoning your own perspective;catering to audience’s whims keep in mind… attitude- general evaluation of people, ideas, events… belief- how people perceive reality value- judgements about what is good/bad demographics- statistical characteristics of given population (age, ethnicity, gender, disability) use inclusive language: “we” Hofstede’s Value Dimension Model 1. Individualistic cultures vs collectivist cultures 2. uncertainty avoidance—are we strict? 3. power distance—authority 4. masculinity and femininity—dress code 5. long-term vs short-term time orientation—GMO’s Ch 4 Listeners and Speakers listeners AND speakers co-create a speech’s meaning hearing- physiological, largely involuntary process of perceiving sound listening- take notice of and act on what someone says; respond to advice or a request selective perception- paying attention selectively to certain messages while ignoring others -influenced by interests, needs, values, etc. dialogic communication- open sharing of ideas in atmosphere of respect active listening- multistep, focused, and purposeful process of gathering info external listening distractions- outside forces that reduce listening rates and interfere with active listening internal listening distractions- personal thoughts or feelings that compete for your attention scriptwriting- thinking about what you, not the speaker, will say next defensive listening- deciding that you won’t like what the speaker will say or that you know better Ch 16 Language to Style the Speech strive for simplicity choose simple terms use common words instead of jargon (specialized terminology developed within a particular study) be concise use repetition use personal pronouns (“we, us, I, you”) concrete language- describe things you experience through your senses: smoke, mist, a shout avoid abstract language- words refer to intangible qualities, ideas, and concepts. These words indicate things we know only through our intellect, like "truth," "honor," "kindness," and "grace" imagery- visually descriptive or figurative language use descriptive language (“faint blue”, “sea blue”) use Figures of Speech (expressions in which words are used in a nonliteral fashion) simile- used to compare one thing or another metaphor- a word or phrase is applied to an object or action to which it is not literally applicable avoid cliches- expressions that are predictable/stale avoid mixed metaphors- compare unlike images or expressions analogy- extended metaphor that compares unfamiliar concept with a more familiar one avoid faulty analogies- inaccurate or misleading comparisons personification- endows abstract ideas/concepts/inanimate objects with human qualities understatement- draws attention to idea by minimizing importance irony- use humor/satire to suggest meaning other than what is being expressed allusion- makes vague references to give deeper meaning to message hyperbole- uses obvious exaggerations to drive home point onomatopoeia- imitates natural sounds in word forms in order add vividness avoid malapropism- inadvertent use of word/phrase in place of one that sounds like it denotative meaning- dictionary definition connotative meaning- individual associations that different people bring to bear on a word example: “larger build” instead of “fat” include repetition, alliteration, and parallelism anaphora- repeat words at beginning of phrase epiphora-repeat phrase at the end of successive statements alliteration- repetition of same sounds (“down with dope, up with hope”) avoid hackneyed language- poorly crafted/ lacking parallelism- arrangement of words in similar grammatical/stylistic form antithesis- setting off 2 ideas in balanced opposition to each other


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