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Music History Study Guide

by: Summer Notetaker

Music History Study Guide Music 1406

Marketplace > East Carolina University > Music 1406 > Music History Study Guide
Summer Notetaker
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Study Guide 2
Music History and Literature
Dr. Nelson
Study Guide
Music History, Polyphonic Conductus
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Summer Notetaker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Music 1406 at East Carolina University taught by Dr. Nelson in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 32 views.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Music History Study Guide 2 Polyphonic Conductus  Function: moving and conducting  Texture: different from the common practice; homo-rhythmic; rhythmic; rhythm very close across voices; almost block chords  Text: metrical; Latin poems and sequences  Caude: coda (tail); melismatic passages put at important spots (some think these were played by instruments because the lack of text) Early Motet (to c1280) Polyphonic vocal work with additional texted voice; still has pre-existing tenor (bass line)  Another voice along with different text  Clausulae’s became to be separate pieces  Tenor carried the chant  Composers reworked upper voices and added new voices Musical features Cantus firmus- “fixed melody” pre-existing melody as basis for polyphonic composition  Repeated two or three times Other voices: Motetus- second from bottom Triplum- third from bottom Quadruplum- fourth from bottom Franco of Cologne Franconian Motet Created notation that connect with different note shape Franconian notation described as Ars Cantus Mensurabilis Divided semibreves into threes Petronian Motet  Petrus de Cruce; followed up on Franco  Further divided breves into 7 different semibreves  Pierre de la Croix active (c1270-1300) Rondellus: English type of motet  A round or canon  “sumer is icumen in” Ars Nova: new art Background  Religion: dual papacy; controversy in church  Humanism: focus on human rather than the divine; more vernacular music  The plague; 3 different pathogens Black Death 1348-1350; traveled on land and water Roman de Fauvel  “story of Fauvel”  Ms from c1310-1314 Philippe de Vitry (1291-1361)  Theorist, composer, wrote about music  Inventor of Ars Nova  In 1322, Philippe De Vitry was named inventor of Ars Nova  He divided note values into:  duple  breve into 4 or more semi-breves  Motet- vehicle for innovation  Treble- dominated songs  Controversial changes De Vitry’s motets  Isorhythmic motets o Color-repeated melody o Talea-repeated rhythm Second repeat doesn’t always have the same melody or rhythm Hocket  13 and 14 century technique  Rest interrupt the melody while another voice fills in the missing notes  Used in motets Guillaume de Machaut (c1300-1377)  Composer, more famous as poet during his time  Now a-day more famous for being composer  First composer to compile his complete works  Born in northern France His Motets  23 motets  isorhythmic and pan-isorhythmic Composed: Messe de Notre Dame in the 1360’s  Polyphonic setting of the ordinary portion of mass Unity of Machaut’s mass  Recurring motives  All movements a4  Tonal focus Variety: some movements were isorhythmic;  note-against-note conductus Text: expressive;  slows things down Performance practice: performed on Saturday’s;  intended to be 1 singer per part  Reims cathedral Forms fixes  “fixed form” from poetic patterns  originally dances  monophonic or polyphonic secular songs  poem; song; dance Virelai A bba A Ballade AAB or AABB Rondeau AbaAabAB 2 musical phrases and a refrain 14 thCentury French Music Historical background:  Papal court at Avigon  Music  Ars Subtilior: “the subtler manner”  Complex music  Hidden messages and riddles  Rhythm o Polyphony o different rhythms and meters o 5 against 7 Expansion of Franconian principals Division of note values o Long- mode (modus) o Breve- time (tempus) o Semibreve- prolation (prolatio) o Triple division- perfect (major) o Duple division- imperfect (minor) Notation: musica ficta “false music” 2 reasons:  created leading tone  avoid tri-tones Notes were raised or lowered by half step in performances but not usually notated Italian notation  Pomerium (1318) by Marchetto of Padua describes 13 thCentury Italian notation  Semibreves were grouped between dots Musical instruments  Any combination of voices and instruments  Instruments may have doubled the voice in cantilenas style  Cantilena – songlike; homophonic Instrument categories -haut (high or loud)  shawms, cornets, brass instruments, and percussion;  large events -bas (low or soft)  included stringed instruments and softer wind instruments;  small events th Italian 14 century music Background: o Politics; Italy not a unified state o Music; squarcialupi codex (c1420) th 14 Century Madrigal  secular song type th th  early 14 century declined in late 14 century  love and pastural topics Composed of: 3 line stanzas followed by a ritornello (closing pair of line)  strophic; most in 3 voices, some in 2 Caccia: “chase”  Cannon at unison  includes un-texted tenor Ballata: song to accompany dancing  (plural: ballate)  Mostly after 1365 Boccacio’s Decameron  associated with dance  Dante: also mentioned in association with dance  Similar to French virelai (rather than ballade) Francesco Landini (1325-1397)  Born in Florence Italy  Blind since boyhood  Poet  Virtuoso on organetto  Musical style only secular music  Ballate Landini cadence:  “under 3 cadence”  Upper voice descends to 6 before leaping a 3 to the resolution  While tenor descends by step Late 14 thcentury Italian style Background:  1377 papal court veturns to Rome  Northern influence Renaissance “rebirth”  Renewed interest in classical Greek and Roman cultures  Other eras renew interest in antiquity  Began in Italy Application of Ancient Greek Theory to Polyphony  Modes- church modes modeled upon ancient Greek modes  Ethos  Counterpoint  Temperament  Various temperaments in use  Pythagorean temperament  Mean tone temperament (just tuning) o Pure 3 rd Equal temperament o Equal distance between intervals o All intervals slightly impure Humanism  rededication to human rather than spiritual values


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