Chap11- Motor Control and Plasticity
Chap11- Motor Control and Plasticity PSY 2501 - 002
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Chap11- Motor Control and Plasticity Spinal Animal: An animal whose spinal cord has been surgically disconnected from the brain to enable the study of behaviors that do not require brain control Reflex: A simple, highly stereotyped, and unlearned response to a particular stimulus Movement: A brief; unitary activity of a muscle or body part; less complex than an act Act a.k.a. Action Pattern: Complex behavior, as distinct from a simple experiment Motor Plan a.k.a. Motor Program: A plan for action in the nervous system Closed-Loop Control Mechanism: A control mechanism that provides a flow of information from whatever is being controlled to the device that control it Ramp Movement a.k.a. Smooth Movement: A slow, sustained motion that is often controlled by basal ganglion Open-Loop Control Mechanism: A control mechanism in which feedback from the output of the system is not provided to the input control Ballistic Movement: A rapid muscular movement that is often organized or programmed in the cerebellum Smooth Muscle: A type of muscle fiber, as in the heart, that is controlled by the autonomic nervous system rather than by voluntary control Tendon: Strong tissue that connects muscles to bone Antagonist: A muscle that counteracts the effects of another muscle Synergist: A muscle that acts together with another muscle Muscle Fiber: A collection of large cylindrical cells, making up most of a muscle, that can contract in response to neurotransmitter released from a motoneuron Striated Muscle: A type of muscle with a striped appearance, generally under voluntary control Myosin: A protein that, along with actin, mediates the contraction of muscle fibers Actin: A protein that, along with myosin, mediates the contraction of muscle fibers Fast-Twitch Muscle Fiber: A type of striated muscle that contracts rapidly but fatigues readily Slow-Twitch Muscle Fiber: A type of striated muscle fiber that contracts slowly but does not fatigue readily Motoneuron a.k.a. Motor Neuron: A nerve cell in the spinal cord that transmits motor messages from the spinal cord to muscles Acetylcholine (AcH): A neurotransmitter produced and released by parasympathetic postganglionic neurons, by motoneurons, and by neurons throughout the brain Neuromuscular Junction (NMJ): The region where the motoneuron terminal and the adjoining muscle fiber meet; the point where the nerve transmits its message to the muscle fiber Motor Unit: A single motor axon and all the muscle fiber that it innervates Innervation Ratio: The ratio expressing the number of muscle fibers innervated by a single motor axon Final Common Pathway: The information processing pathway consisting of all the motoneurons in the body. Motoneurons are known by this collective term because they receive and integrate all motor signals from the brain and then direct movement accordingly Size Principle: The idea that, as increasing numbers of motor neurons are recruited to produce muscle responses of increasing strength, small, low-threshold neurons are recruited first, followed by large, high-threshold neurons Proprioception: Body sense. Information about the position and movement of the body that is sent to the brain Muscle Spindle: A muscle receptor that lies parallel to a muscle and sends impulses to the central nervous system when the muscle is stretched Intrafusal Fiber: One of the small muscle fibers that lie within each muscle spindle Extrafusal Fiber: One of the ordinary muscle fibers that lie outside the spindles and provide most of the force for muscle contraction Primary Sensory Ending a.k.a. Anulospiral Ending: The axon that transmits information from the central portion of a muscle spindle Secondary Sensory Ending a.k.a. Flower Spray Ending: The axon that transmits information from the ends of a muscle spindle Gamma Motoneuron a.k.a. Gamma Efferent: A motor neuron that innervates the contractile issue in a muscle spindle Alpha Motoneuron: A motoneuron that controls the main contractile fibers (extrafusal fibers) of a muscle Golgi Tendon Organ: One of the receptors located in tendons that send impulses to the central neurons system when a muscle contracts Stretch Reflex: The contraction of a muscle in response to stretch of that muscle Central Pattern Generator: Neural circuitry that is responsible for generating the rhythmic pattern of a behavior such as walking Pyramidal System or Corticospinal System: The motor system that includes neurons within the cerebral cortex and their axons, which forms the pyramidal tract Primary Motor Cortex (M1): The apparent executive region for the initiation of movement; primarily the precentral gyrus Nonprimary Motor Cortex: Frontal lobe regions adjacent to the primary motor cortex that contribute to motor control and modulate the activity of the primary motor cortex Supplementary Motor Area (SMA): A region of nonprimary motor cortex that receives input from the basal ganglia and modulates the activity of the primary motor cortex Premotor Cortex: A region of nonprimary motor cortex just anterior to the primary motor cortex Basal Ganglion: A group of forebrain nuclei, including caudate nucleus, globus pallidus, and putamen, found deep within the cerebral hemisphere Striatum: The caudate nucleus and putamen together Muscular Dystrophy (MD): A disease that leads to degeneration of and functional changes in muscles Dystrophin: A protein that is needed for normal muscle function Myasthenia Gravis: A disorder characterized by a profound weakness of skeletal muscles; caused by a loss of acetylcholine receptors Autoimmune Disorder: A disorder caused when the immune system mistakenly attacks a person's own body, thereby interfering with normal functioning Poliovirouses: A class of viruses that destroy motoneurons of the spinal cord and brainstem Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) a.k.a. Lou Gehrig's Disease: A disease motoneurons and their target muscles waste away Flaccid Paralysis: A loss of reflexes below the level of transection of the spinal cord Plegia: Paralysis, the loss of the ability to move Paresia: Partial paralysis Spasticity: Markedly increased rigidity in response to forced movement of the limbs Aparaxia: An impairment in the ability to begin and execute skilled voluntary movements, even though there is no muscle paralysis Ideomotor Aparaxia: The ability to carry out a simple moor activity in response to a verbal command, even though this same activity is readily performed spontaneously Parkinson's Disease: A degeneration neurological disorder, characterized by tremors at rest, muscular rigidity, and reduction in voluntary movement, that involves dopaminergic neurons of the substania nigra Substania Nigra: A brainstem structure in humans that innervates the basal ganglion and is named for its dark pigmentation alpha-synuclein: A protein that has been implicated in Parkinson's disease Parkin: A protein that has been implicated in Parkinson's disease
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