Study Guide for Exam 2
Study Guide for Exam 2 Psych 260
Popular in Developmental psychology
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Hannah on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Psych 260 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr palmer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Developmental psychology in Psychlogy at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
Reviews for Study Guide for Exam 2
Yes YES!! Thank you for these. I'm such a bad notetaker :/ will definitely be looking forward to these
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/11/16
Palmer, Spring, 2016 Psychology 2602 Exam #2 Review Sheet 1. Can you show a comprehension of cephalocaudal and proximodistal developmental growth patterns, described by your textbook author Santrock? Cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the fastest growth in the body occurs at the top (head). Physical growth gradually works its way down from top of the body to the bottom. This is the same pattern of the growth the happens with the head. The eyes and brain grow faster than lower parts of the face like the jaw. Proximodistal pattern is the sequence that starts in the center of the body and moves out to the extremities. For example, children get muscle control in the torso and arms first and then moves to hands and fingers. 2. Do you understand the blooming and pruning processes of brain development across the lifespan? Blooming is the growth and strengthening of connections. Pruning is when the unused connections are replaced or disappear. Blooming and pruning(use it or lose it) happens all throughout the lifespan. 3. Can you show awareness of how brain lateralization, neurogenesis, plasticity, and collateral sprouting occur across the lifespan and how these may counter the impacts of aging? Earlier in the life span plasticity is higher because of this children who have extreme brain surgeries can recover with little effect from the surgery. (The video of the kid who had a hemisphere of his brain removed and only lost fine motor skills). Lateralization happens later in life and is the specialization of a function in one side of the brain. Then when we are older our brains return to being more plastic. Neurogenesis is the creation of new neurons happens all throughout life as well does collateral sprouting which is when dendrites will spread out to take over functions of damaged neurons. Our brains being able to return to plasticity, perform neurogenesis and collateral sprouting gives people remarkable repair capability. 4. Do you understand how the brain changes during adolescence and how such changes connect to functioning? The brain continues growth in the prefontal cortex, Adolescence have increased reasoning, decision making, selfcontrol but this brain area does not grow at a uniform pace and can cause puzzling incongruities. The limbic system(controls processing and controlling strong emotions like anger) changes also happen in neurotransmitters. 5. Are you aware of what research suggests in terms of brainlevel changes as a result of more cognitively stimulating activities, increased physical activity? Keeping physically and mentally active helps influence all aspects of our development. (use it or lose it) We saw a video of the 92 year old man who was still exercising and his brain was operating at the level of someone who was half his age. 6. Are you familiar with the biological components of puberty? What trends have been observed in the timing of puberty across time? Puberty is the period of rapid physical and hormonal changes. The amount of some hormones increase dramatically. Testosterone plays a part in voice changes and genital growth. Testosterone also dominates male changes but is still involved in female changes. Estrogen plays a part in breast growth and skeletal changes. Estrogen dominates female changes but is still involved in male changes. Boys can start puberty as early as 10 or as late as 13 and can complete puberty as early as 13 or as late as 17. Girls have their first period between 9 and 15. Some things that can affect timing of puberty is weight nutrition, health and stress, Higher weight, especially obesity, can cause puberty to happen earlier. 7. Do you understand the typical physical changes that occur in middle adulthood, menopause and declines in testosterone production (“andropause”), the average age of menopause, the factors linked to the timing of menopause? Changes in physical appearance: loss of height(more in women than men), weight gain(men gain in belly, women gain in hips, thighs, and butt), skin wrinkles, sagging, age spots appear in 40s or 50s, hair thins and grays, fingernails and toenails thicken. Menopause happens in the late forties or early fifties. Specific causes of later incidence of menopause has not been proved by improved nutrition and lower incidence of infectious disease may be the cause. Menopause is caused by the dramatic change in estrogen production by the ovaries and stop female fertility. Males go through a decline in testosterone in middle adulthood. They do not lose fertility but may have decline in sexual drive and sperm count may decrease. 8. Are you familiar with critical or sensitive periods of nonhumans’ visual systems in relation to visual cortex development related to the work of Hubel and Wiesel with kittens and baby monkeys? Hubel and Wiesel gave various situations to the kittens and baby monkeys such as eye patches or a completely round environment to obtain a deficit or change in neuronal development. The research shows that deprivation or changes in visual stimuli can affect how the neurons develop. We saw a video of the baby who had cataract surgery and how she had a deficit in her visual neurons but it was quickly made up when the cataract was fixed. This shows how important stimulation is to brain development. 9. Do you understand the biological theories offered for humans’ aging? Do you know what group seems to live the longest, the role of gender differences that have been observed in terms of length of life? Evolutionary Theory says the benefits of natural selection decrease with age because the diseases that happen in later adulthood can not be eliminated by when earlier adults are reproducing because they are not showing. Cellular Clock Theory is that there is a maximum time that human cells can divide so as that slows down we age. A cell can divide about 75 to 80 times. FreeRadical Theory is that people age due to cells’ metabolism produces unstable oxygen molecules known as free radicals. Mitochondrial Theory is that aging is caused by decay of mitochondria; oxidative damage Hormonal Stress Theory is aging in body’s hormonal system can lower resistance to stress and increase risks of disease. Japanese people have the longest life span. Women live longer than men. 10. Are you aware of the findings regarding human longevity from both animal and human research studies, as summarized by Park in her article? 11. Can you show an understanding of the order of the cognitive development stages which humans pass through, according to Piaget’s theory? Sensorimotorbirth to nearly 2, experiences world through senses, circular reactions, object permanence, separation and stranger anxiety. Preoperationalabout 2 to 6, representing things with words and images but lacks logical reasoning, pretend play, egocentrism, language development Concrete Operationalabout 7 to 11, thinking logically about concrete event, grasping analogies and arithmetical operations, conservation, seriation, mathematical transformations Formal Operationalabout 12 through adulthood, abstract reasoning, abstract logic, adolescent egocentrism, potential for moral reasoning. 12. Are you aware of the differences between primary and secondary and tertiary circular reactions, as proposed by Piaget? Primary circular reactions are done around ages 14 months. Babies will repeat pleasurable actions centered around their own bodies such as sucking their thumb or kicking their legs. Secondary circular reactions are done around ages 48 months. Babies will repeat pleasurable actions that involve objects and their bodies such as shaking a rattle to hear the noise. Tertiary Circular Reactions are actions that are intentional adaptations to the previous movement for example they take apart a toy and now they may try to put it back together. 13. Do you understand the assimilation and accommodation processes, as suggested by Piaget? Assimilationincorporate new information or experience into existing knowledge schemes Accommodationadjusts existing scheme or schemes to take in new information and experiences 14. Can you show an understanding of object permanence development, as proposed in Piaget’s cognitive development theory? Object permanenceawareness that a person or object continues to exist when out of sight. Piaget believed that infants do not believe or begin to exhibit this until about 8 months. A not B error is when a baby will not look to a second location to find an object. The error stops happening at about 12 months. Visible displacement at 8 months babies can handle 1 location but at 12 months they can handle 2 locations. Invisible displace is when a child does not see an object “disappear” and the baby can figure this out at about 18 months. 15. Are you aware of the importance of the roles of adaptation and organization to Piaget’s theory of cognitive development? Organizationgrouping isolated behaviors into a higher order cognitive system that undergoes continual refinement. Adaptationincludes assimilation and accommodation. 16. Are you familiar with how Baillargeon demonstrated that infants may have object permanence abilities earlier than Piaget stated that they did? Baillargeon believed that Piaget’s tasks were too difficult for the children. She performed magic shows for children and the longer they looked at something showed object permanence because they realized that the impossible event(magic) shouldn’t be possible. 17. Can you demonstrate an understanding of conservation, per Piaget’s theory? Conservationobject or substance amount stays same regardless of changing appearance; lacking in preoperational stage 18. Do you understand Vygotsky’s zone of proximal development in his theory of cognitive development? The importance of selfdirect speech in his theory about cognitive development? Zone of proximal developmentrange of tasks too difficult for an individual to master alone; can be mastered with guidance and assistance from a moreskilled person. Scaffolding is the changing level of support over course of a teaching session or over time to fit an individual’s current performance level. Selfdirect speechchildren use language to plan, guide and monitor behavior, this lasts between 37. 19. Can you show awareness of how egocentrism is demonstrated in young children and then in adolescents, as suggested by Elkind and Piaget? Young Childreninability to distinguish own view from another’s view Adolescents involves the personal fable(they think they are actually royalty) and imaginary audience(everyone is going to focus on them) 20. Are you aware of how scaffolding may be illustrated, according to Vygotsky? Scaffolding is the changing level of support over course of a teaching session or over time to fit an individual’s current performance level. Imagine a building with the scaffolding and as the building gets more stable they remove the scaffolding.
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'