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. Other: Not all questions in the study guide are answered
Sample Themes of Prelim 1 Questions
Topics include: classes 1 through 7 (lectures, readings and handouts).
The following is a list of study topics which will help you focus on the most important things. This is information which a person who is interested in and studies the subject of wine should know.
The prelim will consist of 125 to 150 multiple choice questions.
If you can answer the questions below you should have little difficulty with the exam and you will impress most people with your wine knowledge.
Components, Winemaking, Viticulture, Wine Service, Wine Buying
What information on the wine label is important to review before accepting a wine in a restaurant?
∙ Producer, Varietal, Vintage, Location/Region
What are steps in the ritual of wine service in a restaurant and how should one proceed before accepting a wine?
∙ Present bottle
∙ Open bottle
∙ Offer cork
∙ Pour for tasting 1 oz. to person who ordered wine
∙ Pour for everyone clockwise around table, women first, then again for men, with person who ordered last in respective round
∙ If wine left, leave red wine on table with label out or white wine in wine bucket
What are generally accepted reasons for sending a bottle of wine back in a restaurant? ∙ Sulfur dioxide stinging sensation in nasal passage
∙ Hydrogen sulfide rotten eggs
∙ Mercaptans essence of skunk and rotting cabbage We also discuss several other topics like nyu stats
∙ Oxidized bland (loss of flavor)
∙ Maderized cooked; Sherrylike with nutty flavors
∙ Corked (TCA) musty, moldy
∙ Dekkera/Brettanomyces barnyard, horsey, mousey
∙ Sorbate bubble gum smell
∙ Pediococcus dirty socks
∙ Acetic Acid Nail polish remover
When serving wine what is the proper sequence if more than one wine is being served? ∙ White before Red
∙ Light before Heavy
∙ Dry before Sweet
∙ Lower Quality before Higher Quality
How does the temperature of a wine affect its taste?
∙ Warmer: more alcoholic, more aromatic
∙ Cooler: increases perception of tannins and acids
What are the major differences between how white and red wines are made? ∙ Red wine comes in contact with the skin of the grapes
Which VITICULTURAL (grape growing) and VINICULTURAL (winemaking) practices effect a wine’s concentration, quality, flavor and price?
∙ There are four important things which determine the character of a wine:
o grape variety
o how it is grown
o the terroir (the soil and climate)
o the capability of the winemaker
∙ The process by which a wine (red, white or sparkling) is made is fairly standardized. o Knowing how to regulate the process is the winemaker's art
Viticultural Effects on a wine’s concentration, quality, flavor, and price If you want to learn more check out psyc 2310 final exam
Viticulture= grape growing
∙ Refers to temperature, soil (terroir), rainfall (irrigation), health root stock, trellising techniques
∙ Includes steps 1 and 2 of winemaking:
o Picking the harvest:
∙ Transport to the winery:
o grape variety
o age of vine: affects yield, intensity, and complexity
3r year after planting yields the first grape crop (very basic juice)
515 yrs the vines are prolific and begin to develop more complex flavors 3050 yrs the yields decline but the concentration of flavors continue 50100 yrs the vines have very low yields
∙ density of planting
∙ yield/care: affects quality and price
1.5 tons of grapes/acre: 100 cases
3 tons of grapes/acre: 200 cases
6 tons of grapes/acre: 400 cases
9 tons of grapes/acre: 600 cases
∙ soil type, topography, microclimate (water): affects wine quality
microclimate: rain, average daily temperature, number of daylight hours,
length of growing season
site: sol, slope, elevation, drainage, orientation to the sun
→ marginal climates sometimes produce unique wines but vintage variation is
∙ land and labor costs
Vinicultural effects on wine’s concentration, quality, flavor, and price Don't forget about the age old question of iwagema
Viniculture = wine making (science and skill)
∙ Refers to the influence of the winemaker, which includes:
o equipment and facilities ($$$) and production capacity and demand
∙ Includes steps 313
o Destemming (crushing)
o Addition of sulfur dioxide to the must
o Vatting (pumping must into fermentation tanks)
o Addition of yeast
o Fermentation (the yeast converts the grape sugar to Carbon dioxide and Alcohol) o Pressing (to extract liquid)
o Clarification to wine (racking, fining, filtration)
o Stabilization by temperature (cold stabilization) or chemical stabilization
o Barrel sampling
What do the various grape components contribute to the finished wine?
∙ Skin: tannins, color
∙ Stalk: tannins
∙ Pulp: sugar, fruit acids, water, pectin
∙ Pips: butter, oak
What are the major components in wine and how do these influence taste, texture, and shelf life? These components affect the following attributes of wine:
∙ Storage life
How does the winemaker shape or adjust various components in wine?
∙ Malolactic Fermentation
What is the definition of Viniculture and Viticulture?
∙ Viniculture: making of wine
∙ Viticulture: growing of grapes Don't forget about the age old question of ucla dropbox
How do we evaluate wines? What are the stages of taste?
What are the varietal (aroma & flavor) characteristics of the major grape varieties tasted in class?
∙ Varietal refers to aroma and flavor
Varietal Characteristics of White Wines
o Spicy, geranium, honeysuckle, cinnamon, ginger, grapefruit, apricot, lemon, banana, orange, peach, melon, pineapple, apple, lychee fruit, roses
∙ SAUVIGNON BLANC:
o Grassy, herbaceous, bell pepper, gun metal powder, green olive, black pepper, grapefruit, fig (often attributed to Semillon blend)
o Apple, toasty, vanilla, lemon, sweet clove, buttery or creamy, figs, melons, coconuts, tea, pear, flinty.
o Aged Chardonnays: Peach, pineapple, sage honey
∙ WHITE RIESLING: We also discuss several other topics like Given the mechanism of kinesin movement just described, what effect will AMPPNP have on kinesin?
If you want to learn more check out multifinality and equifinality
o Fruity, apricot, peach, green apples, floral, lemon, tropical lushness. Botrytised Rieslings: Honey
∙ CHENIN BLANC:
o Fruity, fruitygrassiness, melon, bananas, apples (dry Chenin Blancs), citrus, celery, lemon
Varietal Characteristics of Red Wines
o Herbaceous, tea, floral, violet, bell pepper, black pepper, cassis, peppermint, cedar, chocolate, wild cherry, cigar box, roses, pipe tobacco.
∙ PINOT NOIR:
o Texturally, the wine has been called velvety. Roast coffee, earthy, tar, pepper, leathery, mushrooms, chocolate, berries, pomegranate, caramelized sugar, ripe cherries, wild violets, strawberries.
∙ CABERNET SAUVIGNON:
o Herbaceous, tea, green olives, currants, bell pepper, spicy. Smells more reminiscent of leaves and stalks than of fruits and flowers.
o Blackberry, raspberry, jammy, briary, herbaceous, eucalyptus, mint, leather, cedar, dark chocolate, cherries, black pepper, raisins.
What defects might one find in a wine?
∙ defective odors
∙ oxidized lack of flavor
∙ a white wine that is amber brown is often defected
∙ corked (musty)
What happens to wine as it ages? Which wines benefit from aging?
∙ wines become paler in color
∙ Red wines changes from young (purple red) to ruby red to brick color (old) ∙ Tannic, harsh texture diminishes with time
∙ finer wines are easier to digest when they are mature
France: AOC, Alsace, Loire
What are the quality levels of French wines available in the market today? ∙ Vin de Table
∙ Vin de Pays
∙ Vin Delimites Qualite
∙ Appellation d’Origine
Why and when was the AOC system established?
Why: A regulatory function to control certain aspects of grape growing and wine production in specific geographic areas
What does the French AOC/AOP attempt to regulate?
Place of Origin (restricted geography)
Grape Varieties (only specific grapes)
Alcohol Content (minimum and maximum)
Max Yields (Hectoliters per hectare)
When harvest may begin each year
Production methods (winemaking, chaptalization etc)
What assurances does AOC/AOP offer the consumer?
A specific and proven wine region
How have the recent EU labeling regulations affected France?
How does the US system of AVAs differ from the French AOC system? ∙ The AOC has strict regulations that the AVA doesn’t have. It is harder to copy an AOC bottle than an AVA one.
Who monitors the AOC system?
∙ The INAO
What are the classifications of Alsace wines and what flavor differences might one find when comparing them?
∙ Appellation Alsace Contrôlée 76%
∙ Appellation Cremant d’Alsace 1976 20%
o These are sparkling wines made with local grape varieties
∙ Alsace Grand Cru 1983 (yields restricted to 4 tons/acre)
∙ Only Riesling, Pinot Gris, Muscat and Gewurztraminer qualify for Grand Cru
What are the major grape varieties grown in Alsace?
What are the benchmark wines which Alsace is known for?
∙ Riesling, Pinot Blanc, and Gewurtraminer.
∙ Then Sylvanaer, Pinot Gris, and Muscat.
∙ The only important red is Pinot Noir.
What are the labeling requirements and how does one decode an Alsace wine label? What terms on an Alsace wine label are meaningful and what do they tell us?
What label terms are not regulated and thus may not provide useful information to the purchaser?
How does Alsace’s labeling system differ from other wine regions of France?
How does one identify sparkling and dessert style wines made in Alsace from the dry table wines made there?
How does Alsace’s climate and geography influence its wine styles?
Rainfall: Lowest rainfall in France
o 50 days longer than Germany—this long hang time produces very aromatic wines o Approved yields—highest in France
What winemaking practices (if any) are unique to Alsace?
What are the classifications of Loire wines and what flavor differences might one find when comparing them?
What are the major grape varieties grown in Loire?
Gamay Noir a Jus Blanc
What are the benchmark wines which come from the Loire?
∙ Leading producer of white wines
o Chenin Blanc
o Melon de Bourgogne
How does one identify sparkling and dessert style wines made in the Loire Valley from the Loire’s dry table wines?
∙ Sparkling Wines from the Loire: “Fines Bulles” (fine bubbles)
o Made by the Méthode Traditionnelle as Champagne but with local grapes (Chenin Blanc and Cabernet Franc)
∙ Sec – dry
∙ Semisec –slightly sweet
∙ Moelleux – semisweet
∙ Doux – sweet
What are the labeling requirements and how does one decode a Loire wine label? Wines names after the places where the grapes are grown (villages) The place dictates the grape which can be used
o Sancerre (Sauvignon Blanc)
Grape Carieties: 100% for most AOC wines exc when noted as a blend
How does the Loire’s climate and geography influence its wine styles? ∙ Location: S & W of Paris
∙ Climate ranges from temperate in the west to continental in the east
o Climate is best suited for the production of white wines and sparkling wines What historic events influenced the growth of the wine industry in the Loire? ∙ The Garden of France; The original home of the rich and famous
∙ The medieval knights built fortresses
∙ The kings of the 15th & 16th centuries built pleasure castles
∙ The nobility of the 17th & 18th centuries built elegant chateaux
What winemaking practices (if any) are unique to the Loire?
∙ Limestone cellars
∙ Later harvest
∙ Climate optimal for sparkling and white wines
What are the AOC levels of Bordeaux wines?
∙ Regional—Bordeaux AOC red and rose wines from this AOC account for 47% of the total wine
∙ Sub Regional—HautMédoc AOC
∙ Commune—Margaux AOC
∙ Château—Château Margaux
What are the major grape varieties grown in the different districts or appellations of Bordeaux? ∙ White grape varieties in Bordeaux:
o Semillon 48%
o Sauvignon Blanc 44%
o Muscadelle 6%
o Other 2%
∙ Red grape varieties in Bordeaux:
o Merlot 65%
o Cabernet Sauvignon 23%
o Cabernet Franc 10%
o Malbec, Petit Verdot, and Carmenère 2%
Which of the fine wine producing districts of Bordeaux have been classified? What are the names of the five Chateaux which hold the First Growth Status today?
How do the wines of the right bank differ from the wines of the left bank? Right Bank Soils are a mix of clay, sand and limestone with less gravel. Merlot dominates blend SaintÉmilion Pomerol
Left Bank deep gravel soils Cabernet Sauvignon dominates the blend Médoc and Haut Médoc
Which districts are best known for specific wine types e.g. dry white, sweet wines, etc? What are the labeling requirements and how does one decode a Bordeaux wine label?
∙ Most regional wines do not list a sub-region; regional wine labels that list a sub-region (such as Macon Villages) can blend grapes from up to 47 different villages
o Village (only) = Village wine
Show the village name only; this alings the village name to the best Grand Cr vineyards located in the village
∙ Village + Vineyard = Premier Cru
List villages and vineyards
∙ Vineyard only = Grand Cru
Labels show vineyard names only
Many small producers with very limited acreage producing a few thousand cases a year, personality shapes the wine
Producer made wines identified by these term:
Mis en bouteille au domaine; Mis au domaine; Mis en bouteille a la propriete
∙ Many grape growers only have a few acres or even rows of grapes which yield such small quantities that it would not be efficient to make and market their own wine. Buy up grapes and sometimes wine from different growers from specific vineyards, make or blend the bottle, and sell it
under their own name
∙ Negociant wines will be identified by
France—Burgundy, Beaujolais, Rhône
What are the classifications of Burgundy and Beaujolais wines and in general what flavor differences might one find when comparing them?
o Grand Cru - from the best vineyard sites
o Premier Cru - above average
o Commune / Village Wines - vary more in quality, associated with the village they come from
o Regional Wine - vary by region
o Beaujolais Noveau
o Beaujolais Superieur
o Beaujolais Villages
o Cru Beaujolais
What are the most important areas within Burgundy for white wines?
∙ Chablis AOC - chardonnay
o satellite region, closer to Louire valley but classified as Burgundy What are the most important areas within Burgundy for red wines?
∙ Cote d’Or
∙ Cote de Nuits
What are the major grape varieties grown in Burgundy and Beaujolais? ∙ White
o Chardonnay (48%)
o Aligote (6%)
o Pinot Noir (34%)
o Gamay (10%) *In Beaujolais
What are the labeling requirements and how does one decode a Burgundy and Beaujolais wine label?
∙ Burgundy AOC - 100%
∙ Just VIllage → Village wine
∙ Village and Vineyard → Premier Cru
∙ Just Vineyard → Grand Cru
How does the Burgundy’s climate influence its wine styles?
∙ Lots of potential for frost, hail, and heavy rains
∙ Causes differences in vintage quality from year to year and village to village What historic events influenced the growth of the wine industry in the Burgundy? ∙ Beaujolais production → carbonic maceration of whole berries
What winemaking practices are unique to the Burgundy and Beaujolais?
Production of Burgundy Wines:
∙ Many more growers (4300) than producers, so small growers sell grapes to negociants, who blend and bottle the wine
o These individual growers have 67% of the acreage, but produce only 24% of the wine
∙ There are ~115 negociants that control only 8% of the acreage, but produce the majority of the wine (produce about 64% of market share)
o They often buy from hundreds of different growers, and produce dozens of different labels
o Examples: Louis Latour, Boucharat
∙ Production = carbonic maceration
o The whole grape cluster is placed into a closed steel tank, and CO2 from fermentation breaks the grape skins
Results in fruity style with few tannins
∙ Grape variety GAMAY
What are the classifications of Rhône wines?
∙ AOC French regulation laws
o Red- Cote Rotie, Hermitage, Crozes Hermitage, Saint Joseph, Cornas, Saint Pernay
o Whites- Condriue, Chateau Gillet
What are the major grape varieties grown in the northern and southern Rhône? Northern Rhone:
∙ 95% Red wines
o Syrah (single varietal)
∙ 5 % White
∙ Red (blends of)
o Grenache, Syrah, Mourvedre, Carigan, Cinsaut
∙ Southern Rhone White (blends of)
o Ugni Blanc, Roussanne, Bourboulenc, Picpoul, Clairette
How do the wines of the Northern Rhône differ from those of the Southern Rhône? o Northern Rhone
Continental climate with harsh winters but warm summers
Southern most region in Europe to permit Chaptalization
o Sourthern Rhone
More of a Mediterranean climate with milder winters and hot summers Drought can be a problem but limited irrigation is permitted
What are the labeling requirements and how does one decode a Rhône wine label? ∙ AOC labeling regulation laws
How does the Rhône’s climate influence its wine styles?
∙ Continental climate with harsh winters, warm summers
∙ Mediterranean climate with mild winters, hot summers (warmer than Northern)
∙ Drought can be a problem but limited irrigation is permitted ∙ Makes mostly reds, fuller, higher alcohol content
What historic events influenced the growth of the wine industry in the Rhône? ∙ First cultivated vines most likely planted in 600 BC
∙ Origins of two most important grapes in Northern Rhone (Syrah, Viognier) unknown
Which individuals had significant impact on the growth of California’s wine industry? ∙ Father Junipero Serra - established missions, first vineyards ∙ Jean Louis Vignes - brings Cabernet Sauvignon
∙ Count Agoston Harazsthy - imports vine cuttings from Europe ∙ Charles Krug
∙ Beringer brothers
∙ Gustav Niebaum
∙ Robert Mondavi
How does one decode a California wine label?
o Varietal - minimum 75% of grape variety labeled
o Generic - place name from famous region
o Proprietary - made-up name
o California - 100%
o County - 75%
o AVA - 85%
o Vineyard - 95%
o Estate - 100%
o State or County - 75%
o AVA - 85%
What are the labeling requirements and regulations for California? E.g. % of grape variety, meaningful controlled terms etc. Suggestion—make up a one page spread sheet comparing the requirements side by side.
∙ Types of names:
∙ Geographic statements of origin
o CA: 100%
o County: 75%
o AVA: 85%
o Vineyard: 95%
∙ Statements of production
o Grown, produced & bottles: 100%
o Produced & bottled: 75%
o Vintage: 85%95%
o Bottled by: NONE
o Cellared and vented by: NONE
What are the major grape varieties grown in California?
o Sauvignon Blanc
o Chenin Blanc - mostly for blending
o Pinot Gris/Grigio
o Viognier - Trendy
o Cabernet Sauvignon
o Pinot Noir
What are the signature grapes varieties which have made California’s reputation? o White - Chardonnay
o Red - Cabernet Sauvignon
What are the geographic factors that influence grape growing and wine production in California?
∙ The mountain ranges, valleys, rivers, and coastal fog all influence grape growing and wine production in California.
∙ Generally warm to hot, but very variable due to the influence of the Pacific Ocean along the coast and mountain ranges
o Pacific ocean breezes and fog moderate the temperature downward
Areas located on the interior of the state experience do not experience these fluctuations due to breezes/fogging
∙ Altitude influences climate as well
No wineries at either extreme (very high or very low)
∙ Mediterraneantype climate:
∙ Rains fall in the winter but not during the summer growing season
∙ To supply water grapevines need, most wineries rely on irrigation
Generally use drip irrigation
Droughts can cause vintage variation for California wines
How does climate influence wine styles produced in various regions?
∙ Remember: difference between warmer & cooler climate wines
What historic events influenced the growth of the wine industry in California? o Father Junipero Serra - brought the criolla (mission grape) to CA in 1779 o 1940-1950s - struggle to repair wine industry after revolution
o 1960s - fine wine revolution begins, Robert Mondavi opens vineyard o 1976- Judgement of Paris - California beat French in wine tasting
o Setbacks - Phylloxera and Prohibition
What winemaking practices are unique and legal in California e.g. Acidification, Chaptalization, etc.?
∙ California uses generic wine names for wines that were originally specific to a region in Europe, such as Bordeaux. This changed in 2006.
What are the most important AVAs in California?
∙ Napa Valley
∙ Sonoma Valley
∙ Russian River Valley
What historic events influenced the growth of the wine industry in the US and the NY State? o Proving that grapes could grow in the cold - Dr. Konstantin Frank? o Using grafting to overcome Phylloxera?
o Prohibition severely damaged the industry
Which individuals had significant impact on the growth of NY State’s wine industry? ∙ Charles Fournier and Dr. Konstantin Frank
∙ What are the major grape varieties grown in New York State? Give examples of vinifera, labrusca and hybrid varieties.
o Vinifera: Riesling
o Hybrids: Cayuga, Ravet/Vignoles, Seyval Blan, Vidal, Traminette
o Labrusca: Concord, Delaware, Niagara
∙ What regions in New York are known for specific wine styles and grape varieties, and why?
∙ What are the signature grapes varieties which have made each region’s reputation? o Riesling is the signature white grape in NY
o Also popular: Sparkling, Chardonnay, Native Labrusca, Labruscana and Hybrids?
∙ What are the geographic factors (e.g. bodies of water, mountain ranges etc.) that influence grape growing and wine production in New York wine regions
o Finger Lakes - lakes keep vineyards warm
∙ How does climate influence wine styles produced in various regions?
∙ What winemaking practices are unique and legal in New York, e.g. Acidification, Chaptalization, Amelioration etc.?
∙ What are the most important AVAs (American Viticultural Areas)? o Finger Lakes - Seneca Lake, Finger Lakes, Cayuga Lake
o Long Island - North Fork of Long Island, The Hamptons, Long Island