Personal Wellness- Study Guide for Exam 4
Personal Wellness- Study Guide for Exam 4 HTH 100
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Lauren Maddox on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HTH 100 at James Madison University taught by Dr. Gail Brook-Arthur in Fall 2014. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Personal Wellness in Nursing and Health Sciences at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
Study Guide: Chapter 9, 10, 12 What are essential nutrients? Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water What is the difference between protein, carbohydrates, and fats? Proteins are broken down into amino acids. Complete protein foods contain the 9 essential amino acids, typically animal products contain complete protein. Food from plant sources are typically incomplete. Carbohydrates provide fuel for the body, made up of the sugar molecule, they consist of sugars, fiber, and starches. Fats-vital role in maintaining health skin and hair, insulating body organs against shock, maintaining body temperature, and promoting health cell function. Important for nerve function How do they function differently in the body? Fats-LDL—carry cholesterol from the liver, are involved in plaque formation. HDL-scavenges cholesterol. Proteins form muscles and bones, blood, enzymes, some hormones, and cell membranes. Fats help insulate body, cushion organs, absorb fat-soluble vitamin. Carbohydrates give the body energy. Body breaks them down into simple sugar molecules -glucose. How much do you need? Protein- 10-35% of daily calories, 50 to 175 grams . 20-35% for fats. 45-65% for carbohydrates. What are amino acids? Building blocks for proteins What are the different types of protein? Where do they come from? Complete proteins- supply all essential proteins—meat, fish, poultry, eggs, milk cheese. Incomplete - doesn’t contain all essential proteins- plants What is the difference between micronutrients and macronutrients? Macronutrients- required in large amounts (proteins, fats, water, carbohydrates) micronutrients - required in smaller amounts (minerals ad vitamins. What is the difference between vitamins and minerals? Vitamins are organic, minerals are inorganic What do vitamins and minerals do? Vitamins- organic substances required in small amounts to promote specific chemical reactions within a living cell. Minerals –inorganic compounds, helps to regulate body functions, aid in growth, maintenance of body tissues, and a catalyst for energy release. Which are fat soluble vitamins? Water soluble? What is the difference? Fat- a, d, e and k Water-c and b water solubles requires water for absorption. Fat soluble requires fat and is stored in fat What is the difference between simple and complex carbohydrates? Simple carbohydrates are found in fruits, milk, and vegetables. Complex carbohydrates contain 3 or more sugars, s tarches, and fiber. They provide vitamins, minerals, and fiber What is the difference between saturated, polyunsaturated, and trans – fats? Saturated is solid at room temp. polyunsaturated is liquid. Trans is a type of unsaturated fatty acid. What are omega 3 and omega 6 fats and why are they important? Both are linolenic acids. Omega 3 - anti-inflammatory properties, help reduce heart disease. Omega 6 - lower blood cholesterol, supports the skin. Both help cell division rates, prevent blood clots, keep satu rated fats moving. Essential for brain and nerve function. Omega 3 for depression and manic depression, diabetes prevention, vision. Omega 6- add/adhd What is soluble and insoluble fiber? How much do you need? Insoluble fiber- found in bran, whole-grain breads and cereal, and most fruits and vegetables. Increases fecal bulk and helps prevent constipation Soluble fiber-oat bran, dried beans and some fruits and vegetables. Delay stomach emptying, slow the movement of glucose into the blood after eating and re duce absorption of cholesterol. 14 grams for every 1000 calories. Minimum daily of 20 grams What is glycemic index? Glycemic load? Classifies carbohydrates on how quickly they are converted to glucose in the body. It indicates the type of carbohydrate in that food. It measures the effect of the food on glucose and insulin. Glycemic load is what encourages high insulin levels. You can calculate it by multiplying the glycemic index of a food by the amount of carbs in a 10 gram portion of the food. What is the difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes? Type 1 diabetes is insulin deficiency, type 2- heart disease and stroke, high blood pressure. Type 1 is insulin dependent, type 2 is non -insulin dependent. How do you prevent diabetes? Stoneage diet: nuts, fruits, vegetables, and lean meats. Eat healthier, exercise, eat fiber, whole grains What is difference between physical fitness and physical activity? Physical activity- any bodily movement that is produced by the contraction of skeletal muscles and that substantially increases energy expenditure. Physical fitness - the ability to perform moderate-to-vigorous levels of physical activity on a regular basis without excessive fatigue. What is exercise? How much and what types do you need? Planned, structured, and repetitive bodily movement done to improve or maintain one or more components of physical fitness such as endurance, flexibility, and strength. Cardiorespiratory endurance - 150 minutes a week. Aerobic exercise - any type of exercise that increases heart rate. What is FITT? What are the recommendations? Frequency, intensity, time, type. Cardiorespiratory endurance training- 3-5 days per week. 55/65-90% of maximum heart rate. 20 -60 minutes in sessions lasting 10 minutes or more. Continuous rhythmic activities using larger muscle groups. Strength training: 2-3 nonconsecutive days per week. Sufficient resistance to fatigue muscles. 8 -12 repetitions of each exercise, 1 or more sets. Resistance exercises for all major muscle groups. Flexibility: 2 -3 days per week, 5-7 days per week is best. Stretch to the point of tension. 2 -4 repetitions of each exercise held for 15 -30 seconds. Stretching exercised for all major joints. What is the difference between muscle strength and muscle endurance? Muscular strength - amount of force a muscle is capable of exerting. Muscular endurance - ability of a muscle to exert force repeatedly without fatiguing. How do you avoid injury? What do you do to treat injury? Wear proper clothing, invest in good athletic shoes. Rice: rest, ice, compression, elevation What is essential fat? What percentage should males or females have to be healthy? It is fat incorporated in various tissues of the body; critical for normal body functioning. 3 -5% in men, 8-12% in women. What is BMI? How is it used? Bmi is a measure of relative body weight that takes height into account and is highly correlated with more direct measures of body fat; calculate d by dividing total body weight (in kilograms) by the square of height (in meters). Can measure the health risks of a body weight for most average peeopl. What is a healthy BMI? What are unhealthy BMI? Healthy is between 18.5 and 24.9. 25 or above is overweight, 30 is obese, and below 18.5 is underweight. What are the drawbacks to using BMI? It doesn’t show body composition. Doesn’t distinguish between fat weight and fat free weight. Can be inaccurate depending on your body size. What are the health risks of being overweight? Underweight? Obese? Obesity doubles mortality rates and can reduce life expectancy. Obesity is associated with diabetes, cardiovascular disease, many kinds of cancer, impaired immune function, gallbladder and kidney diseases, ski n problems, impotence, sleep and breathing problems, back pain, arthritis. Complications in pregnancy, menstrual irregulatories, urine leakage. Underweight people can have muscle wasting, fatigue, What hormones and/ or other conditions can lead to obesity? Genes, insulin suppression-obese individuals tend to have a high circulating insulin levels, lack of sleep How much is the minimum weight loss necessary to improve health? What is recommended as safe level of weekly weight loss? .5-2 pounds per week What is BDD? Body dysmorphic disorder - sufferers are overly concerned with physical appearance, often focusing on slight flaws that are not obvious to others. What is the difference between anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eatin g disorder? Anorexia nervosa- doesn’t eat enough to maintain a reasonable body weight. Intense fear of gaining weight, hide or hoard food and don’t eat it. Bulima nervosa - engages in recurrent episodes of binge eating followed by purging. Binge-eating disorder- uncontrollable eating, followed by feelings of guilt and shame. What is the anatomy of the heart? How does blood flow through the body including the heart? Deoxygenated blood enters the right atrium, from the right atrium blood moves to the right ventricle, pumped through the pulmonary artery to the lungs. Oxygen blood enters the left atrium. Blood from the left atrium is forced into the left ventricle. The left ventricle pumps blood through the aorta to various parts on the body. What is the difference between an artery and a vein? Artery- carry blood away from the heart. Vein - carry blood to the heart. What is blood pressure? What does it mean? What does it measure? It is the force exerted by the blood on the vessel walls, is created by the pumping action of the heart. Occurs when too much force is exerted against the walls of the arteries. Results from an increased output of blood by the heart or from increased resistance to blood flow in the arteries. What are the coronary arteries? Two large vessels, branch off the aorta and supply the heart muscle with oxygenated blood. What is CVD? What are the risk factors? Cardiovascular disease, risk factors - cholesterol levels, insulin resistance, and blood pressure, tobacco use, physical inactiv ity, obesity, diabetes, high triglyceride levels, psychological and social factors (stress, anger, depression), alcohol and drugs, heredity, What are HDL, LDL, VLDL, and triglycerides? How do they work? HDL- blood fat that helps transport cholesterol out of the arteries, thereby protecting against heart disease. Monounsaturated rise this. Trans fat raises both. LDL- blood fat that transports cholesterol to organs and tissues; excess amounts result in the accumulation of deposits on artery walls. Saturated and trans fatty acid rise LDL. Triglycerides- glycerol and three fatty acid chains. What is C-reactive protein? Measure in the blood. Will be elevated if you have lupus, can show risk for heart disease. It is released into the bloodstream during the inflammatory response and high levels of CRP indicate a substantially elevated risk of heart attack and stroke. What is ischemia? Reduction of the heart’s blood and oxygen What is atherosclerosis? What are the symptoms? Characterized by deposits of fatty substances, cholesterol, cellular waster products, calcium, and fibrin in the inner lining of the artery. Hyperlipidemia-abnormally high blood lipid level. Plaque - the buildup of deposits in the arteries. Symptoms of artheroscierosis - coronary arteries-angina or other heart attack symptoms. Arteries to the brain- symptoms of stroke, numbness of weakness of arm legs, difficulty speaking. Arteries to arms or legs-pain when walking, poor healing What are the signs and symptoms of an MI? What is a CVA and a TIA? What are their symptoms? Tia- brief interruptions that cause temporary impairment. Usually a temporary interruption of blood supply to the brain, causing numbness or difficulty with speech. What is the difference between a thrombus and an embolus? Thrombus-blood clot embolus- free flowing clot What is the difference between a hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke? Ischemic stroke- impeded blood supply to the brain caused by the obstruction of a blood vessel by a clot. Hemorrhagic stroke - impeded blood supply to the brain caused by a rupture of a blood vessel. What is an example of congenital heart disease? CAD What is cancer? A large group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells What is the difference between benign and malignant tumors? Benign- not considered to be life - threathening unless they block crucial body part an d precvent its function. Malignant - cancerous What is metastasis? Attachment- a primary tumor attaches to a blood vessel (or lymph node). Once cancer cells are attached, they may pass through the lining of the lymph or blood vessels. Cancer cells move into the circulation system and spread to other parts of the body, colonizing other organs. This traveling and reproducing is called metastasizing. The cancer cells may then move through the blood and lymph system to form a secondary tumor, or metastasis, at another site in the body. What is believed to be the mechanism that causes a cancer? What is the relationship of a proto -oncogene and tumor suppressor gene in cancer? Activation of the two different normal genes to become oncogenes (cancer causing genes) , or one genetic event plus exposure to one carcinogen. Oncogenes- dictate the production of proteins that stimulate normal cell growth. When mutations occur, cells multiply at an accelerated rate. Tumor suppressors - inhibit cell division. When mutations deactivate the gene, cell multiplication can continue unchecked. How are cancers classified? Carcinoma- most common malignancy, starts in the epithelial tissues (cells that cover body’s surface or line organs and glands —breast, lung, prostate, colon, thy roid, and melanoma. Sarcomas - form in the supporting/connective tissues of the body (bones, muscles, blood vessels). Soft tissue sarcomas - muscle, fat, blood vessels or in any of the other tissues that support, surround, and protect the organs, distinguish es from sarcomas because it arise in the bone. Leukemia- begin in the blood-forming tissues (bone marrow, lymph nodes, and spleen). Lymphomas- arise in the cells of the lymph system, network that filters impurities. What is the most frequent cancer? Which cancer is associated with the highest mortality rate? Lung has the most deaths. Skin cancer is most common. Prostate cancer is the most common for men, breast cancer is most common for women. How would you prevent cancer? Lung cancer? Colon cancer? Skin cancer? Skin cancer- wear sunscreen. Lung cancer- don’t smoke. Colon cancer -alcohol and tobacco, less red meats and processed meats, oral contraceptives, use of aspirin and ibuprofen How would you identify melanoma? Asymmetry, border irregularity, color, diameter When should someone start screening for cervical cancer? Breast cancer? Testicular cancer? Colon cancer? Prostate cancer? Breast- 20 years old. Testicular- 15. Prostate- 50. Colon- 50. Cervical- 18 Vsd- hole in the heart, where the heart murmurs are
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