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Study guide exam 1

by: Diona Spencer

Study guide exam 1 PSYC 465-004

Marketplace > Towson University > PSYC 465-004 > Study guide exam 1
Diona Spencer
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Notes from TA
Physiological Psychology
Chris Magalis
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diona Spencer on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 465-004 at Towson University taught by Chris Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
STUDY GUIDE FOR PHYSIO EXAM ONE For the exam, you will need to be able to… Label the parts of the neuron Movement of Ions due to  Electrostatic  Concentration gradient(High  pressure(charges) to low) Cl­ outside inside Na+ inside inside K+ Outside  inside What important ion we discussed is missing from this graph? Where is it located, and  why is it not on this graph? Anions are missing from the graph. Anions are located inside the  neuron and it’s not located on the graph because the anions cannot go outside. The membrane  is not permeable to the anions.  Label the graph with each step of the action potential, and answer the following questions. 1a. Sodium channels open and sodium rushes in.  2a. K channels open and K begins to leave the cell 3a. Absolute refractory period­ Na channels close and do not open again, no more Na comes in 4a. K continues to leave the cell, causing membrane to return to resting membrane potential  5a. K close and Na channels reset 6a. K still diffuses away 1. Sodium channels opening hyperpolarizes the neuron, and Potassium channels  opening depolarizes the cell. TRUE/FALSE? Why? False, Na channels open depolarizes the neuron and K channels open hyperpolarizes  the cell. When the Na channels open and Na rushes in, the cell is becoming more  positive and creating ESPS. Hyperpolarization occurs as the resting membrane potential goes back to normal, and when it becomes more negative.  2. What process maintains the concentration gradient at resting membrane  potential? a. Sodium Potassium ATPase: for every 3 Na pumped out, 2 K gets pumped in  3. Ions travel freely through the phospholipid bilayer. True/False? Why? a. No, the ion channels are selective when opening to ions.  4. Temporal summation and spatial summation do not occur independently.  True/False? Why? a. True because spatial summation happens when excitatory potentials from  different presynaptic neurons cause the postsynaptic neuron to reach its  threshold and fire. Temporal summation happens when a single presynaptic  neuron fires many times which causes the postsynaptic neuron to reach its  threshold and fire. I think that they occur together in order to help the neuron  reach the threshold.  b. Temporal summation: summation of PSPs occurring at different times but at the  same place. c. Spatial summation: summation of PSPs occurring at the same time, but at  different places on the cell 5. Briefly summarize the purpose of the Nernst equation, and the reason why there  needs to be a Goldman Hodgkin Katz solution to the Nernst equation. a. The value of the equilibrium potential for an ionic species can be computed with  the Nernst Equation b. The Goldman­Hodgin­Katz equation is used to calculate the membrane potential  when more than one ion channel is present/ open. It also tells us the voltage of  the membrane   c. Goldman Hodgin Katz equation takes into account all major ions involved(Chloride,  potassium, sodium) 6. Compare and contrast Ligand gated ion channels with Voltage gated channels,  Sodium Leak channels to Ligand gated ion channels,  and Potassium Leak  channels with Potassium Voltage gated Channels. (channels are ion specific) a. Ligand gated ion channels and Voltage gates channels b. Sodium Leak channels and Ligand gated ion channels c. Potassium Leak channels and Potassium Voltage Gated channels d. Leak= passive, don’t need energy to open e. Gated= need energy to open, ATP f. The threshold of excitation is reached when the VOLTAGE changes to get to the  threshold of excitation which is when the voltage gated channels are open. The  threshold of excitation is a descriptor of when an action potential will occur. The  threshold of excitation is not an event it is a point of voltage that needs to be  surpassed in order for an action potential to occur. 7. What are the implications of epigenetics in the field of psychology, as we  discussed in class.  a. Epigenetics helps solve the Nature vs Nurture debate which has been around as  long as the field of psychology has existed­ are we born this way, or do  environmental factors mold us to be the way we are? The truth is, it is a  combination of the two­ especially when mental health is involved.  b.  Epigenetics may help explain why though heritability has been found to be high  in some mental illnesses, usual genetic heritability models have not been able to  successfully predict diagnosis rates. Define the following­ Central Nervous System (CNS): encased in bone: spine, brain Peripheral Nervous System (PNS): not encased in bone: nerves Neuron­ constitute only about half the volume of the CNS, the rest consists of a variety of  supporting cells. Because neurons have a very high rate of metabolism but have no means of  storing nutrients, they must constantly be supplied with nutrients and oxygen or they will quickly  die.  Glial cell: supporting cells, 10 for every 1 neuron (I trillion) Neurites­ extensions of the soma, cellular processes  Teleodendria­ branch of axons that can further branch into axon terminals Sodium potassium ATPase­ sodium potassium pump, for every 3 Na that gets pumped out, 2  k ions get pumped in Dendritic spines­ bumpy things on dendrites, fat ones are good (more space for information),  related to learning and memory, those with down syndrome have thin, malformed ones or are  incapable of regenerating new ones Biopsychology: branch that studies the biological basis of behavior Epigenetics: environment (experiences, can have a biological impactalters behavior) and  genetics, explains how gene expression can be altered without changing DNA sequencing,  changes not due to mutations Methyl: coils tighten around the histone core, does not promote protein synthesis Acetyl: coils loosen around the histone core, promotes synthesis, and uncovers base pairs,  transcription and translation Histone­ proteins in the nucleus, made up of chromatin, DNA wraps around histones Chromatin: complex of DNA and proteins, forms chromosomes DNA­ A long, complex macromolecule consisting of two  interconnected helical strands; along with associated proteins, strands of DNA constitute the chromosomes. Dopamine­ involved in brain’s reward and pleasure centers, addiction, emotional responses Serotonin­ responsible for maintaining mood balance, deficit can lead to depression Microtubules­ A long strand of bundles of protein filaments arranged around a hollow core; part of the cytoskeleton and involved in transporting substances from place to place within the cell. Kinesin­ uses orthodromic direction (soma to boutons) Dynein­ uses antidromic direction (boutons to soma) Electrostatic pressure­ deals with the charges, like repel and opposites attract Concentration gradient­ diffusion, moves from area of high concentration to low concentration Nucleus­ A structure in the central region of a cell, containing the chromosomes. Myelin­ structure surrounding axon, surrounds axon and insulates them, preventing them from  spreading messages Dendrite­ receives information (receiver) Terminal arbor­ at the end of the neuron, send message to other neurons Terminal button­ bumpy substance on terminal arbor Neurotransmitter­ excites or inhibits a cell and helps determine if an action potential occurs  Node of Ranvier­ bare portion of axon  Axoplasmic Transport: An active process by which substances are propelled along  microtubules that run the length of the axon.


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