Bio 103 Human Anatomy Exam 2 Study Guide
Bio 103 Human Anatomy Exam 2 Study Guide Biology 103
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Erika Chalker on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 103 at California State University Chico taught by Gary Arnet in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see Principles of Human Anatomy in Biology at California State University Chico.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Exam 2 Study Guide Integumentary System 1. Define the difference between the epidermis and the dermis o Epidermis= Keratinized squamous epithelium o Dermis= Mainly collagen with a large blood supply 2. Where is thick and thin skin located? What does thick skin lack? What epidermal layer increases in thick skin? o Thin skin is located in the eyelids. Thick skin is located on the palms, soles, and fingertips. It lacks hair and sebaceous glands. The stratum corneleum is increased, causing thick skin to be increased. 3. Is the epidermis avascular? If so, where does it receive nutrients? o It is avascular. It receives nutrients from the dermis 4. Name the 6 layers of the epidermis o Stratum Basale= Where adult stem cells are found. One layer of columnar to cuboidal epithelium. It produces basal lamina o Stratum Spinosum= Keratinocytes (cuboid to squamous shaped). Thickest layer. Named for spiny desmosomes. Keratinocytes migrate to the surface in 30-40 days. o Stratum Granulosum= 3-5 layers of cells. Where apoptosis (cell death) occurs o Stratum Lucidum= Translucent, only seen in thick skin. Has no organelles o Stratum Corneleum= 30 layers of dead cells (no organelles) and filled with keratin. Is resistant to abrasion, water loss, and penetration. 5. What is the name of the cells in the stratum basale which produce pigment? What is the name, color, and function of the pigment? o Melanocytes produce melanin, which can range from brown to black. They protect the skin from UV radiation. Lysosomes digest melanin 6. Define Dendritic (Langerhans) Cells o They are macrophages in the stratum spinosum that carry foreign materials to lymph nodes 7. What are the two layers of the dermis? What is the thickest? What is the main type of tissue in the superficial layer? o The papillary and reticular layer. The reticular layer is the thickest. Loose areolar is the main tissue in the papillary layer, which is the most superficial. Collagen fibers are the most abundant there. 8. What are the types of sweat glands? o Sebaceous Glands= Source of acne o Merocrine Glands= Cause perspiration o Apocrine Glands= Cause body odor o Cerumious Glands= Cause wax in the ear 9. What are 3 zones of the hair and their functions? What are the 3 layers of hair? o 1. Bulb (Zone)= Swelling at the base where the hair originates. Dermal papillae provide nutrients and the hair matrix is the growth center. o 2. Root (Zone)= Remainder of hair within the follicle. Made up of dead tissue. o 3. Shaft (Zone)= Portion above the skin’s surface. Also made up of dead tissue o 1. Medulla (Layer)= Internal layer of hair made up of loosely arranged cells and air spaces o 2. Cortex (Layer)= Bulk of hair o 3. Cuticle (Layer)= Outer layer of hair, overlapping scaly cells 10. What muscle in the dermis causes the hair to stand up straight in response to fear or excitement? o A smooth muscle called the pilierector muscle. 2 Muscular System 1. What do all 3 muscle cells contain? o Myosin proteins 2. Mitochondria converts_______to_________ o Chemical (ATP) energy to mechanical energy 3. Define Glycemic Control o The muscle regulating glucose in the blood 4. Describe the characteristics of skeletal muscle o It has a fibrous shape o Cannot undergo mitosis o Myoblasts= Embryonic cells that fuse to form skeletal muscle fiber o Has voluntary control over the somatic nervous system (voluntary striated muscle) 5. Describe the characteristics of cardiac muscle o Involuntary striated. Initiates its own movement and is made up of cardiocytes o Mononucleated. o Found in the heart. o Cannot undergo mitosis o Has slightly branched tubes and intercalated discs (junctions between 2 muscle cells) 6. Describe the characteristics of smooth muscle o Called smooth because of smooth myocytes o Located in tubes and internal organs o Fusiform shaped o Can undergo mitosis 7. Define fascicle and muscle o Fascicle= Bundles of skeletal muscle fiber o Muscle= Bundles of fascicles 8. Define the 4 functional groups of muscle o Agonist= Produces main force of action o Antagonist= Opposes prime mover o Synergist= Aides prime mover and stabilizes joint o Fixator= Prevents bone movement 9. What is the difference between intrinsic and extrinsic? 3 o Intrinsic= Muscles that have both their origin and insertion in the same region o Extrinsic= Muscles that originate in one region and have their actions upon another region (such as forearm muscles) 10. Define Muscle Bound o When muscles on one side of a joint develops out of proportion to their antagonists and can restrict the range of motion of the joint. 11. Define Sarcopenia o The loss of lean body muscle mass, associated with age Nervous Tissue 1. What are the two parts of the nervous system? o The endocrine system and the nervous system 2. Define Nerve and Ganglion o Nerve= Fiber or bundles of fibers that transmit sensation to the brain and spinal cord o Ganglion= Contains nerve somas that are linked by synapses and form a bump or swelling 3. What are the subdivisions of the Nervous System? o Somatic Sensory= Detects stimuli from skeletal muscle, bone, skin, and glands. o Visceral Sensory= Detects stimuli from the organs o Somatic Motor= Has voluntary control over its actions o Visceral Motor= Has involuntary reactions and is also known as the Autonomic Nervous System (contains the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous system) 4. Describe the characteristics of neurons o Excitability= Neurons respond to stimuli o Conductivity= Conduct electric signals along the plasma membrane o Carry out system communication o Stellate shaped 4 o Can live for up to 100 years o Do not undergo mitosis 5. What are the 3 types of neurons and their functions? o Sensory (afferent) Neurons= Detect stimuli o Interneurons (association neurons)= It is only found in the Central Nervous System and is 90% of neurons in the body. It receives signals from other neurons. They use integration, which processes, stores, and retrieves information o Motor (efferent) Neurons= Respond to stimuli (to the muscles and glands) 6. Describe the structures of a neuron cell o Soma= Cell body control center that makes cytoplasm o Nissl Bodies= Compartmentalized rough endoplasmic reticulum o Dendrites= Receive signals o Axons= Send signals o Terminal Arborization= Fine branches o Synaptic Knob= Releases neurotransmitters from vesicles 7. Define Unipolar, Bipolar, and Multipolar Neurons o Unipolar= 1 long axon which bypasses the soma. Is only found in the sensory nerves o Bipolar= 1 axon and 1 dendrite. Only found in sensory organs o Multipolar= Has only 1 axon and many dendrites. It includes motor and interneurons 8. Define Myelin and what forms it in the CNS and PNS o Myelin is an insulating layer around an axon. It is formed by oligodendrocytes in the CNS and is formed by Schwann Cells in the PNS 9. Define Saltutory Conduction 5 o Impulse jumps from one node of ranvier to the other 10. What are the names of the connective tissue sheaths that surround each nerve? o Endoneurium= Neuron connective tissue o Perineurium= Fascicles connective tissue o Epineurium= Nerve connective tissue Spinal Cord and Spinal Nerves 1.What are the four regions of the spinal cord? Which two regions have enlargements? o Cervical= Neck, enlarged. Nerve goes to upper appendages (arms) o Thoracic= Chest o Lumbar= Lower back, enlarged. Nerves go to lower appendages (legs) o Sacral= Tailbone 2.Define the Medullary Cone and the Cauda Equina o Medullary Cone= Inferior tip of the spinal cord o Cauda Equina= Nerve endings that resemble a horse’s tail 3.Name and describe the characteristics of the 3 meninges. What is a meninge? o A meninge is a strong membrane that covers the brain and spinal cord in 3 layers. o Dura Mater= The outermost layer. It is also the toughest out of the 3. The space between the dura mater and the spinal foramen is called the Epidural Space. Loose areolar tissue and adipose tissue fill the epidural space. It also contains another space called the Subdural Space o Arachnoid Mater= The middle layer. It contains a space called the Subarachnoid Space, where Cerebral Spinal Fluid (CSF) passes through o Pia Mater= The deepest, innermost layer of the meninges. 6 4.What is the difference between Gray Matter and White Matter? o Gray Matter= Contains very little myelin, has somas, dendrites, proximal axons, and synaptic integration. o White Matter= Contains myelinated axons, bundles of axons (tracts) and have no somas. 5.Describe the Spinal Nerves o Dorsal Root= Sensory root. Cell bodies of the sensory root pass through here. Also contains white matter. o Ventral Root= Motor root. Contains axons of motor neurons and white matter. o Dorsal Root Ganglion= Has sensory neurons that go towards the brain. Motor neurons go away from the brain. o Ganglia= Somas that are outside of the nervous system 6.How many pairs of spinal nerves are there? o 31 pairs 7.Name and describe the function of the 2 distal branches. Also name the 2 proximal branches. o Dorsal Ramus (Distal)= Innervates muscles and joints in the spine and skin of the back. o Ventral Ramus (Distal)= Innervates anterior and lateral skin, muscles of the trunk, and gives rise to the nerves of the limbs. o Proximal Branches= Ventral root and dorsal root. 8.Name the 4 nerve plexuses and where each nerve originates from. o Cervical= Phrenic nerve o Brachial= Musculocutaneous and Median nerve o Lumbar= Femoral nerve o Sacral= Sciatic nerve 9.Define a Reflex Arc. o A neural pathway that controls an action reflex. 7 10. Define neural tube defects: Spina Bifida and Anencephaly o Spina Bifida= Failure of the lamina to form o Anencephaly= No brain Brain and Cranial Nerves 1.Describe the external structures of the cerebrum o Cerebral Hemispheres= Two half circles that make up the cerebrum. o Gyrus= Ridges o Sulcus= Grooves o Longitudal Fissure= Big sulcus that divides two hemispheres o Central Sulcus= Divides frontal plane 2.Where is the gray matter located? Where is the white matter located? Which one is myelinated? o Gray Matter= Outer portion of the cortex. Is not myelinated o White Matter= Deep, contains tracts (bundles of axons). Is myelinated 3.What is the functions of each of the 3 meninges that surround the brain? o Dura Mater= Surrounds the outermost part of the brain and anchors it to the skull. It also protects the brain o Arachnoid Mater= Suspends the brain and creates space for CSF o Pia Mater= Innermost layer 4.Describe the Falx Cerebri, Tectorium Cerebelli, and Falx Cerebri o Falx Cerebri= Between the cerebral hemispheres o Tectorium Cerebelli= Transverse sinus o Falx Cerebelli= Separates right and left hemispheres of the cerebellum 5.What is the location and function of the Medulla Oblongata? 8 o Located in between the foramen magnum and the pons. Contains nerve fibers going between the brain and spinal cord. It regulates breathing and heartrate. 6.What is the location and function of the Pons? o Located in lower end of the brain stem. Contains the cranial nerves. Is in charge of sleep, respiration, and bladder control 7.Describe the Blood-Brain Barrier. o Made up of tight junctions of endothelial cells. It seals blood capillaries in the brain tissue. It is permeable to water, glucose, oxygen, and some drugs (alcohol, nicotine, caffeine, anesthetics) 8.Name the 3 arteries which provide blood to the brain o Carotid Arteries, Cerebral Arterial (Circle of Willis), Vertebral Arteries 9.Define the Limbic System. o The important center of emotion and learning. It forms a ring of structures around the thalamus and corpus callosum. 10. Name the 5 lobes of the cerebrum. Which one is the deepest? o Frontal, Parietal, Temporal, Occipital, and Insula. Insula is the deepest 9
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