Chap10- Vision: From eye to brain
Chap10- Vision: From eye to brain PSY 2501 - 002
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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Upasana Raja on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSY 2501 - 002 at Temple University taught by Sheree Logue (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see FOUNDATIONS OF BEHAVIORAL NEUROSCIENCE in Psychlogy at Temple University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Chap10- Vision: From eye to brain Lateral Inhibition: The phenomenon by which interconnected neurons inhibit their neighbor, producing contrast at the edges of regions Visual Field: The whole area that you can see without moving your head or eyes Visual Acuity: Sharpness of vision Photoreceptors: Neural cells in the retina that respond to light Quanta: Small packets of energy Wavelength: The distance between two adjacent crests of vibratory activity Photons: Quanta of light energy Cornea: The transparent outer layer of the eye, whose curvature is fixed. It bends light rays and is primarily responsible for forming the image on the retina Lens: A structure in the eye that helps focus an image on the retina Refraction: The bending of light rays by a change in the density of a medium, such as the cornea and the lens of the eyes Ciliary Muscle: One of the muscle that controls the shape of the lens inside the eye, focusing an image on the retina Accommodation: The process of focusing by the ciliary muscles and the lens to form a sharp image on the retina Pupil: The aperture, formed by the iris, that allows light to enter the eye Iris: The circular structure of the eye that provides an opening to form the pupil Extraocular Muscle: One of the muscles attached ti eyeball that control its position and movement Retina: The receptive surface inside the eye that contain photoreceptors and other neurons Rods: A class of light-sensitive receptor cells (photoreceptors) in the retina that are most active at low levels of light Cones: A class of photoreceptors cells in the retina that are responsible for color vision Bipolar Cells: A class of interneurons of the retina that receive information from rods and cones and pass the information to retinal ganaglion cells Ganaglion Cells: A class of cells in the retina whose axons from the optic nerve Optic Nerve: Cranial nerve II. The collection of ganglion cell axons that extend from the retina to the optic chiasm Horizontal Cells: Specialized retinal cells that contact both the receptor cells and the bipolar cells Amacrine Cells: Specialized retinal cells that contact both the bipolar cells and the ganglion cells, and are especially significant in inhibitory interactions within the retina Scotopic System: A system in the retina that operates at low levels of lights and involves the rods Photopic System: A system in the retina that operates at high levels of light, shows sensitivity to color, and involves the cones Rhodopsin: The photopigment in rods that responds to light Opsin: One of the two components of photopigment in retina Range Fractionation: A hypothesis of stimulus intensity perception stating that a wide range of intensity values can be encoded by a group of cells, each of which is a specialist for a particular range of stimulus intensities Photoreceptor Adaptation: The tendency of rods and cones to adjust their light sensitivity to match ambient levels of illumination Fovea: The central portion of the retina, packed with the most photoreceptors and therefore the center of our gaze Blind Spot: The portion of the visual field from which light falls on the optic disc, because there are no receptors in this region, light striking it cannot be seen Optic Disc: The region of the retina devoid of receptor cells because ganglion cell axons and blood vessels exit the eyeball there Optic Chiasm: The point at which the two optic nerves meet Optic Tract: The axons of retinal ganglion cells after they have passed the optic chiasm; most terminate in the lateral geniculate nucleus Lateral Geniculate Nucleus (LGN): The part of the thalamus that receives information from the optic tract and sends it to visual areas in the occipital cortex Optic Radiation: Axons from the lateral geniculate nucleus that terminate in the primary visual areas of the occipital cortex Primary Visual Areas (V1) or Striate Cortex a.k.a. Area 17: The region of the occipital cortex where most visual information first arrives Occipital Cortex a.k.a. Visual Cortex: The cortex of the occipital lobe of the brain Extrastriate Cortex: Visual cortex outside of the primary visual (striate) cortex Scotoma: A region of blindness caused by injury to the visual pathway or brain Receptive Field: The stimulus regions and features that affect the activity of a cell in a sensory system On-Center Bipolar Cell: A retinal bipolar cell that is excited by light in the center of its receptive field Off-Center Bipolar Cell: A retinal bipolar cell that is inhibited by light in the center of its receptive field On-Center Ganglion Cell: A retinal ganglion cell that is activated when light is presented to the center, rather than the periphery, of the cell's receptive field Off-Center Ganglion Cell: A retinal ganglion cell that is activated when light is presented to the periphery, rather than the center, of the cell's receptive field On-Center/Off-Surround: Referring to a concentric receptive field in which the center excites the cell of interest while the surround inhibits it Off-Center/On-Surround: Referring to a concentric receptive field in which the center inhibits the cell of interest while the surround excites it Parvocellular: Of or consisting of relatively small cells Magnocellular: Of or consisting of relatively large cells Spatial-Frequency Filter Model: A model of pattern analysis that emphasizes Fourier analysis of visual stimuli Simple Cortical Cell a.k.a. Bar/Edge Detector: A cell in the visual cortex that responds and location in the visual field Complex Cortical Cell: A cell in the visual cortex that responds best to a bar of a particular size and orientation anywhere within a particular area of the visual field Ocular Dominance Column: A region of cortex in which one eye or the other provides a greater degree of synaptic unit Ocular Dominance Slab: A slab of visual cortex, about 0.5mm wide, in which the neurons of all layers respond preferentially to stimulation of one eye Orientation Column: A column of visual cortex that responds to rod- shaped stimuli of a particular Brightness: One of three basic dimensions of light perception, varying Hue: One of three basic dimensions of light perception, varying around the color circle through blue, green, yellow, orange, and red Saturation: One of three basic dimensions of light perception, varying from rich to pale Trichormatic Hypothesis: A hypothesis of color perception stating that there are three different types of cones, each excited by a different region of the spectrum and each having a separate pathway to the brain Opponent-Process Hypothesis: The theory that color vision depends on systems that produce opposite responses to light of different wavelengths Mirror Neuron: A neuron that is active both when an individual makes a particular movement and when that individual sees another individual make that same movement Myopia: Nearsightedness. The ability to focus the retinal image of objects that are far away Amblyopia: Reduced visual activity that is not caused by optical or retinal impairments
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