Test 2 study guide
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This 10 page Study Guide was uploaded by Graham Notetaker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Bio131 at Elon University taught by David Vandermast in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Biodiversity in Biology at Elon University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Graham Kulig Biodiversity Dr. Vandermast Review for Test 2 *Will be more of identifying organisms (only ones that are in lab, make a list) *Pay attention to synapomorphies!!! *most basal lineages *Answer for extra credit (pilobolus) PROTISTA Background Info: ● Paraphyletic group (ancestor, and some of its descendants) ● Mixotrophs (can perform both autotrophic and heterotrophic functions) ● All eukaryotic except for plants, animals, and fungi ● The first eukaryote split was between unikonts and bikonts IMPACT ON HUMANS: ● Irish Famine caused by a protist ● Causes Diseases ○ malaria ○ blindness from AIDS ○ dysentery Ecosystem Services: “Fixation vs. Sequestration ” ● Fixation is the process of converting inorganic matter into organic carbon ● Sequestration is CO2 being taken from atmosphere and stored as a liquid or solid for a long period of time. ● Primary endosymbiosis: ○ Cyanobacteria engulfed, lives inside, leaks carbon and ATP, and provides for host ● Secondary endosymbiosis ○ Occurs when an organism engulfs a photosynthetic cell and retains its chloroplasts ■ Chloroplasts surrounded by 4 membranes now Types of feeding: ● Absorptive/decomposertakes in nutrients through decomposition or living off of dead matter (saprophytic) ● Parasiticlives off of host cell ● Ingestive feeding AKA engulfing. Organism will surround and engulf prey. Reproduction: ● Sexual reproduction: ○ Based on m eiosis (must be dploid to get thd) ○ MUST BE DIPLOID ○ Produces gametes ○ Sex cells have n=23 to compliment other half the baby organism will be getting from other parent ● Asexual reproduction: ○ Based on mitosis ○ It is responsible for all the growth that makes us what we are ○ Mitosis: 2n=4 splits leaves two cells with 2n=4, identical to parent ○ Think duplicatio, not division ● Haploid: n=23 (gametes, sperm cells) ● Diploid: 2n=46 (majority of cells in body) ● Chromosomes come in pairs, living with 3 or 1 usually means death ○ 122 are called autosomes ○ 23 are sex chromosomes ○ Chromatids: DNA that has replicated itself Meiosis In depth: PMAT! ● Prophase: ○ Homologous chromosomes come together to form tetrad 4 chromatids together, process is called synaps) During thischromatids overlap and swap identical genetic information, and because this is 3D, they can overlap anywhere. This means the new chromosomes will not be identical to each other. ○ You get: one chromatid that is identical to dad paired with one that is mostly dad, some of mom. Vice versa for other chromosome. ● Metaphase: ○ Entire Chromosomes move to sides of cell anticipating split. ● Anaphase: ○ Pulled to poles ● Telophase/cytokinesis: ○ Cell splits *meiosis 1: homologs get pulled apart *meiosis 2:very much like mitosi, chromatids get pulled apart. producing gametes at end( sperm/egg cells) Alternation of generations: ● Multicellular protists have one phase of life that is based on a haploid form and another that is based on a diploid form: ○ This phenomenon is known as alternation of generations ● Multicellular haploid is called gametophyte , produces gametes by mitosis ● Multicellular diploid is calledsporophyte, produces spores by meiosis ○ Spore is a single cell. A spore divides by mitosis to form ahaploid, multicellulagametophyte ● Isomorphic: When the gametophyte and sporophyte look the same ● Heteromorphic: sporophyte is giant, gametophyte is tiny ○ ***“We have some algae that demonstrate one of these two things. memorize them, and answer the question on the test correctly!” Lineages: Amoebozoa ● Species in the amoebozoa lack cell walls and take in in food by engulfing ● They move via pseudopodia ● Plasmodial Slime Mold ○ Supercell containing many diploid nuclei Excavata: ● Named for the excavated feeding groove found on one side of the cell Excavata Parabasalids: ● All parasites ● Lack cell wall and mitochondria Excavata iplomonads ● Live in low O2 ● Have 2 nuclei Excavata E uglena: ● One third are photosynthetic ● Light sensitive eyespots and use flagella to swim towards light Plantae: ● Red and Green algae ○ Red algae live in marine habitats, and are mostly unicellular ○ Almost all are photosynthetic ○ Red because of phycoerythrin ○ Includes land plants ○ Glaucophyte algae ○ All of these lineages are descended from a common ancestor of today's glaucophyte algae that engulfed a cyanobacterial more than 1 bya. (primary symbiosis) Rhizaria: ● Single celled amoeba that lack cell walls, mostly united by genetic similarities ○ Move by pseudopodia ● United by DNA (synapomorphy) and secondary endosymbiosis ● Represents a grade (shared feature, homoplasy of amoeba likeness not a clade (synapomorphies) ● Forams produce test from which pseudopodia emerge ○ Tests sequester carbon Chromalveolates: ● Alveolata ○ small sacs, called alveoli ○ Monophyletic group ○ Unicellular ● Ciliata ○ Named for cilia that surround them ○ 2 nuclei ○ Filter feeders, predators, parasites ○ Important consumers ○ Live mutualistically within guts of animals ● Dinoflagellates ○ Unicellular, ocean dwelling ○ Named for spinning motion the flagella cause ● Apicomplexa ○ All parasitic ○ Causes malaria ○ Have organelle called apicoplast that synthesizes fatty acids. Process that allows them to penetrate membrane of host Stramenopiles: heterokonts (one smooth, one rough flagella) ● Diatoms ○ (have glassy shell) ● Brown Algae ○ All are multicellular, largest and most complex ○ Holdfast, stipe, blade ○ Photosynthetic and sessil(don’t move) ○ Secondary endosymbiosis FUNGI Background Info: ● Live in close association with plantsmutualis). Fungi get sugar from the plant, fungi gives water and key ingredients ● All fungi areheterotrophic, and function witabsorptive feeding ● Fungi secrete enzymes to help digest hardwoods, because these are normally very hard to digest cellulos, andligni) ● Some are parasitic ○ Haustoria: can penetrate host tissues Human Impact: ● Mycosis: Fungal infection (myco, think FUNGUS ) ● Yeast (beer, leavened bread, cheese etc) ● Source for antibiotics Morphological Traits: 1. Yeast (single celled) 2. Mycelia: Multicellular, branch like projections. a. The filaments that make up a mycelium are calledhyphae b. Hyphal cells may be haploid orheterokaryoti: contains several haploid nuclei from different parents c. Most heterotrophic hyphae are dikaryotic i. with two haploid nuclei, one from each parent 3. Each filament is separated into compartments called septa a. Gaps in septa called pores enable materials to flow between compartments b. Or nah. It could be coenocytic (seenositic, or lacking septa entirely 4. Huge surface area a. Fungi have the highest surface area to volume ratio of any organism because of their hyphae 5. Reproductive structures, 4 types: a. Chrytids have flagella, are thonly known motile fungal cells b. Zygomycetes have zygosporangia c. Basidia are specialized spore producing cells that form at the ends of basidiomycetes . Monophyletic. d. Asci have a sac that produces spores that contain ascomycetes. Monophyletic. Mutualisms: ● EMF ( ectomycorrhizal fungi are usually basidiomycetes. NOT a synapomorphy because of “usually.” They form a dense network of hyphae that cover a plant's root,but do not enter root cel. Provides N and P to plant, Fungi gets sugars. More temperate environments. ● AMF(Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi) are all glomeromycetes. So, it’s a synapomorphy for the group. Hyphae grow into cells (structure is called arbuscule). Extremely ancient, found in 80% of land species. More tropical environments. Reproduction: ● Spore is the most fundamental reproductive cell in fungi. Produced in HUGE amounts. ● If food is scarce, the mycelium will make spores ● Multiple mating types: ○ Fungi have thousands of mating types, and if they are compatible, they will fuse. This helps to increase genetic diversity. Fertilization: ● Only chytridiomycota produce gametes with flagella… ● In most fungi, theres are 2 steps: ○ Fusion of cells ○ Fusion of nuclei from cells ■ (doesn’t happen until right before meiosis) PART ONE: When Hyphae from two individuals fuse to form a hybrid hypha ● Plasmogamy ● If the nuclei remains independent the mycelium becomes heterokaryotic… PART TWO:When the nuclei fuse to form a diploid zygote: Karyogamy 4 major types of fungal life cycles: 1. Chytridiomycota are the only fungi that produce motile gametes and exhibit alternation of generations 2. Zygomycota form yoked hyphae that produce a sporeforming structure 3. Basidiomycota have reproductive structures with many spore producing basidia 4. Ascomycota have reproductive structures, which are produced by dikaryotic hyphae, with many sporeproducing asci Lab: coming soon in another document
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