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UGA / Science / POLS 1101 / what is public opinion?

what is public opinion?

what is public opinion?

Description

School: University of Georgia
Department: Science
Course: American Government
Professor: Haynes
Term: Summer 2015
Tags: pols
Cost: 50
Name: POLS 1101 Test 2 Study Guides
Description: Chapters 6-9 study guides completed
Uploaded: 03/12/2016
8 Pages 11 Views 11 Unlocks
Reviews

Vivienne Schimmel (Rating: )

Better than the professor's notes. I could actually understand what the heck was going on. Will be back for help in this class.



POLS 1101


what is public opinion?



Chapter 6 Study Guide

➔ Gratz vs. Bollinger: affirmative action case involving the University of Michigan's admission policy of awarding 20 points to minorities was declared 

unconstitutional 

➔ Grutter vs. Bollinger: affirmative action case that involved a person applying for admission to the University of Michigan's law school; the decision was that race may be a factor in determining admission but not the only factor 

➔ Public Opinion: citizens’ views on politics and government actions ➔ Latent Opinions: an opinion formed on the spot, when it is needed (as distinct from a deeply held opinion that is stable over time)

➔ Why are public opinions important? Citizens’ political actions are driven by their opinions. Examining public opinion helps explain the behavior of candidates, political parties, and other political actors. Public opinion can shed light on the reasons for specific policy outcomes.


what is latent opinion



If you want to learn more check out Section 2: Mini document analysis of Alexander Stephens’ “Cornerstone Speech” (mentioned in your textbook and attached below) How does Stephens talk about the relationship between slavery and secession?

➔ Sources of opinions: Socialization (family and community), Events, Group Identity, Politicians, Ideology, Religious Beliefs

➔ Liberal and Conservatives

● Liberal: refers to those who generally support social and political reform, extensive government intervention in the economy, expansion of federal social services, more vigorous efforts on the behalf of the poor, minorities, and women, and greater concern for consumers and the environment

● Conservatives: refers to those who generally support the social and economic status quo and are suspicious of efforts to introduce new political and economic arrangements. They believe large and powerful government poses a threat to citizen's freedom

➔ Rally around the flag events: the tendency for the public to back presidents in the event of crises 

➔ Polls and surveys

● Random Samples: a method of selection for a poll in which each member of the population has an equal chance at being included in the sample; ensures that a broad spectrum of people are being polled and not only one group of people are being targeted 


Why are public opinions important?



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● Sample Size: a larger sample size results in a better representation of the sample and a low margin of error

● Samples: within a population, the group of people surveyed in order to gauge the whole population’s opinion; researchers use samples because it would be impossible to interview the entire population

● Populations: the group of people that a researcher or pollster wants to study

● Sample Bias: The effect of having a sample that does not represent all segments of the population

● Margin of Error: a calculation that describes what percentage of the people surveyed may or may not accurately represent the population being studied; increasing the number of respondent lowers the margin of error If you want to learn more check out when is hoffman product favored

● Questions asked/ wording: a good question will be unbiased and seek to truly discover public opinion

➔ Ideology: a cohesive set of ideas and beliefs used to organize and evaluate the political world We also discuss several other topics like difference between commercial grain farming and mixed farming

➔ Polarization: the effect on public opinion when many citizens move away from moderate positions and toward either end of the political spectrum, identifying themselves as either liberals or conservatives

➔ Predicting presidential election with public opinion: 2 sources­ State of economy and which party is in office currently 

➔ Mass Media: sources that provide information to the average citizen, such as newspapers, television networks, radio stations, and websites

➔ FCC: a government agency created in 1934 to regulate American radio stations and later expanded to regulate television, wireless communications technologies, and other broadcast media

➔ The Fairness Doctrine: an FCC regulation requiring broadcast media to present several points of view to ensure balanced coverage; created in the late 1940s and eliminated in 1987

➔ Media Effects: the influence of media coverage on average citizens’ opinions and actions

● Filtering: the influence on public opinion that results from journalists’ and editors’ decisions about which of many potential new stores to report ● Slant: the imbalance in a story that covers one candidate or policy favorably without providing similar coverage of the other side

● Priming: the influence on the public’s general impressions caused by positive or negative coverage of a candidate or an issue

● Framing: the influence on public opinion caused by the way a story is presented or covered, including the details, explanations, and context offered in the reportIf you want to learn more check out citi training ub

POLS 1101

Chapter 7 Study Guide

➔ Political Parties: organizations that run candidates for political office and coordinate the actions of officials elected under the party banner

➔ Party Organization: a specific political party’s leaders and workers at the national, state, and local levels

➔ Parties in Government: the group of officeholders who belong to a specific political party and were elected as candidate of that party If you want to learn more check out math 112 ua

➔ Parties in the Electorate: the group of citizens who identify with a specific political party

➔ American Party Systems: a period in which the names of the major political parties, their supporters, and the issues dividing them have remained relatively stable 

➔ Transition from the 5th to 6th party system: issues with size and scope of federal government with Republicans argued condition would improve over time and democrats proposed new gov't programs to help economic growth 

➔ Political Transformation of the South (1948­1970s): Debate over the New Deal brought together the New Deal Coalition of African Americans, Catholics, Jewish people supported Democratic candidates so white southerners and some Catholics switched from Democrats to the Republicans 

➔ Party Realignments: a change in the size or composition of the party coalitions or in the nature of the issues that divide the parties

➔ Duverger’s Law and third parties the idea that only two parties tend to compete for control of the government in countries that have single­member, plurality electoral systems where only two parties' candidates will have a realistic chance of winning political office; any other party will be more closely related to one of the two parties, splitting that party's votes and letting the other win 

➔ Proportional Representation: an electoral system that awards legislative seats to political parties in proportion to the number of votes won in an election ➔ Political Action Committees (PACs): an interest group or a division of an interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of the candidates; the amount a PAC can receive from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal electioneering are strictly limited

➔ Policy differences between Republicans and Democrats

● Republicans: conservative, on the right of spectrum, red states, spend on military and defense, oppose new energy sources, private insurance, oppose stricter gun control laws, oppose carbon emissions limits (will hurt

business), support vouchers for education, less taxes, services provided by private business, less government regulation, laws to protect society, smaller government

● Democrats: liberal, on the left of the spectrum, blue states, decrease spending on defense, supports new energy sources, obamacare, support gun control laws, support regulation to reduce carbon emissions (good for environment), support public education, higher income should pay higher taxes, government provides more services for common good, more government regulation, laws to protect individuals, bigger government

➔ Party ID and influence on public opinion: a citizen’s loyalty to a specific political party

➔ What do parties do? selects candidates, sets goals for government, plays watchdog, gives people a voice, patronage 

➔ Party Platform: a set of objectives outlining the party’s issue positions and priorities

➔ Unified Government: a situation in which one party holds a majority of seats in the House and Senate and the president is a member of that same party ➔ Divided Government: a situation in which the House, the Senate, and the presidency are not controlled by the same party, such as if Democrats hold the majority of House and Senate seats and the president is Republican ➔ Agenda Setting: throughout the years parties and governments meet to devise strategies for legislation 

➔ Retrospective Voting: voting for (or against) a specific candidate or party based on what they have done in the past 

➔ Open vs. Closed Primaries: in an open primary, voters can participate in either party's primary, regardless if they are registered as a member of that party ➔ Caucuses: a local meeting in which party members select a party’s nominee for the general election

➔ Primaries: a ballot vote in which citizens select a party’s nominee for the general election

➔ Presidential Primary System: citizens' votes are used to determine how many of each candidate's supporters become delegates to the party's national nominating convention

POLS 1101

Chapter 8 Study Guide

➔ Role of elections in a Republic: voters select officeholders ­ members of the House and Senate, and the president and vice president

➔ Primaries and general elections:

● Primary: a ballot vote in which citizens select a party’s nominee for the general election

● General Election: the election in which voters cast ballots for House members, senators, and (every 4 years) a president and vice president ➔ Open Primaries: a primary election in which any registered voter can participate in the contest, regardless of party affiliation

➔ Closed Primaries: a primary election in which only registered members of a particular political party can vote

➔ Plurality Rule Voting: a voting system in which the candidate who receives the most votes within a geographic area wins the election, regardless of whether that candidate wins a majority (more than half) of the votes

➔ Majority Rule Voting: a voting system in which a candidate must win more than 50% of votes to win the election

➔ Runoff Elections: under a majority voting system, a second election held only if no candidate wins a majority of the votes in the first general elections ➔ Median Voter Theorem (MVT): majority rule voting system will select most prefered outcome by median voter; the theory that parties in a two­party system can maximize their vote by locating themselves at the position of the median voter ­ the voter whose preferences are exactly in the middle 

➔ MVT in a two stage electoral system: primaries = incentive is to push more towards the extreme; general = incentive is to push more towards the middle as possible 

➔ Open seats and incumbents: an elected position for which there is no incumbent ➔ US House and Senate constituencies:

➔ Primaries: a ballot vote in which citizens select a party’s nominee for the general election

➔ Caucuses: a local meeting in which party members select a party’s nominee for the general election

➔ Presidential Primary Process: delegates vote on who will represent their party in the election and a candidate's goal is to win as many delegates as possible ➔ Proportional Allocation: during the presidential primaries, the practice of determining the number of convention delegates allotted to each candidate based on the percentage of the popular vote cast for each candidate; all

Democratic primaries and caucuses use this system, as do some states’ Republican primaries and caucuses

➔ Winner­take­all Allocation: during the presidential primaries, the practice of assigning all of given states delegates to the candidate who receives the most popular votes; some states’ Republican primaries and caucuses use this system

➔ Electoral College: the body that votes to select America’s president and vice president based on the popular vote in each state; each candidate nominates a slate of electors who are selected to attend the meeting of the college if their candidate wins the most votes in a state or district

➔ GOTV (get out the vote) efforts: a campaign’s efforts to “get out the vote” or make sure their supporters vote on Election Day

➔ Attacks ads: campaign advertising that criticizes a candidate’s opponent ­ typically by making potentially damaging claims about the opponent’s background or record ­ rather than focusing on positive reasons to vote for the candidate

➔ Hard Money: donations that are used to help elect or defeat a specific candidate ➔ Soft Money: contributions that can be used for voter mobilization or to promote a policy proposal or point of view as long as these efforts are not tied to supporting or opposing a particular candidate

➔ Independent Expenditures: spending by political action committees, corporations, or labor unions that is done to help a party or candidate but is done independently of them 

➔ How do voters decide? voting cues/shortcuts, assessing past performance of the candidate, comparing future policy options

➔ Voting Cues: pieces of information about a candidate that are readily available, are easy to interpret, and lead a citizen to decide to vote for a particular candidate

➔ Straight Ticket: a ballot on which a voter selects candidates from only one political party

➔ Split Ticket: a ballot on which a voter selects candidates from more than one political party

POLS 1101

Chapter 9 Study Guide

➔ Interest Groups: an organization of people who share common political interests and aim to influence public policy by electioneering and lobbying

➔ Lobbying: efforts to influence public policy through contact with public officials on behalf of an interest group

➔ Problems with forming an interest group: freerider problems which are fixed by solidary benefits, coercion ­ unions, and selective incentives ­ AARP, NRA, AAA, NEA 

➔ Coercion: a method of elimination nonparticipation or free riding by potential group members by requiring participation, as in many labor unions ➔ Selective Incentives: benefits that can motivate participation in a group effort because they are available only to those to participate, such as member services offered by interest groups

➔ Direct Lobbying: attempts by interest group staff to influence policy by speaking with elected officials or bureaucrats

➔ Grassroots Lobbying: a lobbying strategy that relies on participation by group members, such as a protest or a letter­writing campaign

➔ PACS: an interest group or a division of an interest group that can raise money to contribute to campaigns or to spend on ads in support of candidates; the amount a PAC can receive from each of its donors and the amount it can spend on federal campaigning are strictly limited.

➔ 5th Amendment

● Grand Jury

● No Self­Incrimination

● No Double Jeopardy

● Due Process of Law

● Government must compensate for taken property

➔ 6th Amendment

● Speedy Public Trial

● Right to Lawyer

● Right to an Impartial Jury

● Right to Know Your Accusers

➔ There is little to nothing from the Civic Questions Test on this midterm

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