BI102 - Final Exam Study Guide
BI102 - Final Exam Study Guide BI 102
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Markhame on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to BI 102 at Oregon State University taught by Dr. Lesley Blair and Mark Lavery in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 156 views. For similar materials see General Biology - Genetics in Biology at Oregon State University.
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Date Created: 03/11/16
BIOLOGY 102 STUDY GUIDE: F INAL E XAM Weeks covered: Cumulative D EFINITIONS CUMULATIVE) WEEKS 1 – 6: Evolution → A change in allele frequency over time Allele → Different versions of genes Genes → Parts of chromosomes that code for protein Genome → All the hereditary information found in an organism Genetic Drift → Random events impacting evolution Genetic Variation→ Change in alleles of organisms w/ a population by mutations and Reproduction Blending Theory → Belief that eggs and sperm came together and blended traits of both parents Theory → Well-substantiated explanation of the natural world supported through observation and experimentation Law → description of a repeatedly observed natural phenomenon Hypothesis → A possible explanation of a phenomenon based on observation. Mutations → Change in DNA (source of new alleles) Monohybrid → One trait cross Phenotype → The visible traits observed Genotype → Combination of alleles Vestigal Structur→ Structure changed over time, but no longer serves the same purpose Convergent Struct→re Parts of an organism that share similarities but have different ancestry Artificial Select→on Modifying & breeding individuals w/ desired traits Natural Selection→ An individual is more fit than other members of its species and survive to reproduce Mendelian Trait → determined by a single locus on a chromosome w/ two alleles that follow a simple pattern of segregation and independent assortment Principle of Independent Asso→tmenDifferent Traits can be inherited independently of each Other Principle of Segregatio→ Two alleles can be separate and recombine Polypeptide → Chain of amino acids Transcription → Make a copy of part of the DNA that can leave the nucleus Translation → RNA indicates the order of amino acids Paradigm → Widely-accepted theory Meiosis → Process that produces eggs and sperm (sexual reproduction) Mitosis → Fertilized egg becomes an embryo (mass amount of cells) Master Control Ge→e One gene that controls many other genes Nature → Genetics, phenotype, genotype, etc. Nurture → Environment Chromosomal Mutations → Structural changes, irregular numbers; Big mutations Point Mutations → Simple, small mutations; base changes, phenotype changes Gel Electrophores→s Separate DNA fragme(chromosomby size; Tells about genetic Makeup Speciation → Species formation Species → Individuals that can successfully interbreed W EEKS7-10 Precambrian Supereon → 4.5/4 bya – 544 mya Phanerozoic → 544 mya – 245 mya (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, Cenozoic) Cyanobacteria → group of bacteria that obtain energy through photosynthesis Vertebrate → Spinal Column animals Pangea → all the land above water was stuck together into one land mass Family → a bunch of different species that share a lot of similarities Phylogenetic → Relationships + branches have meaning (widely-accepted) Cladogram → Ancestral relationships; Hypothesis; arbitrary lengths of branches Morphological Dat→ Structures Molecular Data → DNA + Proteins Coevolution → Species impact each other over time Endosymbiosis → One or more species living inside another Hominan → Human-like species Vectors → Species that can carry diseases and give them to us Behavior → What an animal does when interacting with its environment Innate Behavior → Genetically Programmed behavior Reflex → Immediate, automatic response to specific stimulus Fixed Action Patt→rn A series of reflexes Drive → Internal stimulus promotes behavior Learned Behavior → Behavior Impacted by experiences Imprinting → Learning during sensitive period of time (when brain is still forming) Associative learn→ng relating one stimulus to another Habituation → Learning to ignore specific stimuli Latent Learning → Learning while focused on other activities Insight Learning → Using prior Knowledge in a new situation Synapse → Connection between neurons that we form when we learn Fitness → Surviving and Reproducing Social Behaviors → interactions within a species Cognition → Understanding aspects of the world Eurosocieties → Sophisticated social groups in structure Diapsids → included (possibly all) living reptiles, dinosaurs, and birds Synapsids → mammal-like ancestors as well as living mammals Invertebrate → animals lacking a backbone (spinal column) Kinesis → random movement that is not headed toward or away from a stimulus Taxis → directed movement toward or away from a stimulus C ONCEPTS W EEKS 7 – 10: Geologic Timeline → in Millions of years (example: 2500 mya = 2.5 billion years ago) Important: Precambrian (Hadean, Archean), Phanerozoic (Paleozoic, Mesozoic, and Cenozoic) Geologic Time Clock Prokaryotes → 4bya Eukaryotes → 2.3 bya Multicellular Life → 1.5 bya Animals → 580 (ish) mya Land Plants → 540 (ish) mya Mammals → 250 mya Humans → 65 mya Geologic Time Breakdown Time Characteristics Earliest time period on Earth; everything is hot/on fire/molten; Hadean earth/rocks are forming, gas is beginning to precipitate into water and form oceans/water More and more rocks depositing, beginning of continents; amino acids are forming (gases + water + energy); DNA/RNA Archean needed to organize amino acids to make proteins (unknown how these are forming at this time) “Cambrian Explosion” → Hard-shelled fossils (Trilobites); First vertebrate (Fish); Pangea has formed; plants are forming on Paleozoic land → bringing insects and the beginnings of ferns/trees; vertebrates appear on land (amphibians → reptiles) “Age of the Reptiles” → Dinosaurs; in the water → mollusks Mesozoic (index fossils); Out of water → insects diversifying; mammals appear (smaller and eaten by reptiles) “Age of the Mammals” → Herds of mammals; increasing in Cenozoic size + number; Grasses are spreading around the world and forming habitats; Diatoms Mass Extinctions Causes: Catastrophes → Ex: Meteorite, volcanic eruptions, etc Climate Change → Severe, mass-scale; not ice ages o Severe change in atmosphere and water temperature Other species → as species change and evolve, its predators or competitor die out Humans → not included in the timeline; but we do cause mass extinctions with habitat invasion 5 Known mass extinctions → 2 important: 1. Permian → end of Paleozoic a. 250 mya i. Permian → Triassic b. Most life was still in the ocean; wiped out 90% of species c. Climate Change i. Most were likely temperature dependent ii. Ocean temps heated up 2. Cretaceous → end of Mesozoic a. 65 mya b. Wiped out 75% i. End of the dinosaurs ii. Only birds + small reptiles survived c. Modern fauna diversifies → supports rise of mammals d. Catastrophe + Climate change i. Metorite ii. Series of volcanic eruptions The Bottleneck Effect Parent generation →→→→→→→→→→→→→→ Next generation 1. Parent generation has several different variations in the species 2. Catastrophic event occurs and kills off different variations 3. The next generation is only offspring from the surviving members of species 4. Result: Loss of genetic Diversity “Wild Genes” → The normal, non-mutated version of a gene common in nature → Examples of use for “Wild Genes” o Scientists foundCalophyllum Tree in Indonesia; found chemical in only the “wild” gene of it that can assist the body in fighting HIV. o In Madagascar, the Periwinkle Flower has a chemical in the “wild” type that fights certain types of Leukemia. Evolutionary Trees → Model changes over time Phylogenetic Tree Trunk → common ancestor *Branches → Species development Cladogram *Branches = Arbitrary Science needs to be predictive → Scientists use trees to develop and test hypotheses Hominans → Human-like Species 5.5+mya → Present → Bipedal; Walking upright Origin → Africa Distinguished based on footprints Primates – Walking on the outside of the foot Hominans – Walking with whole foot Key: We did not evolve from chimps → Shared common ancestor Early Hominans: Ardipithecus Thought to arise when Africa was becoming dry and airid Australopithecus 4 mya – 1.5 mya, extremely successful species found in S. Africa Can be seen growing bigger over time Overlaps with Genus Homo Genus Homo 2.5 mya – present (our species) We begin finding tools with fossils Big brain Jaw development relative to speech Homo Erectus Begins to migrate from Africa and into S. Asia Had tools and was first to control fire o Found fire pits and shelters o Allowed them to move north Overlapped with our species Homo Sapiens Huge cerebral cortex o Increased “thinking” area o Fast processing, more storage, and ability to daydream and conceptualize new ideas o Larger head = difficult childbirth Born with mutations – Mutated “Microcephaly” genes Brain linked to language o FOXP2 gene o Concentrates attention toward communication Behaviors → What an animal does when interacting with its environment Darwin → Structures and behaviors impact fitness Innate Learned Genetically programmed behavior Impacted by Experience Nature Need to have brain power/hardware to store learned Reflexes behavior Fixed Action Pattern Nurture Drive Imprinting Innate Prairie dogs dig their homes underground for protection; warm and safe compared to open air. Bats modify leaves for shelter by cutting through side ribs to create a waterproof tent Various termite roles - Workers, soldiers, queen Learned Male weaver birds building intricate nests, long & down-turned to help protect from predators. o Females select mates based on weaving ability. o Probably learned from watching others Beaver dam building! Nature’s engineers. Termite hill building o Likely learned to do so over time Fitness →Surviving and Reproducing Passing on genetic information through alleles to offspring → Genetics and evolution impact behaviors Migration → Innate behavior Examples: Blackcap Warblers Breed in Europe + Asia in Summer, migrate to Africa in winter Migrate triggered by change in temp and daylight Drive to form a group and fly together They learn where to go based on the flock they travel with Navigate with cues: 1. Visual → The sun, mountain ranges, stars 2. Magnetic 3. Chemical (smell) → Pheromones Monarch Butterflies Most elaborate migratory patterns of any insects Milkweed numbers falling = decline in population Migrate over multiple generations Sexual Reproduction Widespread in Nature: Sexual selection: an individual is more fit than other members of the same sex within its species Advantage - genetic variation. Due to crossing-over and mutation, as well as selecting for certain factors, there will be wider variability of traits. o Increases chances of survival Male Competition o Males can fight for domination o The “winning” traits may be genetically determined and inherited o Rufous Hummingbirds Males that chase things are more likely to be chosen by females Chasing may be a health indicator Female Choice o Great Frigatebird Choose males with large orange-red throat pouches “Preferred” males may be genetically different, both for pouch size and behavior Pouches may be an indicator of health Unusual Forms o Numerous strategies to maximize fitness Meadow Vole - Many mates (promiscuous); both males and females Prairie Vole - Pair-bonding (monogamous); active vasopressin receptor gene Blood Types and Rh Factors A = i I or I i B B B B = I I or I i AB = I IB O = ii 1. Rh Factor refers to an additional protein that can be found on red blood cells. indicates the presence of the protein (genotype: ++, +-), or absence of the protein (--). O negative is the universal donor AB positive is the universal acceptor 2. Mothers who are Rh “negative” (genotype (--) can potentially produce antigens against an Rh “positive” fetus. The positive allele would come from the father. 3. Rh positive is more common in humans. highest frequency of Rh negative population are the Basque. 4. Rh positive gives protection against toxoplasmosis, carried by big cats Wild cats were uncommon in Europe. Thank you for choosing my Study Guide! Be sure to check back for more notes and study guides with me for future classes!
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