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CSU CHICO / Biology / BIOL 103 / What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?

What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?

What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?


School: California State University Chico
Department: Biology
Course: Principles of Human Anatomy
Professor: Gary arnet
Term: Fall 2016
Tags: midbrain and brain stem
Cost: 25
Name: Bio 103 Human Anatomy Brain Structures and Functions Part 2
Description: These notes are part two of the brain tissue notes and they cover more parts of the midbrain and brain stem. They will be on the exam 2 study guide
Uploaded: 03/13/2016
5 Pages 41 Views 1 Unlocks

The Brain Structure and Function Part 2

What is the meaning of the primary cortex in brain structure?

∙ Primary Cortex= Regions that receive input directly  from the sense organs or brainstem. They issue motor  fibers directly to the brainstem

∙ Association Cortex= 75% of cortex

o Composed of other regions other than the primary  cortex

o Involved in interpretation of memory, sensory  input, planning motor output, and thought

∙ Generally, a primary cortex will have an association  cortex adjacent to it

∙ Primary Somatosensory Area= Sensory sensation ∙ Postcentral Gyrus= Found in parietal lobe

∙ Primary Motor Area= Found in frontal lobe

Diencephalon Region

What is the function of the association cortex?


o Ovoid mass at the superior portion of the brain and  brainstem

o Composed of 23 nuclei

o Gateway to cerebral cortex  

o Passage for sensory input, motor control, memory,  and emotion

2. Hypothalamus We also discuss several other topics like What is the meaning of storming?

o Major control center of Autonomic Nervous System  and Endocrine System


o Creates melatonin  

o Is a thin roof over the 3rd ventricle

o Pineal Gland= An endocrine gland (pinecone  shaped)

∙ Cerebellum

o 2nd largest part of the brain

o Contains more than half of all brain neurons

Where does the postcentral gyrus locate?

If you want to learn more check out Who laid the foundation of quantum mechanics?

o Subconscious evaluation of sensory input

o Monitors body movements

o Coordinates muscle movements and balance ∙ Gross Anatomy of Cerebellum

o Cerebellar Hemispheres (similar to cerebral  


o Vermis (bridge) similar to Corpus Callosum

o Arbor Vitae= Gray and white matter (looks like a  tree)

o Has deep nuclei

∙ Midbrain

o Cerebral aqueduct passes through other structures o Central gray matter

o Corpora Quadrigemina= Has inferior and superior  colliculi

o Substantial Nigra= Suppresses unwanted muscle  contractions

∙ Medulla Oblongata

o Foramen magnum to pons

o Contains nerve fibers going in between the brain  and spinal cord If you want to learn more check out What is net capital outflow equal to?

o Nuclei found in cardiac center, vasomotor center,  and respiratory center If you want to learn more check out What were the priorities for education in the 19th century?

o Cannot live without it

∙ Pons

o In charge of basic physiologic functions such as  sleep, respiration, and bladder control

o Contains cranial nerves  

∙ Cranial Nerves

o Part of the Peripheral Nervous System, but often in  the Pons

o 12 pairs of nerves arising from the base of the brain o Exit foramina in the skull  

o Most spaces in the skull are openings where cranial  nerves go through


Cranial Nerves

I. Olfactory= Smell

II. Optic= Sight

III. Oculomotor= Moves the eye

IV. Trochlear= Moves the eye

V. Trigeminal= Big nerve in forehead, nose, chin  area. Muscles of mastication (chewing)

VI. Abducens= Abducts the eye

VII. Facial= Muscles of facial expression

VIII. Vesibulocochlear= Hearing

IX. Glossopharyngeal= Tongue and throat. Goes to all  organs

X. Vagus= Big nerve. Leaves the neck area to the  chest and abdomen

XI. Accessory= Goes to trapezius and  

sternocleidomastoid Don't forget about the age old question of What are the different kinds of principalities?

XII. Hypoglossal= Goes to the tongue. Motor to tongue 3

Autonomic Nervous System (Visceral Motor System)

∙ Motor nervous system that controls glands, cardiac  muscle, and smooth muscle (involuntary) If you want to learn more check out What do you call someone from osaka?

∙ Primary Targets

o Organs of the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavity o Responsible for visceral reflex (salivating before  eating food)

o Also controls some body wall structures such as  blood vessels, sweat glands, and pilierector  


∙ Visceral Reflex  

o Unconscious automatic response to stimulation o Involves visceral receptors (nerve endings that  sense something) and the effect on effectors  

(muscles and glands)

o Receptors detect stretching, tissue damage, blood  chemicals, body temperature, and internal stimuli

Division of the Autonomic Nervous System

∙ Sympathetic Division

o Readies the body for physical activity  

o Fight or flight response

o Responds to arousal, competition, stress, danger,  anger, and fear

∙ Parasympathetic Division

o Calming effect on body functions

o Rest and digestion

o Normal bodily maintenance  

∙ Autonomic Tone= Balance between parasympathetic  and sympathetic divisions

∙ Dual Innervation

o Contains nerve fibers from both divisions

o May have antagonistic or cooperative effects  4

o Found in contractile muscles in the iris and pupil of  the eye


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