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Includes all of lecture material

by: Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

Includes all of lecture material EEMB 2

Anahit Ghaltaghchyan

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Study Guide for final
william rice
Study Guide
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This 3 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anahit Ghaltaghchyan on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to EEMB 2 at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months taught by william rice in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see EEMB2 in Electrical Engineering at 1 MDSS-SGSLM-Langley AFB Advanced Education in General Dentistry 12 Months.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Week 1 Basic concepts  Adaption fitness  natural selection Definitions  Genotype­ hereditary material or set of genetic instructions which partly determine an  organisms structural, physiological and behavioral characteristics.   The phenotype of an organisms represents the outcome of the genetic instructions in the  genotype (looks, physical traits) Growth, protection and fecundity interplay in the pie chart   Gene pool­all the genes in a populations collectively   Dawinian fitness measures biological success of a genotype(through the phenotype.  Measure of how many genome copies are passed on to the next generation  Gene pool ultimately gets dominated by the organism with the highest Darwinian fitness   Fitness influences by the combination of G P and F relative to the demands of the  environment   Ultimate goal­ to be a good gene transport machine   KEY POINT: we can conclude that organisms are designed to be the best gene transport  machines due to the fact that the genotype which codes for phenotypes that transport  more gene copies from generation to generation will eventually predominate the gene  pool   Process of natural selection­ changes in the relative frequencies of different genotypes  due to difference in the associated survival and fecundity of their phenotype   PHENOTYPES DO NOT EVOVLE FOR THE GOOD OF THE SPECIE, but rather for  the good of the individual  A case history of microevolution  Changes occur on the scale of tens­hundreds of generations  Example of a rapid evolution –HIV virus   HIV virus o  HIV virus has 2 RNA chromosomes and a reverse transcriptase enzyme, along  with integrase and protease which enter a human cell through the CCR5 cofactor  and CD4 protein (which together act as a door and door knob analogy) into the  cell, followed by inserting themselves into the nuclear chromosomes and  hijacking the cell’s copying mechanisms  o kills CD4+ helper T cells and compromises the immune system o aids symptoms begin after around 10 years o extremely high mutation rates. A million times faster than humans o short generations, high mutation rates and large populations all add up to HIV  evolving really quickly o  AZT drug developed to mimic thymine during reverse transcription of HIV chromosome. Introduces a AZT base analog as a nucleotide among A,T, C and G and stops the  transcription process once the it needs to make a decision of using a T or Z nucleotide.  Prematurely terminates  o Unfortunately, the virus is incredibly clever and evolves to reject AZT. Goes back to selectively using T instead o In conclusion, simple drugs can stop HIV.  Phylogenetic inference o Phylogeny­ evolutionary history of a group of organisms o Depicted by a phylogenetic tree­ shows relatedness and describes patterns among  lineages o Taxon­group of genetically related organisms­ such as population, species, families etc o Clade­ group of taxa from a common ancestor  o Root­ common ancestor for all taxa o Out grou­ indisputably most distantly related to all other members of a group of  taxa o Nodes­ branching point on tree (speciation) which denotes common ancestor to distal  taxa o Polytomy­ unresolved branching. Unable to tell which species are more closely related  among a taxa o Homoplasy o Convergence­ when two groups independently evolve to have a similar phenotype o Reversals­ the loss of a homologues trait found in the common ancestor.  o Homologous traits­ those that evolved originally in the same ancestor and were passed on to all descendants  o Synapomorphy­ traits that originate in a common ancestor and then are passed  down to derived lineages  Genetics of adaptation ­Hardy Weinberg ­Selection at one locus ­Quantitative traits and heritability  o Approaching problems  o 5 simplifying assumptions   1. Sexual reproduction  diploid adults and short lived haploid gametes  non overlapping generation   no evolutionary forces operating (no mutation, selection, migration or  sampling error)  random mating  o calculating genotype proportions and allele proportions­ best done with practice  o varibales, P H Q and N, p and q o Hardy Weinberg follows p^2+2pq+q^2=1 o Individual fitness vs relative fitness  o K=1/2 for sexually reproducing organisms, S is experimentally given, f is fecundity.  Multiply all three with each other to get W* o Individual fitness­ number of genome copies an individual leaves in the next generation o Fitness­ average number of genome copies an individual of a specified genotype leaves in the next gen o Relative fitness­ fitness/Max fitness  o Selection differential (S) = Average(selected)­Average (whole population) o Response differential= Average (whole pop in gen 1)­Average (whole pop in gen 0) o Realized heritability= R/S o Response to selection=Heriatability x Seletion Differential  Sexual selection   Definition: struggle between the individuals of one sex to have a possession of the other  sex   Important distinction­ the more a male mates the higher his fitness. But a female needs to  mate once and has a supply of sperm for the rest of her life  Brighter features have a higher mating success according to Bateman’s experiment (but  also they have a higher chance of being caught by predators if predators are present)   Intrasexual sexual selection­ competition for mates based on interactions between  members of same sex. Male male intimidation   Intersexual sexual selection­ competition based on members of opposite sex o Good genes o Direct benefit o Sensory exploitation o Sexy sons o Intersexual conflict  Coevolution: interspecific and intraspecific Sex ratio evolution   Rarest ratio­ female dominated. Female bias (mostly female population) are next rarest,  and most common is a 50/50 ratio of males and females   NEVER male bias  Speciation Basic allopatry model Sympatric speciation 


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