learning goals exam 1-3
learning goals exam 1-3 IB 150
Popular in Organismal & Evolutionary Biology
Popular in Biology
verified elite notetaker
This 16 page Study Guide was uploaded by Rebecca Lii on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to IB 150 at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign taught by Natasha D. Capell in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 109 views. For similar materials see Organismal & Evolutionary Biology in Biology at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Reviews for learning goals exam 1-3
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 03/12/16
Week 1 1. Scientific method 2. Alive a. organisms grow, reproduce, maintain homeostasis far from equilibrium, and react/adapt to their environment, evolve. b. Organisms need to grow in order to allow cells to develop, life does not exist without reproduction. Equilibrium will result in death due to lack of system, adaptation is important because different independent and dependent factors affect the ecosystem. c. The ability to perform work is related to life because work is powered by ATP. The ability to use and produce ATP or energy is essential to life. Without work, there will be equilibrium which results in death. d. Molecules will move to a higher concentration of solutes e. Understand that net flow of molecules due to osmosis is a result of the rates of movement of particles in both directions, NOT as a result of an inherent preference or force moving these molecules in one direction or the other. 3. Thermodynamics a. First Law of Thermodynamics: Conservation of Energy. Energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Second Law of Thermodynamics: Disorder of universe increases. Determines in which direction a system wants to move based on changes in enthalpy and entropy in conditions of constant temperature and pressure. b. Chemical potential energy of a molecule is converted into kinetic energy, and this energy is used to provide energy to the other molecule. In this process, heat. mechanical energy, and sound can be emitted from this exchange in energy between the molecules. c. Molecules store energy in their chemical bonds. d. Delta(G) = Delta(H) - T(Delta(S)) Delta H- change in enthalpy (pot. Energy of products – “““reactants<0) Delta S- change in entropy (Entropy of Products - Entropy of Reactants > 0) Exergonic=decreases enthalpy and increase entropy Endergonic= increase enthalpy and decrease entropy e. Delta g is negative = spontaneous and exergonic. Reaction is energetically favorable. Releases energy. Work done by the system. Delta g is positive= endergonic. Reaction is energetically unfavorable. Work done on system f. Exergonic reaction is spontaneous and is energetically favorable. Releases energy. – Delta G Endergonic reaction is energetically unfavorable. Absorbs energy. +delta g 4. Control exergonic reaction rates a. Graph b. Increase temperature = Energy added to system. 10C rule-for every increase in temperature of 10C, the reaction doubles Problem: High temperature denatures proteins (not an effective method for overcoming activation energy of organisms) c. Catalysts are neither created nor destroyed in the reactions they catalyze. A catalyst is not a reactant in the reaction. It simply provides an environment that is conducive for the new bonds to form. d. Catalyst- Enzymes- proteins with catalytic abilities Active site- where the enzyme binds to catalyze e. Catalyzing with enzymes quickens the reaction by lowering activation energy resulting in the same product. 5. Run endergonic reactions a. Growth, reproduction, maintaining homeostasis, and reaction to the environment all require energy to occur. b. Sustained life is derived from chemical potential energy- cellular resp. c. C-C bonds in organic macromolecules. These bonds are broken down by cellular respiration, which is highly exergonic. d. Use energy released by exergonic reaction as energy for endergonic reaction e. The overall delta g is negative for the endergonic reaction to process f. When the phosphate group from the ATP molecule attaches itself to the substrate, that substrate now has more chemical potential energy than is needed for the endergonic reaction to take place. The sub-reactions that occur during phosphorylation is exergonic. Week 2 Aerobic cellular respiration C6H12O6 + 6O2 +36ADP + 36P → 6CO2 +6H2O + 36ATP Two energetically coupled reactions 1. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O (even more highly exergonic) 2. 36 ADP + 36 P → 36 ATP (highly endergonic) Four steps within Cellular Respiration Glycolysis → Pyruvate Processing → Citric Acid Cycle → Electron Transport Chain 6. How is ATP produce during CR a. Glucose has a high activation energy so it is more stable than ATP as a storage molecule. It needs ATP input to overcome its activation energy. b. C6H12O6 + 6 O2 → 6 CO2 + 6 H2O Glucose + Oxygen + ADP + P + NAD+ → ATP + CO2 c. Glycolysis- input: glucose, ADP + Pi, NAD+, output: pyruvate, ATP, NADH Pyruvate processing- input: pyruvate, NAD+, output: acetyl CoA, CO2, NADH Krebs Cycle- input: acetyl CoA, NAD+, FAD+, ADP+Pi, output: CoA, NADH, FADH2, ATP ETC- input: NADH, FADH2, ADP, P, O2, output: NAD+, FAD, H2O, ATP d. Glycolysis- cytoplasm Pyruvate processing- outer matrix Krebs- matrix of mito ETC- mito membrane e. Go through all of cellular respiration f. Glycolysis- 2 ATP, Krebs- 2 ATP, ETC- 34 ATP. Mostly from ETC Oxygen is the last electron acceptor from the ETC. It prevents the electron transport chain from backing up. g. Cellular respiration produces ATP which is then used to do work 7. Importance of cellular respiration. a. Death. Unable to do work efficiently. If citric acid cycle fails, then will have to use fermentation which does not produce as much ATP. Lack of oxygen will cause the ETC to slow down due to lack of an electron carrier. b. Aerobic resp. involves oxygen as final electron acceptor and glucose as source of electrons. Anaerobic uses something else other than oxygen as final electron acceptor and does not use glucose. Fermentation product is some ATP, lactic acid or ethanol. c. Environment may not provide much oxygen. May have more similar bodies to their ancestor. d. Facultative anaerobes can switch between using oxygen and not using oxygen, whereas obligate anaerobes are poisoned by oxygen. e. More ATP produced 8. How is light energy used to produce sugar? a. 6CO2 + 6H2O +light → C6H12O6 + 6O2 b. 1) Carbon fixation-CO2 is fixated onto a 5-carbon molecule called RuBp by the enzyme Rubisco. This forms a very unstable 6-carbon molecule, which immediately breaks apart into two 3-carbon PGA. 2) Reduction Energy from 6 molecules of ATP is used to oxidize NADPH to NADP+. 3) Regeneration-Convert G3P into RuBp in order to repeat the cycle again. c. Carbon fixation-The carbon fixation step is the rate limiting step of photosynthesis because it is the slowest of all the reactions. This is the reaction that is catalyzed by the enzyme Rubisco. The reason this reaction is so slow is because the substrate molecules (CO2 and the 5-carbon molecule RuBp) sit in the active site of Rubisco for quite a while before they proceed to react. d. 1. Energy is emitted (lost) as fluorescence and/or heat. 2. Energy is transmitted through an antenna complex (arrangement of chlorophyll molecules). 3. Energy is irreversibly captured as chemical energy in the reaction center. e. The light energy or photon that comes into the thylakoid can get excited into a higher energy level with the right wavelength. This allows the photon to be passed down the antenna complex which is made of chloroplast. It then gets to the reaction center and then to the electron carrier. f. Chlorophyll absorbs red light because it excites the electron within it to one energy level, causing it to have more chemical potential energy, before dropping back down to ground state and releasing energy. Chlorophyll absorbs blue light because it excites the electron within it to two energy levels, causing it to have even more chemical potential energy than when the electron was excited to one energy level, before dropping back down to ground state and releasing even more energy than the electron excited by the red light. g. a. Photosystem II-electron enters thylakoid and gets excited which allows it to pass from one chlorophyll to another in the antenna complex. This electron then gets to the reaction center. The O-H bond of water is then broken to release the O and produce protons in the thylakoid space. b. ETC- the protons from the water is carried by the electron carrier and then pumped to the thylakoid space from the stroma by the etc. forms a proton gradient c. NADPH reductase- The electrons that pass through the photosystem II eventually get lower energy. Another photon hits photosystem I which causes the electrons to become excited. The electrons are then given off to NADP+ reductase, a protein, which converts NADP+ to NADPH d. ATP synthesis- since the H+ pumps along the concentration gradient at the electron transport chain. The movement of the H+ protons creates ATP from ADP and Pi h. NADPH and ATP from the light reaction provide the exergonic energy necessary to perform the endergonic process of reducing PGA into G3P in the Calvin Cycle. i. Light energy in the form of photons is converted to the chemical energy NADPH and ATP during the light reactions, which are then converted into the chemical energy glucose. 9. Importance of photosynthesis a. Can’t make glucose or ATP b. Air, CO2 c. Sugar is more stable than ATP and has a higher activation energy so it is better as a storage molecule. plants use the carbon in sugar to produce cellulose and build its leaves and tissues, which cannot be done with ATP alone. d. ? . e. produces oxygen and It produces the glucose that is needed for aerobic cellular respiration to occur, which is what most organisms on this planet use to provide energy to their daily activities f. increase oxygen, decrease CO2 g. Some prokaryotes use other chemicals besides CO2 such as methane as their carbon source for carbon fixation. h. Solar energy produces glucose which produces ATP. ATP allows work to be done in the cell through energy. Week 3 10. How does energy flow structure ecosystems? a. Ecosystems processes are the transfers of energy and materials from one pool to another. All organisms and abiotic pools of resources with which they interact. b. Primary producers: Plants Secondary consumers: Herbivores. Tertiary consumers: Predators that eat secondary consumers. c. Sunlight (Energy flux) → Primary producers-plants (energy flux) → Herbivores (energy flux) → Predators (energy flux) → Decomposers. Heat is released each energy flux d. GPP=total assimilation of energy-100% NPP=GPP-energy lost (10%) e. 10% of energy is used towards growth/reproduction, 90% of energy is lost through respiration, excretion, heat, and egestion. nd f. The higher the trophic level, the less energy one receives. The 2 law of Thermodynamics, the reaction is exergonic overall so energy is lost. g. Respiration, growth, egestion, excretion. Land, food supply, predators 11. How do resources limit population growth a. R,b,d,k b. B=birth rate, d=death rate, k=carrying capacity, r=population growth rate(b-d) c. Density dependent-depends on population size. (food, competition, predation, disease) Density independent- doesn’t depend on pop. Size.(natural disasters, man made disasters) d. ? e. ? f. r is large, greater than 1. Or k decreases due to environmental degradation. g. R- younger age of maturity, more offspring, shorter lifespan. Death rate of offspring is high k- older age of maturity, less offspring, longer lifespan. Death rate of offspring is low h. R- lots of predators, increasing death rate k-little predators, low death rates i. Environmental degradation means less land which means less carrying capacity. K decreases 12. How do species interact with environment? a. Biotic is living components of the environment of an organism Ex. Seeds, completion, disease Abiotic is nonliving components of an organism’s environment Ex. Climate, weather, soil, temperature b. ? c. Populations: Groups of organisms of the same species living in the same environment. Communities: Groups of populations interacting with each other. d. Competition- -/- Predation-+/- Parasitism-+/- Mutualism-+/+ Commensalism-+/nothing e. Intraspecific competition- competition within same species Interspecific completion- competition with different species f. One species will be able to survive with the limited amount of resources available. One specie will always outcompete another g. Fundamental niche was the niche before another species came over. The fundamental niche is the entire environment that the species could occupy without competition. Realized niche is the area that an specie can occupy due to competition. h. Predator populations follow after pretty populations. Predator pop. Increase after prey population increases and slowly decreases due to the amount of predators eating the prey i. Environmental heterogeneity can cause more resources to be available to a certain species, thus this species may diverge to form different species based on differences in prey or whatever the environment tended to diverge on. j. Be able to use the following terms in context: optimum, range of tolerance, fundamental niche, realized niche, predation, competition, mutualism, commensalism, exploitative competition, interference competition, competitive exclusion. Optimum: Where most of the organism’s population is found, the environment the organism thrives best in. Range of tolerance: The range of an environment in which the organism can be found and can survive in. Fundamental niche: Total area organism can live in. Realized niche: Actual area an organism lives in. Exploitative competition: Passive through resource exploitation. Interference competition: Active (ex:through defending territory) Competitive exclusion: When one organism outcompetes another organism for resources. 13. What are the trade offs associated with different metabolic strategies? a. Endothermy-organisms rely on internal body temp for heat Ectothermy-organisms rely on external environment for heat Homeothermy- maintain a stable body temp Poikilothermy-have fluctuating temperatures b. K strategist-endotherms rely on negative delta G for internal body heat. Homotherms are endotherms. Ectotherms rely on outside temperatures. Ectotherms are poikilothermy. c. The enzymes for endotherms has specific optimal temperatures so they need to function that way for the endotherms to survive. The enzymes for ectotherms can survive and work at different temperatures. The efficiency fluctuates during times of days. d. Review session Exploitative vs interference- exploitative- passive. Whos more efficient. Competitive exclusion Interference-territorialism(barnacles) Anaerobic goes through glycolysis. The difference between anaerobic and fermentation is the final electron acceptor Oxygen higher electronegativity- produces a larger proton gradient. ATP synthase needs the gradient Anaerobic resp- diff acceptor is final acceptor Fermentation-using pyruvate as final electron acceptor. 2 atp per glucose Week 5 14. What is the structure and function of DNA? a. Structure: double helix, adenine-thymine, guanine-cytosine, sugar phosphate backbone. Function: genetic code, information storage. b. A-T, G-C c. Double helix strand will split to two strands which results in both strands being replicated. Each strand will be he same as the original DNA. There will be 2 identical daughter strands. d. Be able to use the following terms in context: base-pairing rules, sugar-phosphate backbone, nucleotide, nitrogenous base, hydrogen-bonding of nitrogenous bases. 15. How does DNA encode genetic information? a. DNA → transcription → mRNA → translation → Amino acid polypeptides (proteins) b. RNA has uracil rather than thymine . RNA is the result of DNA transcription. Single stranded. DNA has the genetic information that creates RNA. c. DNA → transcription → mRNA → translation → Amino acid polypeptides (proteins) Genotype------------------------------------------------à phenotype d. Mutation-process, event Allele-product of a gene Gene- specific locus on chromosome that contains the genetic info for a specific gene-product Genetic diversity- usually caused by mutations. Variations in genetics. e. Recall that genotypic diversity is generally required for phenotypic diversity to exist f. Mistakes in DNA replication g. Missense mutation-mutations in one codon of an amino acid. One wrong amino acid. Silent mutation-mutation in nucleotide. No change since codes the same amino acid. Unambiguity. Nonsense mutation-mistake that codes for a stop codon Single-nucleotide frameshift mutation-nucleotide is inserted or deleted. Shifts the reading frame in a protein. Cause protein to misfold and become nonfunctional h. Unambiguity and redundancy. i. Be able to transcribe and translate a gene sequence to the protein product, if given an mRNA codon chart, including predicting the amino acid sequence that results from a particular mutation in the DNA sequence. j. Complementary base pairing, post synthesis DNA repair, DNA proofreading. k. Be able to use the following terms in context: mRNA, tRNA, rRNA, gene product, polypeptide, protein, amino acid, ribosome, codon, start and stop codon, substitution, indel, silent, missense, frameshift, nonsense mutations, redundancy and unambiguity of genetic code. Week 6 16. Mitosis: How do organisms pass on genetic info during asexual reproduction a. Karyotype-# and type of chromosomes. Both autosomal and sex chromosomes b. Sex chromosome-determine sex Autosomal Chromosomes -Rest of chromosomes except sex chromosomes. c. Draw the same chromosome in the replicated and unreplicated state, explain why both structures represent a single chromosome, and then label the sister chromatids in the replicated chromosome. d. Draw and identify a cell of any ploidy (haploid, diploid, tetraploid, etc) and chromosome number n. e. Interphase: G1, S, G2 G1: day to day activity S: DNA duplicated (where mutations can occur) G2: get prepared for M phase Mitosis: cell divides and pinches off to 2 identical daughter cells f. S phase g. Chromosomes. The sister chromatids are pulled apart by spindle fibers. Which then is brought to opposite sides. The cell is pinched in half by cytokinesis which forms 2 identical daughter cells. h. Be able to use the following terms in context: Karyotype, chromosomes, autosomes, sex chromosomes, chromatids, ploidy, diploid, haploid, homologous chromosomes, G1 phase, S phase, G2 phase, M phase, centrosome, centromere, spindle fibers, cytokinesis 17. Diff. Forms of sharing genetic info and life cycles a. Bacterial sex: exchange of genetic info through plasmids True sex: syngamy of gametes b. Animals: Diplontic. Diploid as organisms. Gametes are haploid Fungi: Haplontic. Haploid as organism. Gametes are diploid Plants: Alt. generation. Alternates between haploid and diploid life stages c. Males: splermatogenesis- produce 4 sperm cells Females: oogenesis- produce 1 egg and 3 polar bodies d. Genetic variation=better fitness in pop. e. Be able to use the following terms in context: plasmid, gamete, gametophyte, sporophyte, diploid versus haploid-dominated life cycle and alternation of generations 18. How does meiosis result in the production of genetically distinct? a. Diagram the major events in meiosis for a diploid organism, relating each part of meiosis with the ploidy of the cell 19.answer below 20.answer below 21.answer below 22.answer below Review: Polygenic- controlled by more than one gene. Usually bell shaped. Epistasis- one gene dependent on the other gene Orthologous genes are homologous genes that diverged after a speciation event. The genes generally maintain a similar function to that of the ancestral gene in which they evolved from. Hemizygous-males Explain why linkage between two genes on a single chromosome does not allow the two genes to assort independently. Because on the same chromosome, not different. All move in a single unit Parental and recombinant freq should be equal if independent assortment Further away- larger chance of crossing over Week 8 23. What is biological evolution? a. Differentiate between different sources of diversity among individuals in a population, including heritable variation and environmentally-induced variation due to phenotypic plasticity. b. Mutation c. Evolution is the change in allele frequency in a population over time 24. Understand the intimate relationship between populations and genetic diversity a. Dominant (p), heterozygous (2pq), recessive (q) b. Null hypothesis: hardy Weinberg equilibrium is occurring Alt hypothesis: hardy Weinberg equilibrium is not occurring. Species are evolving. c. Five assumptions: 1) No mutation 2) No genetic flow (migration) 3) No genetic drift (chance) 4) No natural selection 5) Random mating d. Calculate the expected frequencies of offspring of particular genotypes or phenotypes expected in the next generation if the population is in Hardy– Weinberg equilibrium given allele or genotype frequencies in the current generation e. Be able to apply the Hardy–Weinberg equation to estimate the frequencies of carriers in a population, assuming alleles of the gene in question is in Hardy– Weinberg Equilibrium= 2pq f. Null hypothesis means that Hardy Weinberg is occurring. No biological evolution. g. Determine whether or not a population is in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium using the Chi-Square statistic to compare expected and observed genotype frequencies of a population, and explain the biological implications of either rejecting or failing to reject the null hypothesis based on your results. Week 9 25. What causes genotypes not to be in HW equilibrium in a population? a. Genotypic frequency change: natural selection, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, non random mating. Allele frequency change: natural selection, mutation, gene flow, genetic drift b. A fixed allele is an allele that is the only variant that exists for that gene in all the population. Lost allele means that the allele no longer exists, usually due to genetic drift in an environment that favors a specific phenotype. c. Lack of genetic diversity d. Genetic drift e. Small samples are more effected by genetic drift compared to larger samples. Random parent pairings can lead to a more skewed direction of offspring in terms of phenotype since genetic drift has more of an effect. f. Genetic drift depends on chance. So, depending on which alleles die off or survive, there may be some alleles that are fixed and stable, or less common. g. Genetic drift effects smaller populations a lot more. Allele fixation usually occur more quickly in smaller populations than larger populations. h. Founder effect-genetic drift that is a loss of allele variation and founding of a new population. Lots of inbreeding. Difference is that founder effect is new colony Bottleneck- disaster that reduces the population, including allelic variation. Bottleneck is usually original population. i. Gene flow is gene migration. Transfer of alleles from one population to another. j. Gene flow can introduce genetic variants to a gene pool of a population. It can also lead to the combination of two gene pools which develops different variation. k. Non random mating can cause favor toward a certain allele or certain traits. This will cause an increase or decrease in frequency toward a certain trait or allele l. Inbreeding will not change allele frequencies, only genotypic frequencies. There will be more homozygotes than heterozygotes. You need a genotype that is higher fitness than another m. You don’t choose alleles. So allele frequency doesn’t necessarily change, over time it will cause usually homozygotes are favored. Alleles present are those with higher fitness. Natural selection will work against the allele with less fitness. Week 11 26. How do biotic and abiotic interactions lead to adaptations? a. Pre existing phenotypic variation in the population Variation is heritable (has a genetic basis) Differences in reproductive success among individuals Reproductive success depends on this phenotypic trait b. Reproduction for variation is fitness or how many offspring one can produce, but differential survival is choosing alleles that will allow on to survive long enough to reach the reproduction age. The fittest may not reproduce as much offspring or have the best fitness. c. If an organism is able to survive to reproduce then the organism is able to reproduce. The organism may have high fitness based on how many offspring is produced or how viable the offspring is. The older the more offspring d. Identify sexual selection as a sub-category of natural selection that increases reproductive success through mate acquisition. e. Fitness is the ability to produce more viable offspring f. Identify that evolution by natural selection results directly from intraspecific competition between individuals of different genotypes. (members of same species) g. Certain traits and phenotypes of an organism will be favorable in terms of surviving from predators just as better camouflage or faster speed h. There is not necessarily an introduction of new alleles, but just a change in overall allelic frequency that already exists i. Natural selection is just focused on the now rather than the future. Sexual selection occurs based on favorable phenotypes, not due to traits that are better in future events. j. Because fitness is the ability to produce more offspring. Although an organism may have strong traits, if it is not able to pass it down, then the traits will not 27. How does natural selection cause non random changes in allele frequencies in a population? a. Certain heritable traits may be better for fitness compared to other heritable traits. Then the certain traits that are better for fitness may increase in allelic frequency b. Mutation occurs randomly where as natural selection is based on certain traits that have better fitness. We are not introducing new alleles for natural selection, we are just altering allele frequency based on fitness c. ?? d. directional=mean changes and variance decreases. Favors one extreme phenotype stabilizing=mean constant, variance decreases. Favors middle of the extremes disruptive=mean constant, variance increases. Favors both extremes Balancing selection- no single phenotype is favored in all populations of a species at all times, genetic variation is maintained Environmental selection- favors traits that enable organisms to do things other than obtain mates (survive in the their physical and biological environments) e. inbreeding is occurring Week 12 28. How do new species arise? a. Group of individuals that are able to breed sexually with each other. Determine by reproductive isolation b. Reproductive isolation is when 2 different species have barriers that prevent them from mating. There is no way to exchange alleles. No gene flow c. Gene flow is like migration, the alleles won’t be isolated and there will be in influx of genes, therefore a exchange of alleles d. Prezygotic-habitat (diff living areas), temporal (diff times), behavioral (diff sexual selection choices and ways to attract the female), mechanical (can’t reproduce), gametic barrier (gametes cant combine) Postzygotic-hybrid infertility, hybrid inviability, reduced hybrid fitness e. Allopatric-speciation that occurs when biological populations of the same species become isolated f. Population is split which causes isolation and a new species g. Genetic drift effects small populations which are usually new ones due to isolation. This will cause divergence and new species h. Disruptive selection is favoring the more extreme alleles. Therefore, the intermediate alleles will have less ability to survive. This may lead to sympatric speciation because a new species is formed and disruptive selection is occurring in the same area i. Certain sexual traits are more desired by individuals in the species. Fitness will increase due to the ability to survive with the certain sexually selected trait due to ability to produce offspring. 29. How can we infer evolutionary relatedness using cladistics a. Nodes-branch off, where there is a shared ancestor Branches- new species due to node b. More traits in common then the more related c. Clade is a group of organisms that consists of a common ancestor and all its lineal descendants d. Shared derived trait is the new trait that appeared which was not present in the common ancestors. Ancestral characters are present in common ancestor and is usually essential. e. Understand that any character that is a shared derived character for one clade, can be a shared ancestral character for another clade. f. Monophyletic-groupings that group all descendents of a common ancestor into a group Paraphyletc- groupings that missed some people Polypheletci- groupings that group distantly related species into an unnatural grouping g. Parsimony-how many diff evolution steps are needed to come to a conclusion. Smallest number of steps is most likey correct (occums razor) h. Homologous characters are characteristics in different organisms that are similar since they are inherited by a common ancestor. Analogous characters are characteristics that are similar not due to common ancestor, but through natural selection. i. Be able to identify a character as homologous versus analogous when presented with a cladogram of a lineage that displays these characters j. Live in similar environment so need the same sort of adaptation. Natural selection favors certain traits k. More differences then less likely to be related l. Explain the basic assumptions made in cladistic analyses, what errors can occur, what causes these errors in inferring evolutionary relationships to occur, and how to guard against errors in constructing phylogenies/cladograms. Assumptions: any group of organisms are related by descent from a common ancestor, new kinds of organisms may arise when existing species or populations divide into exactly two groups, and change in characteristics occurs in lineages over time. Review: Relative fitness- number of offspring compared to its same species
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'