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Biology- Organisms Exam 3 Course Notes

by: Lauren Maddox

Biology- Organisms Exam 3 Course Notes bio 114

Marketplace > James Madison University > Biology > bio 114 > Biology Organisms Exam 3 Course Notes
Lauren Maddox

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These are course objectives for the third test of Bio 114
Biology of Organisms (Bio 114)
Dr. Oliver Hyman
Study Guide
Biology; Science; Organisms; Bio 114
50 ?




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This 5 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Maddox on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to bio 114 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Oliver Hyman in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Biology of Organisms (Bio 114) in Biology at James Madison University.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Fungi Students should be able to: 1 Place fungi on the tree of life (relative to prokarya, protists, plants, and animals) fungi and animals are more related than the plants are. 2 List the traits that support the hypothesis that fungi and animals are more closely related than fungi and plants animals and fungi cell walls-made of chitin. They store the sugar in glycogen, fungi and animals are organoheterotrophs- 3 Provide examples of the important roles fungi play in our lives (eg. antibiotics, pathogens, etc.) gives us antibiotics—accidentally discovered penicillium rubens. Agriculture- 80% of all plant species have mycorrhize-vital to nutrient acquisition. They can be parasites/pathogens- chestnut blight-killed 3-4 billion trees, chytridiomycosis. Important decomposers in the carbon cycle, without them, tons of carbon would be locked up in wood and the earth would be neck deep in woods and leaves. It digests cellulose and lignin (from wood) to obtain sugars and other small organic compounds. 4 Explain how fungi obtain nutrients and distinguish between saprophytic, mutualistic, and parasitic relationships fungi have with other organism’s saprophytic fungi- digest lignin and cellulose from dead trees. Co2 in the atmosphere goes to carbon in trees, the carbon is trapped inside dead tree as lignin and cellulose. The saprophytic fungi can break down lignin/cellulose to get reduced c and goes to the co2 in the atmosphere. The food they take in must be small enough to pass through the membranes of hyphae cells (diffusion or membrane proteins. Food is digested outside of organism: hyphae secret digestive enzymes extracellular. The cellulose (polymer) goes through enzymes and becomes glucose (monomer), which is absorbed by hyphae and then to enzymes. Resulting monomers and other small molecules can enter cells of hyphae by diffusion, facilitated transport or active transport. Parasitic fungi do this too but to live organisms. Mutualism-two organisms live with each other and both benefit. Almost all vascular plants have a mutualistic relationship with mycorrhizal fungi. Hyphae are very thin with high sa:v ration. Thin hyphae allow fungi to access nutrients in soil that plants cant get to. Fungus benefits from sugars from plants. 5 Describe how fungi reproduce including both sexual and asexual life cycles and the process of plasmogamy and karyogamy thick fleshy structures of fungi are reproductive structures that arise from mycelia underground. Have lower sa:v ratio than underground feeding part. Release billions of spores into the air. Spores are main mode of dispersal for most fungi. Like seeds of a plant that they use to move to a new place. Small amounts in the air at all times. Plasmogamy-fusion of cells, but not nuclei. Karyogamy- fusion of nuclei from the fused cells. 6 Describe the basic morphological features of fungi (mycelia, hyphae, fruiting bodies, etc), their functions, and how their structure is related to their function (eg. SA:V) mycelia- high sa:v to absorb nutrients. This structure of cells gives fungi to highest sa:v ratio of any organism. It is composed of hyphae- moves nutrients throughout the fungus. 7 Explain the role of fungi in carbon cycling and predict what might happen if fungi were removed from the carbon cycle Fungi absorb reduced C molecules from: dead organisms as saprophytes, living organisms as mutualists, and living organisms as parasites Animals Students should be able to: 1 Place animals on the tree of life (relative to prokarya, protists, choanoflagellates, plants, and fungi) fungi, choanoflagellates, animals, then plants 2 Know when the first animals began to appear in the fossil record relative to other important evolutionary events (eg. land plants, 1 st eukaryotes, 1 stcells, photosynthesis, etc – see slides in animal lecture 1) after first protists. 635 mya. 3 Describe what is believed to have occurred during the Cambrian explosion and provide evidence to support this claim (eg. fossil record) rapid evolution. Many of major lineages of animals appeared during the Cambrian explosion. Took 3 billion years. Evolution of most major animal phyla during Cambrian took about 1/60 thof the 3 billion years it had taken for life to reach that point. Ediacaran fossils- things like sponges and jellyfish. No shells, limbs, heads or feeding appendages. Likely to be filter feeders or absorb nutrients. New animal phyla: mollusks, arthropods, chordates, increase in size and morphological complexity-shells, limbs, heads, feeding appendages. Diversification in feeding and locomotion- predators, scavengers, swim burrow, walk, run, slither. 4 Explain the 3 current hypotheses for how the Cambrian explosion occurred 1. increased oxygen levels in atmosphere o Photosynthetic organisms (plants, cyanobacteria/algae) dump O2 into the atmosphere o O2 levels reached a threshold in atmosphere that enabled aerobic (O2 using) respiration to work at peak efficiency o Increased energy (ATP) from aerobic respiration enables evolution of larger bodies and more active locomotion 2. evolution of predation o first animal predators evolved in the Cambrian o created strong selective pressure for shells, rapid movement, exoskeletons, and other prey defenses 3. new genes enabled new bodies hypothesis o new types of genes related to “body-plants evolved in the Cambrian. o These new genes duplicated and diversified to enable larger, more complex body plans to emerge. o Hox genes first appeared in Cambrian animals- these genes code for body plan development. Their appearance enabled rapid diversification of body types. 5 Describe what the Cambrian explosion can teach us about evolution Evolution is not always a slow, gradual progression. Evolution happens in fits and starts. 6 List and define the 3 main traits that make something an animal Multicellular- attached cells with different functions that depend on each other to survive. Specialized cells carry out specific functions. Cannot survive independently. Often results in tissue. ingestive heterotrophs- heterotroph means to get your carbon for c-c bonds from other organisms. They take food in, then digest, and absorb into cells, usually into a digestive tract. Motile-move under your own power. 7 List the names, relative abundances, common examples, defining characteristics (multicellularity, symmetry, -blasty, -stomey, etc.), and phylogenetic relationships of the nine major animal phyla Nematoda roundworms coelomate bilateral Triploblastic protosomes Cnidaria Jellyfish, No coelom radial diploblastic deuterosomes corals, anemones Arthropoda Crustaceans, coelomate bilateral Triploblastic protosomes insects Annelida Segmented coelomate bilateral Triploblastic protosomes worms mollusca Snails, coelomate bilateral Triploblastic protosomes clams, squid platyhelminthes flatworms acoelomate bilateral Triploblastic protosomes echinodermata Sea stars, coelomate bilateral Triploblastic urchins chordata Vertebrates, coelomate bilateral Triploblastic deuterosomes tunicates Porifera sponges No coelom assymetric No tissues 8 Determine which phylum a hypothetical organism belongs to, when given a list of key traits this organism possesses. 9 Define important morphological traits in animals (eg. coelom, symmetry, embryonic tissue layers, proto vs deuterostome development, nerve cells, GV cavity (gut), complete digestive tract, cuticle, molluscan body plan, platyhelminth body plan, tube feet & echinoderm body plan, chordate adaptations, and key vertebrate adaptations). Explain the function of the traits listed above and how each trait helped enable animal lineages to survive and reproduce Coelom-creates space for organs to move and muscles to flex-important for movement DERIVED Radial symmetry- most typical in aquatic, sessile animals. Typically more ancestral Bilateral symmetry- one plane of symmetry, typically more derived. Led to cephalization-having a head Diploblastic animals- 2 tissue layers in gastrula DERIVED Triploblastic animals- 3 tissue layers. Skin-from ectoderm. Muscles, organs- from mesoderm. Gut- from endoderm DERIVED Protostomes-pore becomes mouth DERIVED Deutrosomes- pore becomes anus DERIVED


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