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General Chemistry 1 Study Guide 2

by: Erika Scholl

General Chemistry 1 Study Guide 2 CHEM 1230-022

Marketplace > University of Toledo > Chemistry > CHEM 1230-022 > General Chemistry 1 Study Guide 2
Erika Scholl
GPA 3.367

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About this Document

This is a study guide for the second exam.
General Chemistry 1
Terry Bigiono
Study Guide
General Chemistry study guide 2
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika Scholl on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to CHEM 1230-022 at University of Toledo taught by Terry Bigiono in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry 1 in Chemistry at University of Toledo.

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Date Created: 03/12/16
General Chemistry Midterm Exam 2 Study Guide Conversions Ex) 355 km  10^3m  10^­3s = 355 m                S     1 km       ms              ms Empirical Formula is the smallest ratio of elements. Ex) C2 H3 O2 is empirical        C4 H6 O4 is not empirical. 2 can be divided out of them all. Molecular formula is a multiple of the empirical formula. Ex)      Limiting reactant NH3 + O2         NO + H2O NO is the limiting reactant. Percent Yield Actual yield          * 100% Theoretical Yield What is the percent yield of H2O if 138g is produced from 16g of H2 and excess O2? 2H2 + 02 = 2H2O # g H2O = 16g H2 * 1 mol H2 * 2 mol H2O * 18.02g H20 = 143g H2O                                   2.02g H2    2 mol H2        1 mol H2O % yield = actual * 100%  = 138g H2O *100% = 96.7%               theoretical              143g H2O  Formulas Grams given * 1 mol * 6.022x10^23 molecules = ?molecules                      Molar mass         1 mol                     Of element(s) XMass given * 1 mol of X     *   Ymoles given in formula   *  Grams of Y   = Grams of Y                   Molar mass of X        X moles given in formula       1 mol of Y         Molarity = Moles of solute              M = n           n = v * M      v = n                Volume of solute (L)                v                                       M Molarity = mol          M = mol                     L                      L Electrolytes are compounds that ionize and conduct electricity Strong acids and bases are strong electrolytes Weak electrolytes are:   HF  HCN  C2H4O2 Soluble Elements and compounds  Li  Na  K  Rb  Cs  NH4+  NO3­  ClO4­  C2H3O2­  SO4^2­  except Sr^2+ , Ba2+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+  Cl­  Br­           except Ag+ , Hg2^2+ , Pb^2+  I­ Oxidation: loss of one or more electrons Reduction: gain of one or more electrons Redox: electrons are transferred  H2 S O4     2(+1) + ? + 4(­2) = 0 net charge +1  ?  ­2      S = +6 (charges) Redox: hydrocarbon + 02(g)          CO2(g) + H2O(l)  Titration Net Ionic Equation  Formulas for Wavelength, Energy, and Frequency: Wave length =    Frequency = V Energy = E Planks constant = h h = 6.626x10^ ­34 J*S Speed of light = c c = 3.00x10^8 m/s m = mass = c/v     V=c/        E = h*V = h*c/      = h*c/E    E=mc^2 Atomic Size of Elements  Quantum Numbers Zeff = nuclear charge Zactual = number of inner electrons Zeff = Zactual – electron shielding  Ex) Cl 17 protons – 10 electrons = +7  Cation is always smaller than the atom from which it was formed Anion is always larger Ionization energy = Ei1, Ei2, Ei3…… Ei2 is higher than Ei1… Lowest Ei values: group 1A (Alkali metals) Highest Ei values: group 8A (Nobel gasses) Ei values decrease going down within the groups. Covalent bond = sharing electrons and directional Ionic bonds= anions and cations and all directions Polar covalent = unequal sharing of electrons


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