Anthro 2A Final Study Guide - Douglas
Anthro 2A Final Study Guide - Douglas Anthro 2A
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Karina Martin on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Anthro 2A at University of California - Irvine taught by DOUGLAS, T in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 174 views. For similar materials see INTR SOCIOCULT ANTH in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Irvine.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Enclosures Occurred in Europe prior to industrialization AND during industrialization - Farmers were being kicked off of land by the nobility (“the Enclosures”) - Nobility made more money raising sheep than having farmers – wool production peasant farmers had to try and find work in cities (only jobs available were factories) - In factories: pay was bad, constantly open so people worked lots of hours for low pay, the more people requested work the less they got paid (small business owners went bankrupt because they could not compete with cheap factory prices Luddites and Luddite Rebellion Known for burning down factories in England Mostly bankrupt owners and angry factory workers (protest their treatment) British military were sent in to arrest them Karl Marx “Communist Manifesto” Theory of Surplus Value - Profit made by abusing workers (underpay/exploiting) - Argued that workers should unite and take control of the factories themselves (if no one owns factories everyone shares profit) Aihwa Ong Examines the lives of Malaysian girls working in electronics factories in an FTZ - Girls = not good home or work lives (fathers are angry/resentful towards daughters because they believe the men should make the money/support the family) – (belief that girl should stay home until married – nor respect at home or work) - Teenage girls experience tremendous amount of social, psychological and physical pressures (interpreted as spirit possession – factories shut down for a small amount of time when this happened, hire priests) Offshore Production and Free Trade Zones Moving of factories to counties where (FTZs) labor is cheaper Often occurs in factories located in regions known as “FTZs” - FTZs are hosts to foreign factories who will hire local workers for very cheap rates - Workers have no minimum wage guarantees, no liability laws, no sexual harassment protection (factories put girls on birth control), and unions are illegal - 90% female workers Said race is a cultural construct Stephen J. Gould “Mismeasure of Man" studied craniometrics, comparing diff skull sizes of diff races by Robert Bean and how it was discovered to be a fraud by his mentor Franklin Mall Clines Depends on melanin protection on upper level of skin from being damaged by sunlight. Diff latitudes causes skin color to change because skin color adapts to how much sunlight it absorbs to produce vitamin D and calcium. Middle latitudes plenty of sun, so dark skin protects them from diseases. Upper latitudes lack sun, so lighter skin helps them absorb more sun Marvin Harris Claimed that IQ tests are culture bound and not accurate tests of a person's overall intelligence. "Race, Human Variation, and Forces of Evolution" races vary physically because of their location and lifestyle IQ Tests Became the "proof" of racial diffs in intelligence in early 20th century instead of biological tests western science show women's sexual function as wasteful while men are shown as productive Broca said women are getting less intelligent because burdens of caregiving, while men are challenged intellectually at work Science has been biased by societies' stereotypes Paul Broca Founded Anthropologist Society of Paris (very racist) Claims science proves Europeans are biologically superior to non Europeans (Australians/Aboriginals) – could not reproduce with Europeans (Priori Assumptions) Researched measurement of forearm ratio, skull volume, skull length, and foremen magnum position (said it resembled that of an ape) (never was able to “prove” white racial superiority) Robert Bean Claimed white American brains are superior to African brains by comparing size of corpus callosum Hoffman’s Extinction Thesis Thought Black’s would be extinct because of natural selection after comparing rates of disease between Whites and Blacks - flawed because statistics weren't inclusive of outside factors diseases and sickness Human Variations as Continuum phenotypical traits continue to vary they are not just black and white - Ex: skin color light to dark So there can't be distinct races. Sickle Cell Anemia AfricanAmerican/African disease - Not uncommon in Mediterranean (Greece) - where Malaria is common, sickle cell is selected - it's a result of having ancestors who lived in malaria areas (affects a large portion of Africans because it helps them prevent malaria, which was rampant in certain parts of Africa) Bundled Traits We can't predict what others are (race wise) based on one trait If we tried to distinguish people with single traits, there would be hundreds of diff races Traits are always changing variation can be greater w/in one group than between two groups Cultural Bias Harris claimed IQ tests were cultural bias and not an accurate measure of person's overall intelligence A Priori Assumption an assumption made before conducting research based on researcher's own biases (Broca) Skull Size and Intelligence Skull size does not relate to intelligence level…has to do with environment/nutrition Scientific Racism Move from religiously defined discrimination to one defined by science Scientists argue that biology made some races superior to others, and they tried to use scientific techniques to prove this (e.g. Herbert Spencer) Corpus Callosum The thin film of tissue between right and left hemisphere of brain Bean though this was thicker in white, so they are more intelligent DNA and Racial Classification There's no such thing as a "pure" race There's no race gene There's as much/more diversity in people of same race as people of different races "Race: The Power of an Illusion" This video said that biological race was used by societies to build social categories But genetically, we're actually very similar - 1/1000 nucleotides vary between each human Mitochondrial DNA Passed down from mother was not more similar between students of same "race." passed down from mom. Adolescent Sexuality (Trobrianders) Young people choose their own partners (not arranged) Normally meet at Harvest dances (attend hoping to find romance) Women usually make first move Some boys like girls from other villages (girls don’t like this – get violent) Sexuality = very important during Harvest time “no woman wants to marry an ugly man” Views on Premarital Sex It is AOkay! – considered normal Missionaries have tried to change their minds Matrilineal and Waiwaia Spirit Children always belong to mother – only related to mother and her relatives Trobrianders believe in reincarnation The soul of a baby (waiwaia) is a reincarnation of a deceased ancestor from the MOTHER’S side Be nice and support your child because they are ancestors (deserve respect) Trobriand HusbandWife Relationship If a couple wants to marry, the girl spends the ight at the boy’s “Bachelor Hut” (home for male teenagers – next to parents’ house) Boy and girl sit together on front porch next morning If the girl’s mother approves, she will cook YAMS and bring them to the young couple – THEY ARE NOW MARRIED! young man's sister brings long skirts for sisterinlaw First year of marriage is a long honeymoon (no work, just try to have a baby) (mom provides for them) Baby belongs to mother – if they divorce, child goes with mother Who takes care of Trobriand children? The father or uncle Annette Weiner articles on the Her articles talked about Trobriand Trobrianders Society matrilineal system, sexuality, relationships, gift giving (yams between men, banana leaf clusters and skirts between women), use of kuwa shell necklaces, beauty spells, and yams Masai and Circumcision Masai teenagers must be "made" into social adults via circumcision Both sexes are born with the view that they are not fully male or fully female God has told them that this is what they should do Male and Female Circumcision Male: "makes" Masai teen males into social adults and warriors – done at 17 or 18 Female: preps Masai female for marriage – done around the age of 15 Warriors Male Masai can’t marry until 30 Time between circumcision and marriage, spend most time with other young Masai men (Warriors) - At age 30, “warrior” returns home to be arranged into a marriage Bride Cattle (Masai) Gift given to bride’s family from groom’s family (30 cows) Polygyny (Masai and Nuer) Man can have more than one wife - Different from polygamy (both men and women can have more than one spouse) - Not easy, because each one requires 30 bride cattle – mostly the wealthy Masai and Nuer do it Patrilocal Marriage Residence New brides expected to move to husband's village Son will stay and daughters will move in w/ their husbands' families Bride is "initiated" by being verbally harassed by women in her husband's village Masai Women Women can never own cattle – must always be taken care of by male (father, husband, sons) How “traditional societies” work Bride Cattle (Nuer) Gift given to bride’s family from groom’s family (30 cows) Because most Nuer are currently living in refugee camps due to a civil war, there are no “bride cattle” to give, so people marry with IOUs Ghost Marriage Person dies w/o being married, therefore, is married to living woman Woman has sexual relations with someone (usually “ghost’s” brother) and the children she conceives belong to the “ghost” (not lover) Woman can’t marry anyone else (but can have an affair) Whoever the woman sleeps with must provide, but is still not husband or father (must find his own wife) WomanWoman Marriage A father has no sons, only daughters, he needs an heir Will take his daughter and make her his heir – “female husband” Won’t become “female husband” until 40 or 50 (already a mom) (won’t stop being a man) She will be given cattle and married to a BRIDE that she must care for - Must give family children – sleeps with whoever to get pregnant (lover) - Father of children is NOT lover’s – father is the “female husband” Not considered gay marriage “female husband” can also be an old widow who has to be taken care of in her old age Gar and Beauty Scarification Gar: teenage boys get it done (only), lines across forehead (cut deep gashes with razor blades into forehead and put ashes in them so that scars stay), not all Nuer do it Beauty Scarification: women (and some men) do it, use safety pin – over long period of time (little dots, anywhere, like a tattoo) Nuer Marriage Arranged, but for those living in refugee camps, not so strict abut it - Some Nuer do choose who they want to marry Margaret Mead Student of Franz Boas Went to New Guinea to look at gender roles among different ethnic groups on this island She looked at three different groups (Arapesh, Mundugomer, Tchambul/Chambris) Are gender roles due to biology or society? Argues that gender roles and behavior are not simply the result of biology, but are strongly influenced by culture Arapesh Society Men and women engage (equally) in childcare Both sexes garden Both were very sexually passive/shy (no flirting – shaming/embarrassing) - After marriage (arranges), wouldn’t have sex for months so that people didn’t think they were having sex Confrontation was forbidden (back away from fights – avoid) Both men and women behaved in ways that Americans would see as “feminine” (by U.S. gender standards) Mundugomer Society Open flirting (common) for both sexes More sexually open – not embarrassed - Leave love bites on each other (want people to know) - Sexually aggressive Both sexes = independent and aggressive (women will hit back) To an American, both men and women would seem rather madculine - Looked down on being passive Tchambuli (Chambris) Society Men spend more time on their looks than the women Women can flirt, men cannot Women propose to men Men and women meet at dances - Women ask men to dance, not vice versa - Women ignore eligible men - Men don’t like being ignored, threaten to drown themselves if they are not asked Women more sexually aggressive Gender roles = reverse of American expectation Anne Fausto Sterling “The Five Sexes” - Male - Female - Hermaphrodite: someone who has functioning sexual organs of both sexes (rare among humans) - Male Pseudo Hermaphrodite (Merm): male sexual organs, looks female - Female Pseudo Hermaphrodite (Ferm): female sexual organs, looks male rd Dominican Republic – Guevedoces A 3 sex Genetic condition – rare Male pseudo hermaphrodite What you thought was a clitoris at birth turns out to be a penis later on in life (12 years old) Testicles inside when born Shallow vagina, but no uterus Late development, can’t reproduce Some choose to stay female, some change identity, some don’t choose at all Two Spirits (Berdache) Neither male nor female (a combo) Seen as good healers Alyha and Hwame Mojave Indians Four gender categories - Man can marry Alyha or woman - Woman can marry Hwame or man - Alyha: born male, takes on female roles can marry man - Hwame: born female, takes on male roles can marry woman Masculine cannot marry masculine, feminine cannot marry feminine Gender Roles Socially Defined, Not Universally Shared Though we commonly consider gender to be the result of biology, many gender differences are culturally constructed) Gloria Steinem Wrote: if men had them, menstrual cycles would hold power, popularity, and social acceptability because of perceived "power justifications" that men hold Susan Bordo “The Slender Body” – gender issues facing American women Notes that women are expected to give childcare Women are judged for their looks more than men Since 1970s, American women have been under economic pressure to work while still taking care of children, cooking, looking good, etc. (increasing social demands – “Capitalist Conflict”) Women have been suffering eating disorders Taking psychological toll on women (exhausting) Emily Martin She argues that the act of human fertilization (how egg is passively waiting for sperm to actively and aggressively save it) is related to gender stereotype but is wrong
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