New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here

Test 2 study guide

by: Graham Notetaker

Test 2 study guide Bio131

Marketplace > Elon University > Biology > Bio131 > Test 2 study guide
Graham Notetaker
Elon University
GPA 3.5

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Protista and Fungi notes for upcoming test
David Vandermast
Study Guide
Biodiversity, Bio, Science
50 ?




Popular in Biodiversity

Popular in Biology

This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.


Reviews for Test 2 study guide


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 03/12/16
Graham Kulig  Biodiversity   Dr. Vandermast    Review for Test 2    *Will be more of identifying organisms (only ones that are in lab, make a list)   *Pay attention to synapomorphies!!!  *most basal lineages  *Answer for extra credit (pilobolus)    PROTISTA       Background Info:    ● Paraphyletic group (ancestor, and ​ some of its descendants)  ● Mixotrophs​  (can perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic functions)  ● All eukaryotic ​except for plants, animals, and fungi  ● The first eukaryote split was between ​ unikonts​  and bikonts    IMPACT ON HUMANS:  ● Irish Famine caused by a protist  ● Causes Diseases  ○ malaria  ○ blindness from AIDS  ○ dysentery     Ecosystem Services:  ​ “Fixation vs. Sequestration​ ”     ● Fixation is the process of converting inorganic matter into organic carbon  ● Sequestration is CO2 being taken from atmosphere and stored as a liquid or  solid for a long period of time.          ● Primary endosymbiosis:  ○ Cyanobacteria engulfed, lives inside, leaks carbon and ATP, and provides  for host  ● Secondary endosymbiosis  ○ Occurs when an organism engulfs a photosynthetic cell and retains its  chloroplasts  ■ Chloroplasts surrounded by ​ 4​ membranes now    Types of feeding:  ● Absorptive/decomposer­takes in nutrients through decomposition or living off of  dead matter (saprophytic)  ● Parasitic­lives off of host cell  ● Ingestive feeding­ AKA engulfing. Organism will surround and engulf prey.       Reproduction:  ● Sexual reproduction:  ○ Based on m ​eiosis (must be dploid to get thd)  ○ MUST BE​ DIPLOID  ○ Produces ​ gametes  ○ Sex cells have n=23 to compliment other half the baby organism will be  getting from other parent    ● Asexual reproduction:  ○ Based on ​ mitosis  ○ It is responsible for all the growth that makes us what we are  ○ Mitosis: 2n=4 splits leaves two cells with 2n=4, identical to parent  ○ Think ​duplicatio, not division  ● Haploid:​ n=23 (gametes, sperm cells)   ● Diploid:​ 2n=46 (majority of cells in body)  ● Chromosomes come in pairs, living with 3 or 1 usually means death  ○ 1­22 are called autosomes  ○ 23 are sex chromosomes   ○ Chromatids:​  DNA that has replicated itself     Meiosis In depth: PMAT!  ● Prophase:   ○ Homologous chromosomes come together to form ​ tetrad 4 chromatids  together, process is called synaps) During thischromatids overlap and  swap identical genetic information, and because this is 3D, they can  overlap anywhere. This means the new chromosomes will not be identical  to each other.   ○ You get: one chromatid that is identical to dad paired with one that is  mostly dad, some of mom. Vice versa for other chromosome.   ● Metaphase:  ○  Entire Chromosomes move to sides of cell anticipating split.   ● Anaphase:   ○ Pulled to poles  ● Telophase/cytokinesis:   ○ Cell splits    *meiosis 1: homologs get pulled apart   *meiosis 2:very much like mitosi, chromatids get pulled apart. producing gametes at  end( sperm/egg cells)    Alternation of generations:  ● Multicellular protists have one phase of life that is based on a haploid form and  another that is based on a diploid form:  ○ This phenomenon is known as​  alternation of generations     ● Multicellular haploid​  is called gametophyte​ , produces gametes by mitosis    ● Multicellular diploid is calledsporophyte​, produces spores by ​meiosis   ○ Spore is a single cell. A spore divides by mitosis to form ahaploid​,  multicellulagametophyte      ● Isomorphic: ​ When the gametophyte and sporophyte look the same  ● Heteromorphic:  sporophyte is giant, gametophyte is tiny  ○ ***“We have some algae that demonstrate one of these two things.  memorize them, and answer the question on the test correctly!”    Lineages:     Amoebozoa  ● Species in the amoebozoa lack cell walls and take in in food by ​ engulfing   ● They move via ​ pseudopodia   ● Plasmodial Slime Mold  ○ Supercell containing many diploid nuclei    Excavata: ​  ● Named for the excavated feeding groove found on one side of the cell     Excavata​ Parabasalids:  ● All parasites  ● Lack cell wall and mitochondria        Excavata ​ iplomonads​  ● Live in low O2   ● Have 2 nuclei    Excavata E uglena:  ● One third are photosynthetic  ● Light sensitive eyespots and use flagella to swim towards light     Plantae:  ● Red and Green algae  ○ Red algae live in marine habitats, and are mostly unicellular   ○ Almost all  are photosynthetic  ○ Red because of ​ phycoerythrin  ○ Includes land plants  ○ Glaucophyte algae  ○ All of these lineages are descended from a common ancestor of today's  glaucophyte algae that engulfed a cyanobacterial more than 1 bya.  (primary symbiosis)  Rhizaria:  ● Single celled amoeba that lack cell walls, mostly united by genetic similarities   ○ Move by pseudopodia  ● United by DNA (synapomorphy)​  and secondary endosymbiosis   ● Represents a grade ​(shared feature, homoplasy of amoeba likeness not a clade  (synapomorphies)   ● Forams produce ​ test from which pseudopodia emerge  ○ Tests sequester carbon       Chromalveolates:   ● Alveolata  ○ small sacs, called alveoli  ○ Monophyletic group  ○ Unicellular    ● Ciliata  ○ Named for cilia that surround them  ○ 2 nuclei  ○ Filter feeders, predators, parasites  ○ Important consumers   ○ Live mutualistically within guts of animals     ● Dinoflagellates  ○ Unicellular, ocean dwelling  ○ Named for spinning motion the flagella cause    ● Apicomplexa  ○ All parasitic  ○ Causes malaria  ○ Have organelle called ​ apicoplast​ that synthesizes fatty acids. Process that  allows them to penetrate membrane of host     Stramenopiles: ​  heterokonts​ (one smooth, one rough flagella)   ● Diatoms   ○ (have glassy shell)         ● Brown Algae   ○ All are multicellular, largest and most complex  ○ Holdfast, stipe, blade   ○ Photosynthetic and ​sessil​(don’t move)   ○ Secondary endosymbiosis    FUNGI    Background Info:   ● Live in close association with plantsmutualis). Fungi get sugar from the plant,  fungi gives water and key ingredients   ● All fungi areheterotrophic, and function witabsorptive feeding  ● Fungi secrete enzymes to help digest hardwoods, because these are normally  very hard to digest cellulos, andligni)   ● Some are parasitic  ○ Haustoria:​ can penetrate host tissues    Human Impact:  ● Mycosis: Fungal infection (myco, think FUNGUS​ )   ● Yeast (beer, leavened bread, cheese etc)  ● Source for antibiotics    Morphological Traits:   1. Yeast (single celled)  2. Mycelia​: Multicellular, branch like projections.  a. The filaments that make up a mycelium are calledhyphae  b. Hyphal cells may be haploid orheterokaryoti: contains several haploid  nuclei from different parents  c. Most heterotrophic hyphae are ​dikaryotic  i.  with two haploid nuclei, one from each parent  3. Each filament is separated into compartments called s​epta  a. Gaps in septa called pores enable materials to flow between  compartments   b. Or nah. It could be coenocytic (see­no­sitic, or lacking septa entirely   4. Huge surface area  a. Fungi have the highest surface area to volume ratio of any organism  because of their hyphae  5. Reproductive structures, 4 types:  a. Chrytids have flagella, are thonly known motile fungal cells  b. Zygo​mycetes have ​ zygosporangia  c. Basidia​ are specialized spore producing cells that form at the ends of  basidiomycetes​ . Monophyletic.  d. Asci have a sac that produces spores that contain ascomycetes.  Monophyletic.    Mutualisms:  ● EMF (​ ectomycorrhizal fungi are usually basidiomycetes. NOT a synapomorphy  because of “usually.” They form a dense network of hyphae that cover a plant's  root,but do not enter root cel. Provides N and P to plant, Fungi gets sugars.  More temperate environments.   ● AMF(Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi)​  are all glomeromycetes. So, it’s a  synapomorphy for the group. Hyphae grow into cells (structure is called  arbuscule). Extremely ancient, found in 80% of land species. More tropical  environments.         Reproduction:  ● Spore is the most fundamental reproductive cell in fungi. Produced in HUGE  amounts.   ● If food is scarce, the mycelium will make spores   ● Multiple mating types:  ○ Fungi have thousands of mating types, and if they are compatible, they  will fuse. This helps to increase genetic diversity.   Fertilization:  ● Only chytridiomycota produce gametes with flagella…  ● In most fungi, theres are 2 steps:  ○ Fusion of cells  ○ Fusion of nuclei from cells   ■ (doesn’t happen until right before meiosis)     PART ONE: When Hyphae from two individuals fuse to form a hybrid hypha  ● Plasmogamy  ●  If the nuclei remains independent the mycelium becomes heterokaryotic…    PART TWO:When the nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote: ​ Karyogamy    4 major types of fungal life cycles:   1. Chytridiomycota are the only fungi that produce motile gametes and exhibit  alternation of generations  2.  Zygomycota form yoked hyphae that produce a spore­forming structure  3. Basidiomycota have reproductive structures with many spore producing basidia  4.  Ascomycota have reproductive structures, which are produced by dikaryotic  hyphae, with many spore­producing asci     Lab: coming soon in another document          


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

50 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Janice Dongeun University of Washington

"I used the money I made selling my notes & study guides to pay for spring break in Olympia, Washington...which was Sweet!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.