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GEOL 101 March Test 2 Study Guide

by: Victoria Williams

GEOL 101 March Test 2 Study Guide GEOL 101

Marketplace > George Mason University > Geology > GEOL 101 > GEOL 101 March Test 2 Study Guide
Victoria Williams
GPA 3.8

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About this Document

These notes cover all the material from Volcanism, Weathering, Soils, and Earthquakes. This study guide will only be successful if you download it and print it out, then write in the answers so it...
Introductory Geology
Mark Uhen
Study Guide
Geology, Earth Science, Natural Science, Study Guide, Uhen, Volcanism, weathering, soils, Earthquake
50 ?




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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Victoria Williams on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to GEOL 101 at George Mason University taught by Mark Uhen in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 118 views. For similar materials see Introductory Geology in Geology at George Mason University.


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Date Created: 03/12/16
Test 2 Study Guide Volcanism   Components of Magma  Magma Viscosity  o What are the three factors? o Low viscosity magma have _________ eruptions o High viscosity magma have __________ eruptions  Types of Volcanoes (What shape are they, how are they formed, and generally what type  of eruptions do they have?) o Shield o Composite o Cinder Cone  Lava Flows o What is the most common type of lava? o Define:  Aa (ah­ah)  Pohoehoe  Define the following terms o Lava Tubes o Volcanic Gases (composition, origin) o Pyroclastic Material o Pyroclastic Flows o Lahars o Calderas  o Fissure Eruptions o Lava Domes o Plutons (Sills and Dikes) Weathering and Soils  Where is weathering most intense?  Weathering – Physical and Chemical alteration of existing rocks at or near the earth’s  surface. Physical changes appearance, Chemical changes composition. o Process: Erosion   Types of Physical/Mechanical Weathering o Frost Wedging o Unloading o Fractures and Joints o Thermal Expansion o Biological Activity  Chemical Weathering o Process: Dissolution  Types of Chemical Weathering o Oxidation o Hydrolysis o Spheroidal Weathering  Rates of Weathering o Composition  Bowen’s Reaction Series  Which end of the BRS is least resistant to chem. weathering?  Which is most resistant? o Climate  Freeze­thaw cycles, frost wedging  Temperature Cycles  Precipitation  Vegetation Cover o Differential Weathering – Capstones in the Midwest deserts, what causes these?  Soil – Combination of mineral and organic matter  Variables of Soil Formation: o Parent Material o Time o Climate o Biological Components o Topography  Soil Formation – What happens to the soil in each of these places? o Steep Slopes o Flat Terrain o Streams and Rivers  Soil Terminology – Please define the following terms o Humus o Leaching o Eluviation o Solum  O  A  E  B  C  Distribution of Soil – Different types of soil develop in different bands based on climate  around the globe. Earthquakes  Where did the biggest earthquake in the US occur?  What is an earthquake? They are vibrations of the Earth produced by a rapid release of  energy.  Important vocabulary: o Faults o Focus o Stress o Strain o Foreshocks o Aftershocks o Seismology o Seismic Waves (effect on the surface and speeds)  P Waves  S Waves  Surface Waves  Deep Earthquakes occur farther from trenches and shallow earthquakes happen closer to  trenches. Why does this happen?  What is an intraplate earthquake? (Hint, there was one in Virginia a few years ago!)  Earthquake Size Scales o Intensity Scale o Magnitude Scale (most common) o Mercalli Intensity Scale  Richter Magnitude Scale is a scale based on amplitude, each unit is a tenfold increase in  wave amplitude. Each unit of Richter scale represents 32 fold increase of energy released  (different than wave amplitude).  Earthquake destruction occurs differently on different types of land. o Unconsolidated Deposits – Most Destruction, explain why o Solid Bedrock – Less Destruction, explain why  Effects of Earthquakes o Liquefaction o Tsunami o Landslides  Prediction o Short Range – None o Long Range – Seismic Gaps in a large timeline, S. California has a large seismic  gap while Alaska has a very small seismic gap. Earth’s Layered Structure  From outside in: Crust, Lower Mantle/Inner Mantle, Outer Core, and the Inner Core.  How do earthquakes help us figure out the composition of the earth?  How does each type of wave travel through the earth? o S Waves o P Waves  The Moho – boundary between crust and mantle  The Mantle – In Order from Upper to Lower o Upper – Part of stiff lithosphere, mainly Peridotite o Below the upper, mantle is a part of weaker asthenosphere o Transition Zone between upper and lower (same composition as upper mantle, but the pressure causes the peridotite to turn into beta spinel) o Lower Mantle – Made of olivine and pyroxene to take the form of mineral  perovskite. Slabs of oceanic crust are pulled through the mantle and melt in the  D” layer (varying thickness, just above the core/mantle boundary). THIS STUDY GUIDE IS INCOMPLETE, MATERIAL FROM MONDAY WILL BE  UPLOADED AFTER LECTURE!  If you need all the notes, please see the notes I have available. 


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