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Final Study Guide

by: Diona Spencer

Final Study Guide PSYC 465-004

Marketplace > Towson University > PSYC 465-004 > Final Study Guide
Diona Spencer
GPA 3.6

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About this Document

Notes from class and TA
Physiological Psychology
Chris Magalis
Study Guide
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Diona Spencer on Friday March 11, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYC 465-004 at Towson University taught by Chris Magalis in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views.


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Date Created: 03/11/16
Frontal Lobe Parietal Lobe Corpus  Callosum Occipital Lobe Pituitary Gland Temporal Lobe Cerebellum Pons Medulla Spinal Cord Dendrites Axon Terminal  Cell body/soma Schwann Cells Node of Ranvier Axon Myelin Nucleus    Neuroanatomical circuitry in the hippocampus…diagram the process and  the components o Entorhinal cortex sends axons in the stimulating perforant path to the  o Dendate gyrus (recording response) which sends synaptic input to the o Hippocampus proper: CA3 to CA1 which sends input to o Subiculum sends input back to entorhinal cortex o Measuring activity of neurons by population spike: represents overall  average EPSP in a population of neurons  Learning­ refers to the process by which experiences change our nervous  system and hence our behavior.  Memory  Synaptic plasticity­ synaptic function begins to alter with experience o One of the neurobiological substrates for learning and memory  o Changes in the structure or biochemistry of synapses that alter their  effects on postsynaptic neurons.  Operant behavior/conditioning­ A learning procedure whereby the effects of a particular behavior in a particular situation increase (reinforce) or decrease  (punish) the probability of the behavior, association between response and  stimuli ex my spoonproper eating mechanismpraise o Positive and negative punishment and rewards…know the differences  Positive reinforcing stimulus­ addition, if response leads to  addition of stimulus in environment that increases frequency it’s  positive, ex. Praise for behavior  Negative reinforcing stimulus­ if response leads to removing  stimulus in environment that increases frequency it’s negative,  ex. Saying you don’t have to eat carrots   Classical conditioning­ kind of memory if it’s maintained, involves automatic,  and species typical responses o Form of learning in which an unimportant stimulus acquires the  properties of an important one. It involves an association between two  stimuli. A stimulus that previously had little effect on behavior becomes  able to evoke a reflexive, species­typical behavior.  o Procedure where a stimulus that initially produces no particular response  is followed several times by an unconditional stimulus (US) that  produces a defensive or appetitive response (the unconditional response —UR), the first stimulus (now called a conditional stimulus—CS) itself evokes the response (now called a conditional response—CR). o Before conditioning= water spray (US) eye blink (UR)= unconditional  reflex o Conditioning trials (synaptic change beginning to occur)  Table is a orienting response= gets your attention  Table (NS) water spray (US) eye blink/ flinch (UR) o After conditioning= learned that something that was neutral produced a  similar response   Table (CS, learned signal that predicts onset of US) partial eye  blink/ flinch (CR,learned response)= conditional reflex  Types of memory o Episodic­ autobiographical  o Semantic­ facts, information o Procedural­ responsible for knowing how to do things, how to perform  certain procedures (motor skills­ walking, running) o Phonological loop­ verbal information o Spatial memory­ remember locations  CaM­KII (type II calcium­calmodulin kinase) ­ an enzyme found in dendritic  spines. CaM­KII is a calcium­dependent enzyme, which is inactive until a  calcium ion binds with it and activates it. o Activated enzymes bind with Pin1 and deactivate it, which permits the  synthesis of PKM­zeta to take place.   PKM zeta­ produced in neurons, being transcribed o PKM­zeta, acting on a trafficking protein called NSF, moves AMPA  receptors laterally from the dendritic shaft into the postsynaptic  membrane of the dendritic spine. o It binds with Pin1 and deactivates it, which guarantees that its own  synthesis will continue. CaM­KII and the other enzymes, which initially  deactivated Pin1 and enabled the process of E­LTP to take place, are no  longer needed. o The self­sustaining synthesis of PKM­zeta makes long­term LTP  possible  Pin 1 o inhibits translation of PKM­zeta mRNA into the PKM­zeta protein  LTP o Bliss and Lomo stimulated path at low frequency and recorded  population spike o Lømo (1966) discovered that intense electrical stimulation of axons  leading from the entorhinal cortex to the dentate gyrus caused a long­ term increase in the magnitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials in  the postsynaptic neurons; this increase has come to be called long­term  potentiation (LTP). o High frequency stimulation changes structure of neurons  o Electrical stimulation of circuits within the hippocampal formation can  lead to long­term synaptic changes that seem to be among those  responsible for learning. o A long­term increase in the excitability of a neuron to a particular  synaptic input caused by repeated high­frequency activity of that input. o Evidence that long­term potentiation has occurred is obtained by  periodically delivering single pulses to the perforant path and recording  the response in the dentate gyrus. o If the response is greater than it was before the burst of pulses was  delivered, long­term potentiation has occurred.  o Become neurobiological model of learning and memory o Everyday experience o May promote strengthening of neuronspromote activity of other  neuronsmake other neurons fire o Includes changes in the size and shape of dendritic spines and formation  of new dendritic spinesLTP causes the enlargement of thin spines into  fatter, mushroom­shaped spines. o If you block it, it’s like amnesia can’t learn   2 types of glutamate (primary excitatory NT in nervous system) receptors and  both are ionotropic o AMPA­ brief, direct, receptor mechanism that contain ion channel for  sodium, depolarizes cell, and makes it more likely to fire o NMDA­ receptor mechanism that contains ion channel for calcium,  depolarizes cell, magnesium blacks pathway of calcium into neuron but  sodium from AMPA mechanism makes the cell more positive so  magnesium is repelled  if molecule of glutamate binds with the NMDA receptor, the  calcium can’t open because the magnesium ion blocks the  channeldepolarization evicts magnesium ion and unlocks the  channelglutamate opens the ion channel and permits the entry of calcium ions   Process o Pin1 inhibits translation of PKM zeta o Exocytotic release of glutamate o Calcium activates CAM­KII which inhibits Pin1 from inhibiting  translation of PKM­zetaPKM­zeta activates NSF which promotes  AMPA receptor in spines o PKM­zeta continually suppresses Pin1 long term


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