Intro to International Relations Study Guide
Intro to International Relations Study Guide Pol Sci 41A
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Date Created: 03/12/16
1/5/16 Intro to International Relations 1. office hours 9:3011:00 on tuesdays 2. rm 669 for TA alex 3. who cares? a. state=country 4. where to find material a. shared google drive b. eee quizzes 5. F288 scantron 6. quizzes available two days before, due at noon on the day on syllabus 1/7/16 Lecture Two Intro to Global Politics Ch 1 1. key terms a. state i. legal territorial entity composed of a stable population and gov; possesses a monopoly over legitimate use of force; its sovereignty is recognized by other states in the international system ii. this is not the only system that’s ever existed b. international i. state to state and back ii. interactions that are happening among at least three states iii. UN international organization because it comprises states c. transnational i. individuals/groups in a state to individuals/groups in a state ii. flow of immigrants iii. transnational crime drug trafficking across the border d. global i. everywhere ii. ex: climate change e. non governmental org (NGOs) international nonprofit, international org comprised of states 2. what? international issues a. security i. terrorism ii. immigration b. economy i. international monetary fund c. development d. human rights e. environment f. culture 3. who matters? international actors a. everyone matters b. but… i. the citizen the member of the state. STATES REALLY MATTER I GLOBAL POLITICS ii. the state iii. international organization iv. NGOs v. transnational social movements 4. how? levels of analysis a. descriptive tool so we can identify who matters b. individual or human dimension inside domestic sources inside systemic factors inside global factors i. ex: cellphone production 1. individual or human dimension decision making processes of people a. factory workers b. consumers c. distributors d. designer of product e. miner 2. domestic sources state, effects of political institutions, national history, national interests a. state regulations b. labor laws 3. systemic factors anarchic (absence of gov in the entire world) international system and how states cope with this perceived condition a. international labor organizations b. multinational corporations 4. global factors factors transcending these levels a. environmental pollution from factories 5. IR theories a. define theory i. set of assumptions that are used to explain a particular international phenomenon 1. ex: production of an apple phone 2. decision for US to intervene in iraq b. but who cares? i. (aka why are theories useful in IR?) 1/12/16 Pol Sci 41A Week Two The Evolution of Global Politics 1. know the years of these key events a. peace of westphalia b. french revolution c. congress of vienna d. ww1 e. ww2 f. cold war g. african independence (195060s) h. cuban missile crisis 2. peace of westphalia a. 1648 i. arrangements for governance, human rights, economics ii. introduced the sovereign state (sovereignty) 1. first time leaders came together and agreed on some system of government 2. sovereign independent, autonomous b. peace of utrecht i. formalized balance of power a just equilibrium, different states trying to balance their power against each other, military power ii. ended war of the spanish succession (17011714) 3. after thirty years war a. european international developments: 16481776 b. 1700s view that europe constituted a “republic” i. determination by all states ii. mutual recognition iii. reliance on balance of power c. diplomacy, international law, freedom i. until.. ii. napoleon emerges as leader after storm of bastille 4. revolutionary wars a. french revolutions (1789) i. sovereignty was vested in “the nations” 1. crucial impetus to the idea of national selfdetermination ii. concert of europe 1. developed after defeat of napoleon (1815) 2. “great powers’ club” 3. regional meetings to stabilize european politics 4. managed hierarchical 5. redrew lines in europe b. consequences i. congress of vienna (18141815) 1. redrew the political map of europe 2. great powers collectively guarantee various treaties a. defining status of switzerland, belgium, and luxembourg 3. many treaties established rules in various technical and economic areas a. humanitarian issues, including slavery b. treatment of those wounded in war 5. concert of europe to 1815 congress of vienna 6. meanwhile across the pond… a. 1700s 1900s emergence of the US as a superpower i. US revolution (1776) ii. after civil war (18611865) massive industrial development iii. US military expansion and sophistication 7. world war 1 a. global complex alliances and imperialism b. military technology shaped ways in which combatants fought c. why did WW1 begin? i. archbishop of serbia assasinated...trigger ii. reason: assassination of one person level: individual iii. reason: global alliance assassination level: global 8. interwar period a. treaty of versaille (1919) i. created conditions that led to world war 2 ii. germany had signed armistice in 1918 on basis of fourteen points, instead was blamed for starting war iii. germany had to pay reparations to britain and france b. league of nations wanted to prevent second world war, woodrow wilson i. failed because no key players US didn’t show up 9. world war 2 a. germany used new style of offensive warfare: blitzkrieg i. defeated poland, france, and others quickly ii. bogged down after june 1941 attack on USSR b. Holocaust: attempted genocide c. United States drawn into war following 1941 Japanese attack d. controversy continues over US decision to use atomic bombs 10. end of colonialism a. defeat of european powers undermimnes legitimacy as colonial 11. the age of decolonization AFRICAN INDEPENDENCE a. New postcolonial african states created with fundamental flaws 1/14/16 Lecture Two Realism and Liberalism Ch 3 1. Cold War: 19451991 a. distrust of ideology + vying for hegemony i. USUSSR arms race ii. NATO v. warsaw pact (an alliance that said just in case something happens, Russia would be there) b. US propaganda to promote capitalism c. soviet propaganda to promote communism d. 1962 cuban missile crisis e. arms race: example of security dilemma? i. as one state increases its military, the other matches, and so forth ii. mutually assured destruction f. Detente= decrease in tensions between US and USSR i. 1968 NPT Nuclear Non proliferation treaty ii. No WWIII iii. but Cold war was cold because we never actually fought but lived in fear, except there was not a quite peaceful experience in korea 1. proxy wars two superpowers back different sides of smaller wars g. 1989: berlin wall falls families reconnect after 30 years h. soviets take on “glasnot” (opening) and “perestroika” (reform) i. 1991: USSR breaks apart 2. effects of end of the cold war a. narrative of “winning” b. political freedom for former soviet satellite states c. new european security architecture (EU and NATO) d. conflicts become primarily INTRASTATE i. intra within the state ii. civil wars iii. because people in the state realize how destructive bombs can be, step back from interstate wars e. international intervention proliferates f. Russians are hypernationalist now because US said we were big winners so russia is a loser and that’s why they hate us 3. IR Theory a. theory i. helps describe and explain events ii. can be used to predict future actions b. dominant theories i. realism and liberalism 4. realism a. human nature Hobbes, Leviathon, idea that people need to be controlled by social contract. Human nature is naturally bad, need structure b. state sovereignty c. power (according to realists?) i. increase power of state at all costs d. therefore, a state leader’s job is to e. system is anarchic 5. realism in action a. states aim to survive because of anarchy absence of power i. survival as precondition to obtaining power ii. can lead to “moral relativism” 1. if all states do what they think is morally right for them, it means there’s not a constant understanding of what behaviors should be iii. selfhelp leads to problems concerning broader collective action problems 6. liberalism a. human nature has potential for good b. state sovereignty recognize that states are still critical actor c. cooperation among states d. fueled by enlightenment, 15th century trade … and Kantian desire to end war 1/19/16 PS 41A Week Three Global Actors and Sovereignty 1. student services 2 room 110 ( STUDY ABROAD ) 2. clarifying the “state” a. we know… i. it is the most important actor in the modern international system ii. the concept of state is central to all relationships in global politics iii. foreign policy is the process by which the system of states interacts 1. tries to influence behavior of other states b. be able to define… and give examples i. government 1. a form of bureaucracy, that is determining how collective goods or bads in a given territory 2. security, national security companies don’t do that, but governments do. Immigration, antiterrorism, ii. nation 1. a group of people that share an identity JUST TALKING ABOUT THE PEOPLE 2. may or may not have a legally defined territory 3. Ex: Taiwan is a disputed nation some identify themselves as ethnically Chinese iii. state 1. four characteristics a. sovereignty autonomy, makes reference to the monopoly over the use of force, recognition b. population c. government d. territory distinction between state and nation. territory not disputed in the state iv. nationstate 1. territory where people have a shared common identity 3. sovereignty and the state system a. recall 1648 westphalian system b. how has globalization affected the state system? i. not acceptable to go and colonize other countries states are obligated to respect the sovereignty of other states ii. controlling their borders easier to connect supply and demand (drug trafficking) iii. nontraditional security threats human trafficking iv. it’s harder for states to maintain an “american” identity idea of identity changes when you’re able to move across borders v. proliferation of NGOS c. what about nationalism? i. it’s harder for states to maintain an “american” identity idea of identity changes when you’re able to move across borders ii. d. nontraditional vs traditional security threat i. traditional security threat that is being posed by another state 1. ex: Iran, poses threat by nuclear weapon development ii. nontraditional 1. not the state itself posing that threat a. human trafficking b. organized crime 4. states and foreign policy a. foreign policy articulation of national interests and the means chosen to secure those interests i. implementing b. so...what is a “national interest” i. the _material interest (tangible, promoting trade, financial, energy, oil)__ and _ideational (derived from idea,intangible, promoting of values like democracy, human rights, liberty, capitalism, privatization)__ goals of nationstate ii. and result of Putnam’s twolevel game 1. there’s an international level and domestic level. 2. has to balance for the interest of the american people (domestic) while simultaneously balancing the interests of the whole world (international level) 1/21/16 Lecture 2 1. liberalism a. human nature? maybe humans are able to change b. state sovereignty states are main actors c. cooperation among states cooperation among states is possible d. fueled by enlightenment, 15th century trade 2. liberalism in action a. liberal state has i. human rights ii. parliamentary democracy iii. free market economy (capitalism) b. in relations with other states, liberal internationalism means… i. states are supportive of joining international institutions ii. free trade export and import of goods and services minimize barriers. 1. if we trade a lot, (interdependence on other economies), doing so increases our chances of having sustainable peaceful relations 3. leading critical theories a. marxism i. view that social, political, and economic world should be analyzed a s a whole 1. critical theory: a. explained how world developed while critiquing its defects b. IR cannot be understood without thinking about that social context ii. goal 1. classless and stateless society iii. capitalism is 1. system of production for sale on a market for profit on the basis of the individual 2. because of this class structure, there are those who own and are the workers, certain individuals are for sale and the entire system is set up to be constantly extracting profit iv. communist manifesto (1848) 1. “the history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles” 2. Mao, Russia follow the GOAL for the workers to have a revolution and to rise up b. the essential marxism i. economic development is the motor of history 1. technological advancements changes previous relations in production industrial revolution 2. marx expected this transformation in advanced industrial societies a. that this would dominate ii. the key role of class in marxist analysis 1. proletariat vs bourgeoisie 2. workers vs owners of means of production iii. effects of globalization? 1. global.. iv. prescription? c. constructivism i. the actions and words of people make society/state ii. society, in turn, shapes our actions and words and creates … rules 1. rules ex: respect each other’s soveriegnty iii. the state is really the product of the actions and rules of people that they follow iv. intersubjective looking social relations within the global community v. critiques the emphasis of the state vi. what really matters is social context actions and words of people make society vii. ex: embassy there’s no rule that the state has to have embassies. unspoken rule. viii. behavior is shaped by social context ix. less emphasis on state, more emphasis on the individual 1. state itself is a social construction x. state’s power within a system based on 2 factors 1. material factors a. control of resources 2. discursive power a. power based on knowledge and the control of language and ideas within a society b. to use language (discourse) to send out a message 3. anarchy is what states make of it a. totally different than realists and liberalists absence of rules b. constructivists say there ARE rules, it’s just socially constructed i. obama’s anarchy is different than bush’s anarchy because it’s based on the context of the state and state leaders xi. meanings of key terms are fixed through politics 1. one person’s terrorist is the other person’s freedom fighter xii. once these meanings are fixed they have consequences for the ability of people to determine their fates 1. if you choose not to call it a genocide, you are not legally obligated to intervene 2. waterboarding is it torture? because if it is, US is engaged in torture. we signed international agreements that we weren’t going to torture people 3. words itself hold power xiii. constructivists have offered two additions to this view of power: 1. ideational or discursive 2. your way of thinking is “the norm” d. constructivism and change i. actors try to change norms that shape: 1. state identity 2. state interests ii. how do constructivists explain world order? 4. feminist IR theory a. “gender” social construction of the difference between “men” and “women” b. explain: gender v. sex i. sex biologically how you are born, gender is socially constructed you decide what gender you are 1. gender affects world politics and 2. world politics affect gender c. varieties of feminist theories liberal, socialist/marxist, standpoint, postmodern, postcolonial 1/26/16 Int Relations Global and Regional Governance 1. Realist perspective on Foreign policy a. classical realists: states are unitary, rational, self interested. i. nation interests are resources, security, SURVIVAL b. foreign policy tools: military power c. power matters (classical) … or security matters (neorealist) d. best policy? e. rationally maximize state benefits and minimize risks f. defensive realists build up power in order to be able to defend against attack. Israel vs Egypt 2. liberal perspective on foreign policy a. liberal internationalism: Kantian view b. national interests are to maximize cooperation (league of nations, united nations) c. fopo tools: trading soft power diplomacy d. ethical concerns and international law matters 3. constructivist perspective on fopo a. constructivism: normative context changes over time b. national interests are internal reform, defined in the context of internationally held norms and an understanding of what is good and appropriate i. ex: in cold war, in internationalist context, c. fopo tools d. norms matters e. best policy? it depends! 4. united nations a. most common international relations b. end of world war 2 c. addresses failure from league of nations i. failures 1. main actors were not involved 2. had to have a unanimous vote every state has veto power 3. incapable of acting couldn’t implement anything d. during cold war i. united nations couldn’t do anything ii. because of two hegemons e. post cold war i. US became head honcho of united nations 5. function and structure a. general assembly i. parliamentary body ii. where every recognized state has a seat iii. pass legislations and resolutions addressing a ton of shit iv. don’t have power to implement things that requires of action they can encourage, make suggestions to security council, but kind of like league of nations v. every single nation gets to be heard b. economic and social council i. implement economic policy of united nations ii. still subject to regulation by general assembly iii. coordinate with world bank world trade organizations as well as NGOs c. trusteeship council i. as of 1990s no longer needed ii. help decolonize countries as somalia and east timor and make them their own sovereign entities d. security council (UNSC) i. 15 members 5 permanent members and ten rotating members voted for by general assembly ii. perm five China, France, US, Britain, Russia 1. have power of veto single no go from one of the big five means the resolution does not pass 2. if all abstain from voting, any thing can pass with a vote of 9 of 15 members iii. only body that can pass binding resolutions 1. it means it has to happen e. international court of justice (ICJ) i. not every state in the world is in this ii. citizens cannot go to ICJ iii. states can sue other states and represent citizens iv. one of international courts 6. secretariat a. 9000 administrative staff 7. foreign policy tools a. carrots i. public diplomacy ii. humanitarian assistance iii. foreign aid iv. military aid v. positive reinforcement b. sticks i. economic sanctions ii. diplomatic sanctions iii. threat of use of force (coercion) iv. negative reinforcement 8. international law: overview a. institution: a set of rules and norms b. international law i. an international institution that states created 9. international law: how? a. mechanism for establishing it= multilateral diplomacy b. but how is international law enforced? i. realist: military force, launch missiles ii. liberal: diplomatic negotiations iii. constructivist: rely on common norms and utilize those to your advantage to get another country to comply c. criticisms i. founded on western values and ideas ii. others? 10. international law: the nitty gritty a. customary international law constructivist, laws can emerge from norm policies i. if someone isn’t able to fight, you should not kill them b. codified international law i. geneva convention (conventions, treaties) ii. bilateral agreements between states iii. multilateral treaties among states (NAFTA) iv. resolutions c. writing of scholars 11. international law: the subjects a. pre WWll: only states, treaties and resolutions dealt with states b. Post WWll: development of a system that can deal with individuals c. important moments i. Nuremborg trials ii. international tribunal for the former yugoslavia 12. international law: case study international humanitarian law a. humanitarian law innately tied to times of conflict war, military action, this comes into play i. how do you treat civilians during war, etc. b. international human rights law i. how should states deal with civilian populations, asylum seekers 13. humanitarian law origins a. little if any regulations befor 19th century b. old testament c. mercy and noncombatants d. islamic code of conduct e. women and children, those not fighting f. exceptions: those who refuse to convert or pay a tax g. american civil war (lieber war) h. battle of solferino (modern day italy) i. france and sardinia vs austria ii. 4700 killed iii. 22700 wounded iv. henry dunant wrote “a memory of solferino” v. international community of the red cross i. geneva convention 1 addresses how you treat wounded, etc. i. liberties minimum standard treatment for all persons 1. prohibition of a. wanton violence b. taking hostages c. humiliation and degrading treatment d. trial ii. rights 1. provides for: a. treatment of a person’s mind and spirit b. economic rights c. social rights d. religious rights j. geneva convention 2 maritime i. a ship must retrieve and save as many of the opposing sides soldiers once they sink a ship k. impact of ww2 3 and 4 i. prisoners of war ii. civilian populations l. Hague conventions of 1899 and 1907 concerning “war proper” i. in general 1. no use of dum dum bullets 2. torture 3. the use of poison gas ii. ramifications 1. set up norms and rules we expect other countries to abide by 1/28/16 Regional Organizations and Nongovernmental Actors 1. local NGO a. NGO where activities take place in the same place where the headquarters are in the same country they’re trying to reform b. can be local NGO that helps ensure farmers are getting clean water environmental, health related 2. international NGO a. difference between international organizations organizations are made of states, NGOs do not represent states i. the people making the decisions in the NGO are individuals who are not states ii. similar to companies b. nonprofit different from a company i. similar to international NGO and MNC (money driven) 3. regional organization a. comprised of states among the same area ‘ b. ex: i. european union ii. african union c. regional organizations have an option to be a part of the UN charter (fit with norms), or not d. there IS a legal framework, but can be global actors. e. particular type of international organization f. regional cooperation (relative to global) i. advantages 1. countries that are in regional organizations have a shared background 2. sense of identity 3. because common interests, they can get things done and intervene, unlike the UN where there is gridlock ii. disadvantages 1. may not be a completely neutral party a. ex: african union. has conflict management capacities peacekeeping. one of the problems is that when you send african american peacekeepers to another country, the people might be a part of that country, so they cannot be a third party 4. european organizations a. ex: LAS (middle east and north africa) i. League of Arab States 1. want countries to figure out crap in the org and not on the battlefield 5. each organization has their own version of a security council a. has its own political body that is the most important political body in the organization i. ex: African Union 1. every country in the continent of Africa is represented in the headquarters of the African Union except Morocco 6. a lot of organizations engage in the same activities a. involve multiple countries coming together 7. origins of each of these organizations a. in african union, created after the end of colonialism (era of independence). states finally gaining independence from european countries, and the most important thing to them is that the carving out of borders is never going to happen, SOVEREIGNTY b. to assure one another’s t erritorial integrity c. founded on principle of NONINTERVENTION d. intervening in somalia subsequently, african union had a series of international agreements and there were specific conditions under which it would be legitimate for african union countries to come together and intervene (like crimes against humanity, genocide) e. goal of african union promote peace on the continent so they do peacekeeping f. EUROPEAN UNION started off as a group of countries interested in integrating coal and steel industries ECONOMIC INTEGRATION (tie our economies together so states are dependent, SO WE CAN PREVENT A THIRD WORLD WAR) i. have their own currency ii. have own set of laws 1. really unusual ex: california has state laws and then there’s federal law federal law trumps state laws 2. their set of laws trump state law at countries 3. competition policy EU trumps that 4. all related to economic laws iii. even though there are EU laws and integration (supranational level), except for security and defense. they are purely intergovernmental (states agree to go have peacekeeping or sending troops, not up to EU) g. OAS i. a history of US support and US interventionism ii. United move toward democracy and interstate cooperation iii. origin after colonialism iv. democracy promotion election monitoring v. americas h. OSCE i. arms control ii. election monitoring iii. gender equality iv. border control v. started during the cold war dialogue from one side of the iron curtain to the other (western states communicate with the eastern) vi. aimed to reduce tensions 2 2/2/16 International Political Economy: Part One 1. OSCE a. arms control b. election monitoring c. gender equality d. border control e. whole point is to create a dialogue between western and eastern side of iron curtain conflict control 2. NATO a. origins: beginning of cold war b. set up as “collective offense” c. Article Five if one member of NATO gets attacked then everyone supports the country d. regional organization e. set up so as to protect the member states of NATO f. 19451989 everything very uncertain. fall of berlin wall. full collapse of soviet union. cold war g. warsaw pact their version of NATO eastern block h. OUT OF AREA OPERATIONS during cold war we understood purpose of NATO, and after they looked for a purpose afterwards. military alliance. i. after cold war, increase in internal conflicts ii. and so now, NATO has been running operations in Afghanistan, training Afghanistan soldiers, so no more military operations but civilian operations iii. but now budget crisis if states have budget crisis, NATO suffers i. article 5 is VERY UNUSUAL most collective organizations don’t have that 3. ASEAN a. indonesia b. malaysia c. singapore (1 of 4 Tigers) d. thailand e. brunei f. cambodia g. laos h. myanmar i. philippines j. vietnam k. CONFLICT MANAGEMENT hands on. No military operations around world. built on the same principles other organizations. i. states must respect territorial integrity/sovereignty ii. FIRM POLICY ON NONINTERVENTION iii. do not intervene in each other’s domestic affairs l. coming into existence in response to external threat like NATO i. their threat was THE RISE OF CHINA ii. they wanted to boost their economies in competition with China iii. boost economies by working together iv. ECONOMIC, NONINTERVENTION BASED 4. League of Arab States a. in response to external threat i. in response to rise of Israel b. over time, they start off with just being involved in one activity (like NATO, just in case organization) i. but overtime, NATO becomes more and more active institutionalizing, growing c. league of arab states no exception i. turns out it initially started about how can we cooperate with economy/military issues, ii. BUT NOW BECOMING OBSERVERS intelligence gathering. sufficient information to be able to make next decision 5. NGO: A type of non state actor a. why do they matter? b. practical reason i. do a good job of bringing awareness to key issues ii. influence policy lobbyists. these things matter are accessible iii. THAT THEY CAN INFLUENCE STATES’ POLICIES c. academic reasons? i. bias in the realist claim that only states matter ii. some realist scholars accept that transnational relations have changed global interactions 6. MANY NON STATE ACTORS (NSA) a. INGOs b. TANs i. transnational actor network network of activists motivated by a principle idea or value ii. transnational people crossing borders, PEOPLE across borders who are sharing some sort of idea or value 1. ex: movement to end child marriage c. Foundations i. organizations that are giving money for certain causes d. Think Tanks i. thinking in order to come up with policy e. MNCs f. Terrorist Groups g. Organized Crime Networks i. non state actors umbrella term h. global civil society = citizens OUTSIDE public or private spheres 7. example: local NGOs and INGOs a. local NGOs serve one country b. International NGOs headquarters in one and serving more than three countries 8. sources of NGO influence a. attention: calling out global attention to a representative event b. information: to government officials and the public c. moral pressure leverage politics media d. accountability compelling governments to live up to their commitments 9. MNCS: the bad and the ugly and the good a. goals maximize profit 25% of GDP comes from MNCs b. contributions c. externalities effect on pollution, climate change, externalities are side effects/downside. 10. how do IR theories perceive MNCS? a. realist: power. against MNCs. because they view MULTI NATIONAL corporations a threat to their power because it’s some other actor outside of the state. Ex: Google. concerned b. liberals: ok with MNCs. They are contributing to economic integration. working together, trade more, higher chance of peace c. marxists: MNCs are furthering class differences, and that they’re really representing the worst of capitalism 11. international political economy a. IPE=study of what drives and explains world events in world economy i. today 1. integrating postconflict and postCommunist economies into world economy 2. global recovery from 20089 global recession 3. globalization has led to a trend of growing trade 2/4/16 Lecture Two IPE (international political economy) and Globalization 1. learning objectives a. review key terms in IPE b. know the costs/benefits of free trade c. explain the functions of bretton woods institutions d. understand varied economic impacts of globalization on states 2. trends in IPE a. globalization has led to a trend of increased trade, which has led to greater increased economic interdependence b. Ex: Greece, people slowed in europe because they thought it’d be affected c. result? i. worldwide growth ii. 2008 global recession d. role of bretton woods institutions 3. the bretton woods system: brief history a. after world war 2, i. bretton created to… 1. prevent future economic catastrophes (avoid world war 3 and great depression 2) 2. promote the rebuilding of the european economy 3. watch youtube (bretton woods system in five minutes) 4. LARGELY DUE TO DEVASTATION OF WORLD WAR 2 a. liberal thinking: interdependence between countries so they don’t fight b. the most important i. world bank 1. lend money to warravaged countries ii. IMF 1. monitor exchange rates 2. lend reserve currencies to nations with trade deficits 3. encourage international trade 4. bretton woods system: the IOS a. know the goals and activities of each! i. World Trade Organization (WTO) 1. trade ii. World Bank 1. washington d.c. 2. for development initiatives a. not just economically b. job training, public health, environmental issues, infrastructure c. TRYING TO IMPROVE QUALITY OF LIFE FOR HUMAN BEINGS (mostly in developing countries) i. developing v developed 1. not just first world or third world anymore 2. bigger GDPs, access to running water, developed iii. international monetary fund 1. monitor and give loans a. particularly to poorer countries 5. perspective on these institutions a. global north perspective: i. only option on the table ii. moral responsibility b/c shared humanity iii. ethical responsibility b/c north impoverished the south b. global south perspective: i. institutions perpetuate cycle of colonialism ii. IMF and world bank far removed from local politics iii. weighted voting system is biased against global South iv. “by imposing these requirements to make all these changes to our domestic policies, this is a threat to our sovereignty; our ability as states to manage our own affairs” v. “how can all these people from washington know what we need. you’re not here” vi. a lot less say in these organizations 6. trade: key terminology a. trade balance (deficit v. surplus) i. how much you export minus how much you import ii. how much money are you getting from selling products vs. how much money is going out for when you’re buying products iii. exports exceeding imports great! surplus b. free trade i. eliminating trade barriers ii. may be positive that countries can now import and export great for consumers iii. but goods become cheaper the farmers are now having to compete with the US in South Korea iv. support for it increases GDP and economic growth (WTO role of WTO) c. tariffs v. nontariff Barriers i. tariff = tax/fee ii. ex: imported cheese is highly taxed, so expensive b/c US wants US cheese to be bought first. iii. nontariff not a tax. make it more difficult and costly by establishing quotas (you can only import into the US a certain number of cheeses). demand goes up, but there’s a quota, so price stays high d. economic sanctions i. a punishment/penalty ii. one or more state is putting a restriction on trade in a key industry iii. what’s the point? iv. because you are not happy with political decisions another state is making v. ex: diplomatic sanction “ no i don’t want to put an embassy there” 7. loans: key treminology a. balance of payment deficit b. conditionality i. requirements that they have for the states to change their domestic affairs economic reforms 2/9/16 Environmental Issues Ch 14 1. midterm what to expect a. 22 multiple choice i. each worth 4 points b. C CC C CD 2 short answers i. each worth 6 points ii. total possible 100 c. bring i. 2 number 2 pencils ii. 2 F288 scantrons d. what to study i. in order of priority 1. notes from class up until (today) 2. share notes and do study groups ii. powerpoint slides 1. (available on shared google drive folder) iii. quizzes 1. (answer keys on eee) iv. textbook 1. (especially review key terms, concepts and debates) 2. learning objectives a. identify major impacts of globalization on the environment b. understand the free rider problem in the context of environment c. explain the connections between war and environmental degradations 3. globalization’s ecological footprint a. positive effects? i. allowing activists to unite across borders (TANs, transnational, easing communications, policy coordination) ii. there is pressure to make production more efficient, so less pollution (because of competition) b. negative effects? i. infrastructure international trade causes habitat destruction in order to create roads ii. global north exports “dirty industries” to the global south (we are not polluting less, we are just polluting south) 4. main actors in the politics of the environment a. environmental regimes i. (ozone protection, fisheries, seed bank) ii. type of international institution that has many types of actors iii. not just states (as in int’l law) b. NGOs i. WWF, greenpeace ii. human rights and environment iii. able to operate internationally because of globalization c. epistemic communities i. universities, think tanks ii. group of professionals in a particular area d. who else? i. STATES 1. regulation a. carbon taxes (UN pushes for getting taxes on level of carbon) 5. key terminology a. public good i. a good that is both nonexcludable and nonrivalrous 1. individuals cannot be effectively be excluded from use of good (like air, can’t stop air), one’s individual’s use does not reduce the level of availability to another a. ex: clean air, clean oceans, fisheries, the entire global environment b. global commons i. areas and resources that are not under national sovereignty 1. ex: not owned by a particular state 2. ex: space, Antarctica, high seas c. free riding i. when one member benefits without paying the costs for those benefits and other members are paying the cost 1. ex: india china and US sign Kyoto protocol china and US reduce emissions, but india does not. India benefits from cleaner air even though they did not pay the cost of reducing their emissions ii. collective action problem 1. where no one shows up so we all lose when we vote 2. when all members support the same cause, but no individual member wants to pay the cost d. sustainable development i. idea that you have development that meets the needs of the present, without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs 1. ex: institute a type of farming that in 20 years people will still be able to farm 6. brief history of cooperation a. 1972 stockholm conference > UN environment programme i. 26 points in stockholm b. 1987 montreal protocol > protection of ozone layer c. 2002 world summit on sustainable development i. emphasis on poverty, clean water, sanitation, and agricultural improvements 7. limitations to such cooperations? a. 1997 kyoto protocol 37 countries i. agreement to cut greenhouse gas emissions ii. collective action problem 8. global change and the earth system: exploring causes, consequences and solutions a. a success story of environmental movement i. CFC’s and ozone hole ii. discovered that Cl was destroying ozone iii. montreal protocol reduce CFCs iv. multilateral fund 147/197 qualify for assistance from wealthier countries to get equipment to close ozone 9. the greenhouse effect a. some sunlight that
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