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Study Guide

by: Corinne_Master_Note-scribbler

Study Guide ArH 358U-001

GPA 3.2

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All notes on all D2L uploaded materials for the final exam.
Romanesque Art
Nicolette S. Trahoulia
Study Guide
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This 54 page Study Guide was uploaded by Corinne_Master_Note-scribbler on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ArH 358U-001 at Portland State University taught by Nicolette S. Trahoulia in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Romanesque Art in Art History at Portland State University.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
-Empire of Carolingian: Charlemagne established the first major western European empire since Roman times, roughly encompassing what is now France, Germany, Belgium, the Netherlands, and everything else down to Italy. -Upon Charlemagne death (814 CE), power passed to son Louis the Pious -Louis division of empire to sons as subordinate regional kings -clear division between France and Germany -Capetian dynasty rule over France -Ottonian dynasty rule over Germany -Ottonian Dynasty: formed of Henry I in 919 CE, name derived from son (Otto I r.936 CE) and grandson (Otto II r. end of 10th c) - Typical Ottonian church layout Key Monuments: Lindau Gospels Cover (9th c. Carolingian Empire) -9th c -Carolingian E. -Under Charlemagne, reminiscent of Constantine r.306 -Const. decriminalized Christianity -Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John -Image of crucifixion -emphasis of divine nature of Christ -not suffering -only pain shown in small blood on hands -Triumphant Christ -emulates classical models -reviving classical tradition -political reform -church reform -education reform -almost architectural in use of gold -Christ references layout of a Basilica -emeralds, rubies, gold -reference to Jerusalem -pearls reference to Apostles -iconography tells contents of book right on cover -repousse -outside figures hammered from the inside around Christ -rekindling naturalistic representations of body Lothair Crystal (9th c. Carolingian Empire) -engraved rock -biblical story carved -Susanna and the Elders 855-869 CE -probably from Germany -8 separate scenes -Babylon -alludes to couture drama -miniature carving, each scene with latin text -”and that day innocent blood is saved” -Lothair descendant of Charlemagne -Carolingian -Modern Belgium (heart of the Carolingian E during Charlemagne) -thrown into river in the 18th c -found slightly cracked but in tact -possibly offering to shrine, unknown -made after division of Carolingian E -Lothair division weakest as threatened by two ‘evil’ uncles -region in central (of 3) sect of division -Lothair attempt to leave wife (barren) for mistress -attempt to gain annulment by claimed incest of Queen with brother -failed attempt, decided by Pope -admitted to slander, but still attempted divorce -possible present to Lothair by wife in similar story, as a ‘truce’ -final scene shows Susanna presumed innocent by king, latin text specifically claiming Lothar -center of crystal, presenting Lothair the king in role of Judge over Susanna (his wife) -swore to administering justice -Lothair d.869 CE, undivorced, heirless -his region eventually fought over and warred over -notion of the rule of law -justice practiced -innocence protected Church of St. Michael at Hildesheim (11th c. Ottonian) -Bronze doors -Bishop Bernward -member of Ottonian court -pilgrimage to Rome -1015 CE -scenes of old and new testament -Left Door -creation of Eve -presentation of Eve -temptation -accusation -expulsion -Eve shown nursing, Adam working around door handles -Cain and Abel -murder of Abel by Cain -Right Door -Annunciation -nativity -adoration of the magi (door handles) -presentation in temple -Christ presented to Pilot -crucifixion -marys at the tomb (resurrection) -mary magdalene sees Jesus and he says ‘don’t touch me’ -Adam and Eve temptation mirrors the Crucifixion, -tree in center Adam on one side, Eve on the other -Christ on the cross in the center, assholes on either side -mirrored composition, of Old Testament and New -”For as in Adam all die, even so in Christ shall all be made alive.” I Corinthians 15:22 -Christ as the new Adam, Mary as new Eve -Ottonian -inheritors of the Carolingian tradition -Doors casted in old wax method, (ancient method) -opposed to reposse which was hammered from the inside out Gospel Book of Otto III (11th c. Ottonian) -1000 CE -Benedictine monastery of Reichenau on Lake Constance -where Austria, Switzerland and Germany converge -stylistically related manuscripts from the monastery: Liuthar group -Liuthar thought as a scribe rather than an artist -portraits of the four evangelists (authors of the gospels) -Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John -scenes from the life of Christ, or (miracles) -cover decorated with jewels and inset with a Byzantine ivory representing the death of the virgin -more likely a reproduction or reference from another source -possibly the ruler portrait of Charles the Bald in the 9th c -descendant of Charlemagne -ruler of ⅓ Empire division -portrait in the Codex Aureus of Saint Emmeram -portrait of Otto III, formal, crowned with golden orb and sceptre surmounted by eagle -Otto III ruled over (modern) Germany, France, and northern Italy -Otto III r.996-1002 -dressed in imperial purple -surrounded by programme of’ -soldiers: carry a sword, lance and shield -clergy; holding books and seem to be praying -pendant (image above) four personification of the ruled territories -Sclavinia (slavic east) -Germania (Germany) -Gallia (France) -Roma -abstract idea represented by human figure, usually female; derived from classical art -parallel of programme to the adoration of the magi -implication of the quasi-divine nature of Otto III’s rule -Otto III presented out of proportion in comparison to the other figures -pictorial emphasis of status Key Terms: apse A semicircular projection from a building, especially the rounded east end of a church that contains the altar capital The uppermost part of a column iconography The branch of art history which studies the identification, description, and the interpretation of the content of images imperium The right to command the force of the state, sovereignly lectionary A book or listing that contains a collection of scripture readings appointed for Christian or Judaic worship on a given day or occasion liturgical book A book published by the authority of a church, that contains the text and directions for the liturgy or customary public worship of its official religious services nave The middle or body of a church, extending from the transepts to the principal entrances psalter The Book of Psalms, often applied to a book containing the Psalms separately printed scriptorium A room in a monastery set aside for the copying, writing, or illuminating of manuscripts and records Romanesque - Introduction Church of Saint-Etienne at Vignory -innovative floor plan -ambulatory at E end behind altar -radiating chapels into ambulatory -used for display of relics -ambulatory: a place for walking, especially an aisle around the apse or a cloister in a church or monastery -PILGRIMAGE -Pilgrimage to see relics -lavish reliquaries -Sainte-Foy: seated saint cast in gold, embedded with various precious jewels and stones Saint-Etienne at Caen -westwork tripartite division -double towers -standard of Gothic Style cathedrals Church of Saint-Sernin -large pilgrimage-type church -extra long nave -transept -ambulatory with radiating chapels -gallery level -double side aisles -provides extra space to accommodate pilgrims and facilitate movement through church -nave covered with barrel vault Cluny III -largest church in Europe during the middle ages Speyer Cathedral -burial place of Holy Roman emperors until 12th c -earliest use of groin vaults -roman vaulting systems used in Romanesque architecture -barrel vault channels weight down into walls (thick) -goin vault formed by intersection of two barrel vaults, channels weight into supporting piers (light), able to have larger windows Durham Cathedral -earliest use of rib groin vault over three-story nave -W nave, pointed arches used -High Gothic Style -rib groin vaults -3 story nave -pointed arch Modena Cathedral -Genesis relief; continuous narrative -God appears twice -Adam appears three times -Eve appears twice Moissac -tympanum -Second Coming of Christ -Christ enthroned in majesty -surrounded by four apocalyptic beasts -signs of evangelists; Matthew, Mark, Luke, John -kings of the world play instruments Romanesque Relief -flat and linear -low relief -idealized forms Autun -The Last Judgement -tympanum -inclusive of two pilgrims who carry decorated bags -shell and a cross; symbols to Santiago de Compostela and Jerusalem -harsh and graphic imagery -representative of ending Vezelay -Pentecost -tympanum -hopeful and light imagery -apostles sent out to convert gentiles -representative of beginning; chance of salvation Morella in Job -Cistercian illumination -before ban of figural by Bernard of Clairvaux -Cistercian/Cistercians: a monk or nun of an order founded in 1098 as a stricter branch of the Benedictines. The monks are now divided into two observances, the strict observance, whose adherents are known popularly as TRAPPISTS, and the common observance, which has certain relaxations called the CISTERCIANS OF THE ORIGINAL OBSERVANCE Free standing wooden sculpture -throne of wisdom ‘sedes sapientiae -WEuropean version of Byzantine Theotokos or ‘bearer of God’ -virgin mary Bayeux Tapestry -depicts contemporary historical events after happening -portable object -set up in different locations -present Norman version of events to wide audience HISTORY Romanesque: Sculpture and Architecture -romanesque roof -ribbed construction (gothic) -transverse and some cross diagonally -webbing not supportive element -weight carried in arches -tympanum -above lintel of doorway -sculptural columns on sides of doorway -stone sculpture -high relief -reminiscent of roman sarcophagi -Visalay -tympanum 1120-1142: Pentecost -high relief -figure of Jesus in mandrala -sacred light -figures flattened in high relief -angular poses -clothing with sharp angular lines -rays of holy spirit from Jesus’ hands to heads of apostles -apostles each carry book Romanesque Architecture -maximizing floor space -maximize light -commodation of large congregations -commodation of pilgrims -apse areas and galleries -increase windows -masonry vaults -not flammable -allowed for more angliatories and aisles -heavy -weight division from walls and doors -buttresses -aids the vaults in division of weights -north and south doors of transcept -control of movement -nave divided by draperies -chapels and smaller areas divided by draperies -two occupied levels -arcade: ground level -gallery: uninhabitable, usable space -clerestory: upper level, for support and windows only 11th and 12th c European Cathedral Architecture -San Miniato al Monte, Florence c.1080 -built in honor of St. Nectaire by monks of La Chaise-Dieu -on site of shrine erected by Nectaire Auvergne on Mount Cornadore -103 capitals -surrounded by walls, a cemetery, a castle, and a chapel -destroyed shortly after mid 19th c -church restoration -surrounded (now) by forests -typical of Auvergne -octagonal crossing tower -round apse, radiating chapels -Royal Basilica of San Isidoro, Leon 1063-1100 -Royal Pantheon -funeral chapel of Kings of Leon -surviving Romanesque art in Leon -columns crowned with Visigothic capitals -re used Roman capitals -floral, historic designs -12th c murals; New Testament subjects -contemporary rural life -Chapter house Monastery, Osek c.1100 -Cistercian monastery -spiritual centre of region of Northern Bohemia -between Decin and Karlovy Vary -Sainte-Foy Abbey Church, Conques 12th c -Romanesque church -central France -pilgrimage en route to Compostela -relics of Sainte-Foy -original chapel destroyed in 11th c for renovation -arrival of relics of St.Foy -cause of pilgrimage shift from Agen to Conques -building of five radiating chapels -lower roof of ambulatory -choir without gallery -nave without galleries -inspired by Toulouse and Santiago Compostela -basilica plan modified into cruciform plan -galleries added over aisle and raised roof over transept and choir -allowing circulation of people -Durham Cathedral, Durham 12th -built to house bodies of St. Cuthbert (634-87 CE) and Venerable Bede (672-735 CE) -importance of early Benedictine monastic community -largest/finest Norman architecture in England -vaulting foreshadowed Gothic architecture -within precinct of Durham Castle -William the Conqueror -thick circular piers -earliest rib vaults -Ely Cathedral, Ely 12th c -principal church of the Diocese of Ely -Cambridgeshire, England -seat of the Bishop of Ely and suffragan bishop, Bishop of Huntingdon -cruciform plan with central crossing tower -66m high west tower -last profusely ornamented stage of Romanesque -porch and uppers Gothic Kessler, Ch.2 Romanesque: early 19th c term, describes the architecture of the 11th and 12th c’s, means ‘roman-like’ derived from observation of of similar architectural devices used in ancient Rome and during the 11th and 12th c’s. -in crease in trade, growth of towns and cities -feudalism -context of pilgrimage and cult of relics -3 routes -church of Santiago de Compostela (apostle James) Relics: consist of bodily remains, clothing, any object associated with a holy person; objects as important point of contact between believer and holy personage. Sought divine help or blessing. -pilgrimage journeys long and arduous, travel by foot Pilgrimage Churches: example by Saint Sernin at Toulouse, which housed relics of S.Saturninus, or S.Sernin first bishop of Toulouse and an early C Martyr, one of the first pilgrimage stops towards Santiago de Compostela -church of S.James in Spain -St. Peter’s in Rome -Holy Land in Palestine (Jerusalem, Bethlehem) -created revenue for churches and towns en route -fairs held on saint’s feast day(s) -portion of festivity profits to benefit church Key Monuments: Church of Santiago de Compostela Church of S.Sernin at Toulouse Church at Vezelay Church of Mont S-Michel Abbey of S.Foy Reliquary of S.Foy Pilgrimage Routes and the Cult of Relics -prior to 1000 CE, was believed that the Second Coming was imminent -failed apocalypse, then believed to be arriving in 1033 CE, a thousand years from the death of Jesus (also failed) -from 950 CE onto 1000 CE there was a significant increase in building activity (religious structures) -product of millennial panic -monumental structures con’t even as fear faded -popularity of religious pilgrimage -journey to a sacred place -acts of piety undertaken in gratitude after failure of ‘doomsday’ -assurance of salvation Pilgrimage to Santiago de Compostela -full pilgrimage during the 12th C to Jerusalem was ‘too far’ (by foot), main destination then carried to Santiago de Compostela in Spain -’Way of S.James’, housed bones believed as those of S.James unearthed -site of Santiago de Compostela -pious of the Middle Ages desire to pay homage to holy relics -pilgrimage churches development en route to Spain -pilgrims commonly walked barefoot, wore scalloped shell (symbol of S.James) -four main routes (from France) towards Spain, each containing a church important along the way -Le Puy -Arles -Paris -Vezelay Cult of the Relic -pilgrimage churches as destinations of spiritual tourism -guidebooks, badges, and souvenirs sold -pilgrims spent money in towns that housed sacred relics -cult at peak during Romanesque period (11th-12th C) -religious objects connected to a saint or some other venerated person -body part, cloth, associated object -relics housed in protective container (reliquary) -generally decorated in utter opulence and encrusted with precious metals and gemstones -Reliquary of S.Foy -Conques abbey -house piece of martyr’s skull -church may be home to one major relic, multiple lesser known relics -black market boom due to churches’ desire for more (important/numerous) relics Accommodation of Crowds -churches constructed with special features in mind to make them accessible and allow movement of pilgrims whilst maintaining the ability to house a standard congregation for daily church purposes -thick walls small windows -Romanesque churches generally dark -use of stone barrel-vault construction -system provided excellent acoustics and reduced fire danger -walls had to be extra thick to support vault, in turn size of windows decreased, as did natural light Vezelay, Church and Hill -central france -St. Magdalene -relics of Mary Magdalene -images of the Pentecost -inspiration of Knights -point of departure for pilgrims -shells outside churches -public shelter for pilgrims -converted to wine cellars -usual start point of pilgrimage Pentecost and Mission to the Apostles Tympanum Vezelay -Narthex before basilica -above doors -first large sculpture of the late medieval period -place where 1st and 2nd (1095 CE) Crusades where Christians attempted to reclaim Jerusalem from the Muslims -representations of light emulating from Christ’s hands -deliberate in representations of ‘outside’ world (outside Christianity) -small people, ladders to mount horses -south asians with large ears -Christ in and out of mandorla -thin, elongated, elegant -representation of divinity -flat, linear -divine energy emulating from figures -rebirth of monumental sculpture -similar to paintings from Cluny -artists look to other media for reference -conversion of the jews -blind figures -figures with heads of dogs -many references to New Testament -’inspiration’ to monks Mont St.Michel Normandy, France -6th C -on a mudflat -late 19th C road built -commercialized, even in it’s time -walls built to defend against canons -symbol of french national identity -708 CE St.Michel appeared to a monk to build church -marks historic border between Brittany and Normandy -mostly 11th C Romanesque -filled with Gothic style, large windows -Abbey’s cloister -inspiring garden Bust of a Saint St. Ursula -11k virgin companions slayed by the Huns -1500-1530 CE -made of wood -portraiture -smile -movement -reliquary; conceals skull -pendant used to hold part of collar bone Reliquary of St. Foy -head of the reliquary contains a piece of skull which has been authenticated -5th C Roman head, possibly an emperor -mounted on a wooden core covered with gold plating -late 9th C -2ft and 9in tall -miracles reportedly increased, prompted additions of; -gold crown -earrings -gold throne -filigree work and cameo jewels -donations from pilgrims -14th C pair of crystal balls and their mounts were added to the throne -16th C silver arms and hands were added -18th C bronze shoes and bronze plates on knees added French Romanesque 1. Church of Saint-Etienne at Caen a. origin of FR b. William the Conqueror 1067 i. buried 1087 c. facade divided into three bays correspond to nave and side aisles of interior i. tripartite division: important feature of Romanesque, and later Gothic style d. double towers feature deriving from Carolingian architecture i. characteristic feature of Gothic style 2. monastery of Cluny a. important monument for FR b. abbey put under Pope’s direct control in 910 i. authorized the rule of Cluny over other monasteries 1. Cluny to build an ‘empire’ and powerful abbot c. did not possess relics i. gained revenue from the intercession for the dead 1. could pay to have monks pray for you soul d. Kings endowed monastery to be remembered in endless prayers e. 12th c. Cluny at head of 314 monasteries i. King Alfonso VI of Spain was a major patron, and German emperors 3. Bernard of Clairvaux Apologia a. protesting large size of Cluniac churches and their sumptuous decoration i. believed art was a distraction from prayer b. first Cistercian community of monks founded 1098 i. rejected worldly riches of Cluniac monks ii. promoted life of poverty for monks who would live in remote communities iii. architecture favored by Cistercian order 1. abbey of Fontenay 4. Key Monuments a. Church of Saint Etienne at Caen i. Caen; Norman dukes in 10th and 11th c’s 1. capital of lower Normandy under William I the Conqueror a. foundation of two monastic communities; the Abbaye-aux Hommes (S.Stephen) and the Abbaye-aux Dames b. associated with the Norman Romanesque architecture c. severe facade of Saint Etienne - buttresses, string courses, tall towers; Gothic addition ii. Gothic choir 1. R apse was enlarged to add an ambulatory and radiating chapels iii. Crossing tower and Spires 1. 13th c addition, slight variations in details of decorum a. heavier appearance and zig zag moldings iv. Nave 1. aisles originally groin vaulted, original nave had timber ceiling and reconstructed with stone sexpartite vaulting in 12th c 2. continuous succession of compound piers in nave 3. semi-column runs up whole height, gives rational appearance to nave and demarcates bays 4. eight semi circular arches of arcades, equally large arched gallery openings a. no interior subdivision b. enhances solemn simplicity of nave 5. capitals generally simple foliate forms 6. galleries did not provide seating for faithful, designated as buttressing support for walls 7. large compound pier of nave and nave elevation showing small windows in the galleries 8. clerestory and sexpartite vaulting 12th c b. Monastery of Cluny c. Abbey Church of Saint-Savin i. thousand year frescoes ii. 11th c iii. retained ceiling paintings 1. 11th - 12th c 2. scenes from the old testament 3. picture books for the illiterate 4. Genesis, Babel, Noah’s Arc 5. base of lime and sand base a. paints base of lime and sand 6. physical labor d. Carcassonne i. walled fortress city ii. defenses stronger than offenses 1. Charlemagne tried and failed to conquer iii. motes designed to expose intruders iv. center of Cathars 11th-13th C 1. good, spiritual, and bad, material e. Funerary Church of Saint-Lazare, Autun i. Last Judgement tympanum 1. most terrifying image 2. includes heaven and hell 3. one of first monumental sculpture of Medieval period a. stabilization of political and financial turmoil 4. bones of St. Lazarus a. relics that could heal the sick or shorten one's time in purgatory b. economic engines, revenue for churches and towns c. brother of Mary Magdalene brought back to life by Christ 5. images as text for the illiterate 6. hieratic organization a. Christ in mandorla i. broken by head and hands ii. full body halo b. surrounded by four angels (the apostles) i. elongated c. Christ’s left, damned, on right, the blessed i. right; Virgin Mary, with angel blowing horn that Christ has awakened ii. souls represented as nude figures iii. on left; figures represented being weighed, pulled up by hooks, surrounded by demons, three headed serpent, devils, images of horror 1. may this terror terrify those…. 2. don’t look at Christ, Christ is looking past us, it's too late d. at bottom, those dead waiting to be judged, sarcophagi shown at feet, references to pilgrims, angels pulling few souls, other souls attempting to latch on i. figure running away from angel with sword, clutching head, in fear ii. contorted figures in recognition of their entry into hell iii. sculptor carved eyes and mouth deeply to relay ‘primal scream’ e. signed by sculptor i. bizarre signature ii. perhaps the name of the duke responsible for bringing the bones of Lazarus to the church f. Abbey of Saint-Pierre, Moissac g. Fontenay Abbey i. 12th c by St. Bernard 1. did not like secular monasteries funded by nobles 2. reformed to basics a. monks lived a simple life b. no ornamentation or decoration’ c. no cross d. did not change clothes e. slept on straw 3. stark design a. monks made own tools 4. placement of statue of Madonna after death of S.Bernard ii. later converted into a paper mill 1. purchased by family 2. one of the largest privately owned historical sight 5. Romanesque Archivolt a. most important of Romanesque decorative sculpture b. white marble, 3ft and 4in in height/ 6ft 2in in width c. original position probably spanned a window or small doorway d. 12th c e. French in origin, possibly from Narbonne in SE France f. seven blocks, decorated with animal motives, real or fantastic i. inner moulding of palmetto design ii. according to the bestiaries of the Middle Ages; inhabited the mysterious countries of the East iii. derived animal depictions from the Orient iv. bestiaries founded mainly on the so called Physiologos 1. composed at Alexandria 2nd CE 2. contained legends of half-real, half-fantastic fauna that the allegorical method attached a moral and dogmatic interpretation v. Lower left block onward 1. beast represented has a man’s head, the body of a lion, and a serpent’s tail a. not one of the familiar bestiary animals 2. pelican pecking his breast in accordance with the belief that the parent birds kill their young, but repent of their misdeed after three days a. when father comes to them, tears open his breast and revives them with his blood b. understood to symbolize the sacrifice and resurrection of the Saviour, popular in Christian art 3. third block, basilisk represented a. head, wings, and feet of a cock and a serpent’s tail b. when it feels called upon, after 7th year, to perpetuate it's kind, it digs a hole in the ground and deposits an egg, which is hatched out by a toad c. young basilisk lives in the crack of a cistern d. if a man sees it first, it dies; if it sees the man first, the man dies e. associated with the satanic serpent in the Garden of Eden; a symbol of the devil f. to overcome the Devil we must take shelter behind the crystal purity of the Virgin 4. keystone of the block a. group consisting of a harpy and a griffin placed back to back i. the harpy another symbol of the Devil is inheritance from classical antiquity ii. the griffin; a beast with wings and claws, lives in the deserts of India 1. symbolizing the fate of sinful man in the next world 5. 5th block (right) a. aspic, guards the balsam tree i. man may circumvent him, to get the balsam by singing the beast to sleep ii. so cunning is the beast that he sticks his tail in one ear and presses the other tight to the ground iii. likened to those who stop their ears against the word of God iv. animals head, bird’s wing, and serpent’s tail 6. 6th block (right) a. the centaur i. of classical animals, most impressed the mediaeval imagination ii. generally represented in the act of shooting an arrow iii. centaur symbolizes luxury and pride iv. centaur wages war against a race of horned men and is a type of the battling Christian 7. 7th block (right) a. crowned lion i. widely used animal in mediaeval ornament ii. king of beasts, first place in the bestiaries, generally understood to be a symbol of Christ iii. lion has three natures 1. lives in a mountainous country, and when hunted, flees, sweeping away his tracks with his tail so that he cannot be followed to his den’ even so our Lord, the Lion of the Tribe of Juda, concealed His divinity until He was born on earth 2. sleeps open-eyed; symbolic of the double nature of Christ, who was both man and God 3. lion’s young are still-born, but after three days the lion breathes upon them and they come to life; thus, on the third day after death Christ arose, by His Father’s command g. bestiaries served to illustrate Christian doctrine i. popularity of animal motives in decoration ii. many are copies or adaptations of animal motives familiar in Eastern art, used purely for decorative value iii. not inconsistent with the tentative, encyclopaedic program of Romanesque art that illustrations of the marvels related by credulous travelers should find place in the didactic sculpture h. removed 15 or 20 years ago from the chapel of a small chateau called Mont Plaisir, i. then demolished in the outskirts of Narbonne ii. family legend; archivolt had been obtained at the time of the French Revolution from the Cathedral of Narbonne where it served as a small portal 1. inexact; Cathedral in current form is Gothic structure around 1272 CE 2. not likely from this location i. small church in Narbonne dedicated to Saint Cosmus, used as a powder magazine during the Revolution and afterwards sold to the Delma family who rebuilt it as a theatre in 1808 i. possibly the Church of Saint Cosmus from records erected at Narbonne in the 12th c ii. archivolt may have been removed from this church - confused in family legend with the cathedral at it's remodel in the early years of the 19th c. 6. 11th C murals in France a. church walls and ceiling decorated extensively in France during 11th and 12th c’s i. mostly scenes from the Bible ii. purpose to inform the mostly illiterate church congregation and serve as a form of devotion b. characterized by more abstract, dynamic and animated imagery c. best site for pictorial works; church of Saint=Savin sur-Gartempe d. conveniently divided into four groups, differ essentially in manner i. fresco paintings of the west 1. subdued color on a light background ii. bright paintings on blue background found in Burgundy and in the SE iii. Auvergne 1. dark background iv. Catalan paintings of the Eastern Pyrenees e. Saint Savin i. oldest hall church of the Poitou region ii. choir and transept 1060-85 CE iii. nave 1095-115 CE iv. high colonnades of the central nave are spanned by barrel vault v. extensive remnants of the original painting on the piers and the vault vi. fresco cycle 1. vault of the monastery church 2. narrates stories from OT in unorganized sequence 3. representing story of Moses, creation of the world until his death a. selected and exegetically representative scenes which were to be distributed all over the vaulted ceiling b. story of Bible turns into a concise account of history of civilization of the medieval world 4. establishment of narrative composition a. priority given to arrangement of narrative events rather than to the continuous narrative flow b. scenes depicts the creation of Adam and Eve, only scene which contains events that unfold in chronological succession i. not represented in a unified pictorial space c. God the Father is seen bending over the reclining Adam and removing one of his ribs i. then Adam is depicted standing upright next to his creator, winking at Eve ii. Eve with back turned to the tree of knowledge, leaves the Garden of Eden with her husband after the Fall of Man 5. popular subjects made to stand out a. Tower of Babel b. Noah’s Arc vii. lower church of the abbey church dedicated to Saints Savin and Cyprien 1. on the walls of the crypt a. the Last Judgement b. scenes from the martyrdom of the saints f. chapel of the priory of Saint Gilles at Montoire i. entirely covered with paintings of which the only ones that remain are those of the original apse 1. painted in fresco with addition in distemper and encaustic 2. those of transept apses and two apsidioles ii. periodically endangered by the sudden rising of the River Loire 1. damp has completely unstuck the ground of the paintings at the base of the walls a. successive floodings have buried these more than a yard deep iii. Biblical art presents an exceptional and very striking spectacle 1. Christ figures in the three apses and on the vault of the triumphal arch a. central apse, seen teaching b. south apse, handing keys to S. Peter c. west apse, sending Holy Spirit to apostles g. Carolingian influence in paintings 7. Bernard of Clairvaux: Apology a. Cistercians 1098 CE i. Benedictine monks in search of more rigorous life ii. attracted few converts until 1112 CE 1. young nobleman Bernard persuaded approx. 30 companions, including uncle and all but one brother to enter with him 2. community increased steadily, within one year sending groups off to found new houses 3. by 1130 CE there were 30 Cistercian houses a. by 1168 CE there were 288 b. 1115, Bernard became abbot of the new Cistercian monastery at Clairvaux i. held until death in 1153 ii. traveled widely, wrote prolifically and involved to the hilt in papal politics, opposition to heresy, and the planning of a crusade iii. chief spokesman for Cistercian values iv. monastic life austere and disciplined v. monasteries built away from population centers, shielding the brothers from distraction and excessive contributions c. Apology part of running feud with the Benedictine abbey of Cluny and many dependent houses i. Cluniac monasticism tended to be more integrated with society than Cistercian ii. houses extended hospitality to travelers and were important pilgrimage centers iii. abbey churches often large and sumptuously decorated iv. services complex and elaborate d. 11125 William, abbot of St. Thierry asked Bernard to write something which would defend the Cistercians against the change of slandering the Cluniacs and criticize Cluniac laxity i. result: Apology 1. begins by condemning self righteous criticism and proceeds to ridicule Cluniac excesses in food, clothing and buildings a. section on buildings; i. “I say nothing of” the enormous height, extravagant length and unnecessary width of the churches, of their costly polishings and curious paintings which catch the worshipper’s eye and dry up his devotion, things which seem to me in some sense a revival of ancient Jewish rites. 1. Persius “Tell me, poor men, if you really are poor what is gold doing in the sanctuary?” ii. “Or, scattered as we are among the gentiles, are we learning their tricks and serving their idols?” iii. “Isn’t greed, a form of idolatry, responsible for all this? Aren’t we seeking contributions rather than spiritual profit? … Faced with expensive by marvelous vanities, people are inspired to contribute rather than to pray” 1. “Just show them a beautiful picture of some saint. The brighter the colors, the saintier he’ll appear to them...There is more admiration for beauty than veneration for sanctity” iv. “The curious find something to amuse them and the needy find nothing to sustain them” 1. “What sort of reverence is shown to the saints when we place their pictures on the floor and then walk on them? Often someone spits in an angel’s mouth.” v. “so many and so marvelous are the various shapes surrounding us that it is more pleasant to read the marble than the books, and to spend the whole day marveling over these things rather than meditating on the law of God.” 1. English Romanesque a. Norman conquest 1066 i. brought French Romanesque style in architecture ii. Durham Cathedral 1. ribbed groin vaults 2. alternating columns w/ compound piers 3. three-story nave 4. slightly pointed arches 5. first time combination of features 6. important for later Gothic style iii. Bayeux Tapestry 2. Key Works and Monuments a. Bayeux Tapestry i. William’s conquest of England 1. death of Confessor, succession of K.Harold ii. 70 meters iii. visual storytelling iv. friezes of fables and obscure v. needlework with wool on to linen vi. Westminster abbey 1. Harold crowned 2. spies explain to William 3. ships built for invasion 4. suits of chain mail, spears, arrows 5. horses onto ships 6. set sail 7. Pevancy shore 8. army fed a. chicken kebabs b. william feast w/ men 9. castle with wood 10. houses on fire, sacking of towns 11. commence of battle a. extremely violent b. William claimed killed, unmasks himself to men c. battle continues 12. Harold with arrow in eye and then slaughtered vii. a few years after event viii. passion into work b. Durham Cathedral i. close to Scotland ii. overlooks river iii. 12th c iv. tower 66m high v. built to show power of Eng and intimidate Scotland vi. representation of worship of God and glory of king vii. ‘Prince Bishops’ kings of the cathedral 1. residence reflected authority (castle) 2. Norman King, William the conqueror 3. protected invasion of England from Scotland 4. tapestries covering walls 5. 11th-19th c rule viii. architectural landmark ix. dungeons x. Norman/Romanesque building xi. William; modern day Roman king or emperor 1. scale of St. Peter’s xii. later, Henry (Protestant king) kept cathedral more as a fortress against Scotland xiii. relic of Bead - first great English historical 1. Galilee chapel 2. entrance of cathedral 3. buried behind altar xiv. high altar 1. across- Cuthbert 2. relic, reason for building of Cathedral 3. bones lie here xv. ripped stone vaults on nave 1. architectural revelation 2. foreshadowing of Gothic style 3. galleries open to public xvi. peep holes from bell tower directly above crossing of transept with nave xvii. 1650 CE Oliver Cromwell defeated Scots 1. held captive in cathedral xviii. storytelling building c. Cathedral of St. Albans i. Eleanor Cross ii. St. Albans Abbey 1. became cathedral in 1877 2. Benedictine abbey 3. dissolved; building outside of gateway destroyed 4. new chapter house on site of old house iii. Norman conquest 1. 1089 saxon destroyed iv. south side collapsed v. west in 1800 vi. added buttresses year? vii. roman tiles from local ruin site, traces of old cloister 1. brick 2. stone and found materials viii. Gateway 1. used as a prison 2. part of St. Albans school ix. school buildings x. bought by locals, claimed as church of St. Albans xi. 1517 Martin Luther posted sign on church xii. mostly Romanesque 1. partially collapsed and rebuilt later xiii. medieval frescoes xiv. ‘merry men’ animatronics xv. colored sculptures behind screen of nave xvi. transept, new circular window 1880s 1. oldest parts of building still exist, Saxon architecture xvii. rebuilt sculptures after puritan iconoclastic riots xviii. 1703 and 99, wrecked natural havoc on building 1. barely escaped demolition 2. neglected for decades 3. shrine of St. Amphibolous patched together 4. building partially collapsed 5. rotted ceilings xix. St Alban’s shrine 1. first martyr of England 2. gave shelter to christians 3. was pagan 4. converted, condemned to death 5. claimed to be St. Amphibolous the priest (actually his guest) d. Norwich Cathedral i. structure of cathedral primarily in Norman style 1. constructed at the bequest of Bishop Herbert de Losinga 2. constructed in 1096-1145 ii. built from flint and mortar and faced with cream colored Caen limestone 1. retains the greater part of it's original stone structure iii. Anglo-Saxon settlement and two churches demolished to make room for buildings and a canal cut to allow access for the boats bringing materials iv. ground plan remains almost entirely 1. two addition of the easternmost chapel 2. unusually long nave of fourteen bays 3. transepts without aisles and the east end terminates in an apse with an ambulatory 4. ambulatory access to two chapels of unusual shape, plan of each being based on two intersecting circles a. allows the more normal radial chapel v. crossing tower last piece of Norman cathedral to be completed in 1140 1. coldly decorated with circles, lozenges, and interlaced arcading vi. present spire added in late 15th century e. Rochester Cathedral i. second oldest cathedral in England 1. founded in 604 CE by Bishop Justus 2. present building 1080 by French monk Gundulf ii. Norman architecture of nave, parts of crypt iii. Romanesque facade iv. 14th c Chapter Library door 1. hidden, except by special request 2. oldest doors in England v. timeline 1. 604 CE Saxon Cathedral built - King Ethelbert donates land 2. 1083 Bishop Gundulf began building the nave 3. 1201 Pilgrims visit shrine of murdered William of Perth 4. 1215 Cathedral was plundered and later desecrated 5. 1340 Hamo de Hythe redecorates Quire 6. 1872 Major restoration by George Gilbert Scott vi. major pilgrimage site in 13th c 1. death of William of Perth a. Scottish baker who was murdered nearby b. body brought to the Cathedral and at his shrine, which no trace remains, miracles were reported 2. modern pilgrims still climb the Pilgrim Steps a. now worn by the many thousands of medieval pilgrims visiting the shrine b. lighting candles at the William of Perth prayer-station in front of the oratory vii. first real fresco created in an English cathedral for 800 yrs dedicated on St. John the Baptist Day 2004 1. fresco theme of baptism 2. creation is first step towards creating a baptistery in the north nave of the transept 3. painted by Russian iconographer Sergei Fyodorov f. Winchester Bible i. left unfinished ii. exceptionally large bi-folios (double spread pages) 1. required more than 250 calf hides 2. major economic investment 3. time consuming in procurement and preparation iii. Master Hugo 1. Abbey of Bury St. Edmunds 1135 2. obtained materials from Ireland iv. a single scribe wrote the entire Winchester Bible 1. contains 468 folios (936 pages) 2. probably a senior member of the scriptorium of Winchester’s Priory of St. Swithun 3. probably completed in years v. at least six different artists worked on the illuminations 1. over a 25 year period, 1150-75 2. decoration was left unfinished 3. studied in 1940s by Walter Oakeshott a. named artists; Genesis Master, Master of the Apocrypha Drawings, Master of the Leaping Figures, Master of the Morgan Leaf, Master of the Gothic Majesty, and the Amalekite Master 4. sometimes the drypoints were left unfinished g. St. Albans Psalter i. 12th c (1130) ii. contains more than two hundred historiated initials with pictures that give visual form to the accompanying prayers 1. letterforms with human figures, animals, and demonic creatures 2. literal illustration of particular lines from the psalms iii. prefaced by an extended cycle of full page pictures 1. old testament scenes 2. events from life of Christ 3. preface to the written prayers iv. images provided reader with imaginative entry into biblical history 1. evocative 2. prompted reader to recall memorized texts a. Gospels b. recite prayers v. decorated with gold illuminations vi. Geoffrey Gorron 1. Norman abbot of St. Albans from 1119-46 2. commissioned manuscript as a gift for advisor nun Christina of Markyate Topic 5: After reading Ch.4-5 in Kessler, choose one of the illustrated manuscripts we have looked at so far in the course and discuss how it's particular use of images relates to the book’s text, or choose one the decorated churches that we have looked at so far and discuss how it's particular use of images relates to the function of the church’s architecture. You can choose to focus on a particular page in a manuscript, or on a single mural or sculptural work in a church. Spanish Romanesque Key Works and Monuments 1. Segovia a. Segovia’s Historical Buildings b. Churches and Architecture c. Romanesque 2. Santo Domingo de Silos a. Christ portrayed as a pilgrim i. traveling to site of his own disciple 3. Church of Sant Miquel a. capital i. narrative capital ii. 13th c iii. deeply carved for dark shadows iv. story of Adam and Eve; original sin 1. covering selves 2. disturbed 3. eyed drilled v. plucked leaves of a cantas 1. ancient greek and roman vi. emotional and expressive vii. complicated image of angel 1. arms around Abraham and Isaac 2. figures blocky 3. prefiguration of sacrifice of Christ 4. protectiveness of angel 5. head forms corner of capital 6. angel’s face looking out to viewer a. all looking out to us viii. reminded of choices we face of humans ix. powerful and up front x. expressive, direct 4. Wise and Foolish Virgins, Museum of Catalonian Art a. isolation of villages of origin b. stylistic variety c. semi circular apse i. wise virgins on left ii. foolish on right iii. marriage of state and church iv. end of time, apocalypse 1. preparedness v. christ seated at table of the wise virgins vi. foolish virgins not uniform 1. suggestion of chaos vii. wise virgins uniform gaze on Christ viii. Byzantine 1. geometric shapes and figures 2. jewels represented 3. influence of classical 4. illusionistic hangings 5. modeling of three dimensional form ix. hands enlarged x. remnants of mandorla 5. Romanesque Mural paintings a. Romanesque paintings is characterized by a new formality of style i. largely devoid of naturalism and humanism ii. severity iii. linear designs predominate iv. agitated expressiveness v. reflected the rise in political and economic stability 1. higher tax revenues for church; more art, lavish 2. attracted large congregations vi. inspirational vii. growing monastic piety b. Majestas Domini with Evangelists and Saints i. c. 1123 ii. fresco iii. mural removed from wall of church of San Clemente at Tahull iv. two artists execution of frescoes 1. Master of San Clemente a. decorated main apse, side pases b. walls and pillars in the nave c. work found in Santa Maria de Tahull v. monumental figure of Christ surrounded by four symbols of the Evangelists 1. surrounded by high-charged rainbow aureole 2. seated on second rainbow 3. right hand raised in gesture of dominion and blessing c. The Fight between David and Goliath i. c. 1123 ii. mural iii. inspired Pablo Picasso in 20th c 1. removal to Museu Nacional d’Art de Catalunya in Barcelona 2. struck by idiosyncratic style of San Clemente Master 3. kept poster of image in house at Mougins in S.France iv. removed from wall of Santa Maria at Tahull v. most famous surviving examples of Catalonian Romanesque painting vi. artist Master of Tahull vii. vivid and expressive representation viii. originally included a scene in which David and Goliath were depicted side by side 1. details in fresco damaged beyond restoration 2. only remaining scene of the beheading of Goliath 3. decorative manner of representation a. characteristic of Mozarabic miniatures b. crudeness in miniatures c. exaggeration of hands 4. conscientious effort to depict story with accuracy 5. individual features of figures 6. realistic details; carrion bird 7. lively drapery and jewish cap ix. representational of the struggle between Christ and Satan d. The Madonna Enthroned i. c. 1123 ii. fresco iii. mural removed from the wall of the apse of Santa Maria at Tahull iv. represents a Byzantine type of Mary: “Nikopoia” bringer of victory 1. form of a stringently symmetrical composition 2. child seated in the center, enthroned by mother’s lap v. artist Chief Master of San Clemente e. Creation of Adam and the Original Sin i. 12th c ii. mural painting transferred to canvas iii. belonged to the murals decorating the walls and vault of the hermitage of Santa Cruz de Maderuelo (Segovia) iv. linked to the Catalan paintings of Taull f. Hunt of the Hare i. 12th c ii. mural painting transferred to canvas iii. once decorated the 11th c Mozarab church of St. Baudelio near Casillas de Berlanga (Soria) iv. theme of profane character German Romanesque Question for Discussion: Describe at least two ways in which medieval art could be ‘performative.’ Refer to specific works of art or architecture. 1. Early 12th c Romanesque Mural Paintings P.II a. Romanesque Style i. absorbed elements of Early Christian art ii. Merovingian art iii. art of Carolingian Renaissance iv. influenced by ancient Greek and Roman art v. art of the era of great migrations vi. Byzantine art vii. art of Muslim Near East viii. first artistic system of Middle Ages 1. embraced by most European countries ix. variety of forms; feudal fragmentation b. Bases for Romanesque Style i. well-developed feudal relationships ii. international character of the Catholic Church 1. major ideological force in society 2. owing to absence of strong secular centralized authority 3. had fundamental economic and political influence iii. most states 1. chief patrons of the arts were monastic orders; art done by monks a. builders b. laborers c. painters d. manuscript copiers e. illustrators iv. late 11thc appearance of itinerant artels of lay stonemasons and sculptors 1. itinerant: traveling from place to place 2. artels: a cooperative association of craftsmen living and working together c. German Romanesque i. characterized by the celebration of grandeur of imperial power 1. architecture of imperial palaces ii. Ottoman-Romanesque period (10th-11th c) 1. flourish of manuscript illumination a. Abbeys of Reichenau and Trier 2. achievements in metal casting a. bronze doors of cathedral in Hildesheim (1015) iii. mature Romanesque 1. stone sculpture and stuccowork priority d. Romanesque Buildings i. church, monastery, castle &et built in rural setting 1. upon


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