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CINE 212 Midterm Study Guide

by: Lindsey Irizarry

CINE 212 Midterm Study Guide 212

Marketplace > San Francisco State University > Film > 212 > CINE 212 Midterm Study Guide
Lindsey Irizarry
GPA 4.0

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Notes from Week 1- Week 6, all material going to be discussed on the first midterm.
Film History ll
Study Guide
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lindsey Irizarry on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 212 at San Francisco State University taught by Behrens in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Film History ll in Film at San Francisco State University.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Film History II   Week 1  02.01.16  Post World War II Italy  ● Death of Mussolini and fall of Fascism  ● 1946: Italians vote to abolish the Monarchy­royals are sent to live in exile  ○ the country was divided   ● Marshall Plan: European Recovery Program gifted $13 billion to Europe to rebuild and to ensure that  communism would not prevail in the void of power. Created by Secretary of state george marshall  ● High Inflation was rampant, jobs and economic security was scarce.     Italian NeoRealism  ● Reaction to the devastation of Italy following the war  ○ reacting to the world around them: tragic, devastation, sad   ● Shift in story arcs: creating narratives that value the everyday experience over the classical, tension driven  story structure  ● → situates characters as “everyman” types  ● Not a documentary, rather a purposeful attempt to reflect life as it was being lived.  ● A social critique of the impact politics and war had on those who had no say in the matter, the lower and  middle classes.    Aesthetics: Non­Professional actors, long takes, deep focus, eye­level cameras, combination of art & politic woven  into the style, exploration of the lower & middle classes, lack of adherence to traditional story structures    Vittorio de Sica ­ director Bicycle Thieves  ● Protagonist and son are nonprofessional actors    Week 2  Neorealism Spreads  India’s Independence­ Under British Rule  ● India Quit Movement ​ launched August 8 1942 was a civil disobedience movement inspired by Mahatma  Gandhi.  ● Non­violent revolution demanding the British “Quit” India and restore governance to the Indian People and  refusing the send Indians to fight in WWII  ● Many violent clashes did also ensue via the Indian Navy and on behalf of the British towards Indians  practicing nonviolence.   ● 1947: creation of theDemocratic Government of India​  as well as the partitioning of Pakistan as a Muslim  state and Bangladesh (East Bengal)    Satyajit Ray:  Inspired by Italian neorealism   ➔ desired to make films in opposition to the Bombay, formulaic, studio approach.   ➔ obligated to “morally and artistically make films that have their roots in the soil of our province”    The Apu Trilogy  1. Pather Panchali  2. Aparajito  3. Apu Sansar  Made on a shoestring budget, ▯Represented the only alternative cinema from India until recent years  ● Served as a source of criticism for Indians who felt this showed the country in a poor light but was praised in  international circles for its ability to stand in for universal humanist themes  Week 3  02.15.16  Art(isnal) Cinema:A cinema of ​interiorit (mental states) and style rather than exteriority (physical action) and plot  ●  should have a beginning, middle and end but not necessarily in that order  ● A clear relationship to the socio­historical world in which they exist. Art Cinema repurposes the story, the  image and the sounds to create a new type of historical document.  ○ Reconstructing the framework that opposes typical mainstream​  layout/structure by taking risks    Realism  1. Formally​­ presents the story in an unobtrusive, almost invisible manner  2. Socially­ conveys a common sense understanding of everyday reality as most people experience  it.    Modernism  1. Formally​­ a verynoticeable ​storytelling style, replacing the effort to make it seem as if the story  world possesses an existence of its own  a. Bringing attention to the story  2. Socially­ an exploration of the interior, subjective life of the characters, in which characters drift  into their own imagined worlds regardless of their surroundings    Post­Modernism  1. Formally​­ the storytelling process draws attention to itself through a high degree of quotation,  homage, borrowing, copying and otherwise recycling previous work  2. Socially­emphasizes how anyone imagined world is more like other imagined worlds than like  reality itself  High art: Abstract Expressionism​ ­ reference to other art forms= fine arts, ballet… (ex: Mark Rothko)  ➔ What put NY on the map  Critique: sense of censorship in the US, people taking on certain roles, so they created art that was meaningful­  spoke to the suppressive nature of our culture    1950s America  ● McDonald’s and McCarthyism: fear of communism, rise of ​ conformity  ○ People putting on screen an idea of a life we are suppose to have  ● Elvis Presley and Jazz Music   ● Post World War II Economic Growth   ● Korean War, Cold War   ● Consumerism, Disposable Culture   ● Brown vs. Board of Education, Civil Rights, Desegregation    Improvised Film  ● Work with actors on improvisation­a response to the Method style of acting that was the prevalent ideology.   ○ Being in the characters shoes  ● Script was developed through the improvisations ​and based on a true event.   ● First version oShadows ​ was poorly received and Cassavetes recut the film dramatically for the final  version.   ● Charles Mingus music scored the first version but was removed in the second one  ○ ▯Unfinished quality, unpredictable, speaks to the concept of Jazz, embracing the unknown/ugly      Week 4  02.22.16  Mccarthyism:  response to the “red scare”­ fear of communism spreading across the US​  & Europe following WWII  ➔ an accusation of treason against another citizen w/o sufficient proof or proper investigation­ an assault of  ideology , assault of people's character and way to criminalize them  Hollywood Blacklist: Alvah Bessie, Herbert Biberman, Lester Cole, Edward Dmytryk, Ring Lardner Jr, John Howard  Lawson, Albert Maltz, Sam Ornitz, Robert Scott, Dalton Trumbo → most are all screenwriters    Production Code  Vertical Integration​ studio's own all aspects of film development (exhibition), production and distribution   Horizontal integration you own a bunch of one area of production    US vs Paramount Pictures (1948): ownership of theatres violated antitrust laws. studios were forced to give up  theatres so opened the door to foreign films not under the Code    moral and ethical guidelines for content in films:form of censorship  profanity, nudity, illegal drugs, white slavery, sexual perversion, miscegenation (mixing of races), offending the clergy,  smuggling…     Rear Window  ● allocating desire with looking­scopophilia  ● seeing without being seen  ● the exhibitionist qualities: desire to be seen  ● the cinematic experience​ : holding the power of vision in the spectator (Looking without Being  Seen)  ● the male gaze­ how we take pleasure in looking, cinema is the space where we can look without  being seen, we can identify with what we see on the screen, looking at a women in a way a man  would    literal and figurative interpretations  study in cinematic apparatus and editing­ how the look is established and created through objective and subjective  shots and editing  Kuleshov effect: a man smiles then sees…  a comment on the social context within which it was made­how looking and assuming things can lead to misguided  answers   ➔ A study of desire and where it is located in a brave new world that included film and televisions in people’s  homes.    Suspense and Suspicion  ➔ the audience thinks he knows more than the other characters  ➔ the manipulation of time with the knowledge that no one else has creates a sense of anxiety  ➔ usually involves an ​ extension of time leading up to a moment of revelation​ ­time slows, subjectively, allowing  the spectator to reveal in the anticipation of the moment  ➔ because there is a moment of realization expected all other factors of the mise­en­scene create a sense of  suspicion and a desire to see/know more.    Week 5  02.29.16  French New Wave “Nouvelle Vague”:  Exploration of identity, unique to their personal identity­ deeply rooted in their youth and education    Theory Meets Practice 1950s­1970s  ● Non linear structure  ● The jump cut/close­ups/no establishing shots/nontraditional   ● Inspired by Italian neorealism  ● Liberal politics  ● Left Bank filmmakers: Chris Marker, Jean Luc­Godard, Francois Truffaut, Agnes Varda, Claude Chabrol  ○ “ film express either the joy of making cinema or the agony of making cinema”  ○ substitutes for our gaze a world more in harmony with our desires    New German Cinema  Old cinema is dead= start a new  Late 1960s­1982  The Oberhausen Manifesto​ : Response to the devastation of WWII and Hollywood style films; influenced by FNW;  Low budgets­art house    Rainer Werner Fassbinder (1945­1982)  His death marked the end of NGC  ➔ Deeply critical of German society and institutional violence, blames the people who empowered the Facists  leaders    Danish Movement in 90s= D ​ogme 95­ The Manifesto  ● Created by directors Lars Von Trier and Thomas Vinterberg   ● Avant­Garde filmmaking movement started in Denmark, 1995   ● created a companion document ​ “vows of chastity”   ● Presented on red pamphlets in Paris at the 100 year anniversary of motion picture film   ● Not specific to Denmark­films that use these techniques can garner a “Dogme number”   The rules:  1. Shooting done on location and sets must not be brought in, props must be found at location  2. Sound must never be produced apart from the images or vice versa  3. camera must be hand­held  4. film must be in colour. Special lighting is not acceptable  5. Optical work and filters are forbidden  6. No superficial action (murders, weapons, etc…)   7.  film takes place here and now  8. Genre movies are not acceptable  9. format must be Academy 35 mm  10. The director must not be credited    Identity Politics and Cinematic Critiques  ● Establishment of the self as seen through the YOUTH.   ● Utilizing the perspective of the YOUTH identity to initiate critique of conditions in the culture that represent  old ways of thinking.   ● Creating rules for engagement that express a POV and the Politics of the Director. (Auteur Theory)   ● Critiquing society from a middle class, social perspective to critiques that become more intimate and familial  in nature.  ● push back against fascism and Nazi guided principles    Changing Europe  ● Loss of faith after WWII   ● Influx of Immigrants   ● Fear of the other, Fear of the self, Fear of change and difference   ● A desire for freedom from the past, a reconciliation of old values in new times    Week 6  03.07.16  Don’t Look Back​, D.A. Pennebaker 1967  Created alternate versions of film  Nagra music recordings later released on Dylan albums  ➔ Follows Dylan touring England  Experimental techniques evident= use of handheld camera  “Record of moments”    Documentary Modes­ Bill Nichols  1. Poetic Mode:​ Lyrical, Stylistic, Emotional, Visual and Acoustic Rhythms, Avant­Garde  2. Expository Mode​ : ‘Voice of God’ narrator, addresses the audience directly  3. Participatory: Acknowledges the filmmaker and subject relationship and sheds light on how that  relationship impacts the film  4. Reflective: Illustrates the filmmaking process as part of the documentary. Asks the viewer to see  that process as impacting the story being told  5. Observational​: Camera serves as an observer to action, does not intrude or make itself known  6. Performative​: Filmmaker’s voice is expressive and engagement with subject is most important    Ideology and Rhetoric   ● Documentary films persuade. They are NOT objective.   ● The approach reflects the filmmaker’s ideological tendencies   ● Uphold mainstream/dominant beliefs or Introduce an Alternative belief   ● Not necessarily the goal of the filmmaker to make a statement but each choice ultimately places the film  within a certain relationship to the dominant ideology   ● An “argument” of sorts comes to pass as to whether the film creates a stir in the viewer regarding the subject  of the film.   ● people are persuaded by beliefs and values far more than facts or data.    1960’s America­An era of CHANGE   1961: American Troops start amassing in Vietnam, Failed Bay of Pigs invasion Cuba, Cuban Missile Crisis   1963: JFK Assassinated   1961­1968: 32 Countries in Africa Decolonized   1966­1969: Massive protests from alternative voices.   ● Stonewall, Compton's Cafeteria (Gay and Transgender Riots)   ● Student and Workers Uprising (France)   ● SFSU student strike, creation of College of Ethnic Studies   ● Vietnam Protests   ● Student Protests the world over (Mexico, Yugolsavia, Canada, Europe, South America   ● Feminist Movement, Movements by peoples of color worldwide  ● Voters Rights for people of color   1961­1968: MLK Jr. violence and nonviolence in the civil rights movementMLK Jr assassinated   1969: Man Lands on the Moon​ , Woodstock Music Festival   Other Assassinations: Malcolm X, Robert Kennedy, Che Guevara, George Rockwell (Nazi Party Leader)    Direct Cinema­Donn Allen (DA) Pennebaker   Seeks to chronicle/document events as they happen with little or no interference from the camera.   A structural and formal method in search of authenticity   Often following subjects that are more bourgeois society driven: musicians, eccentrics, political campaigns. Wiseman  (he diverts from the norm and shoots institutions rather than societies)      


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