RUS 100 TEST 2 GUIDE
RUS 100 TEST 2 GUIDE 637747
Pennsylvania State University Altoona
Popular in Russian 100
Sarah Jessica Harris
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Sarah Jessica Harris on Saturday March 12, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to 637747 at Pennsylvania State University Altoona taught by Irene Hurd in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 83 views. For similar materials see Russian 100 in Russian at Pennsylvania State University Altoona.
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Date Created: 03/12/16
RUS 100: TEST 2 STUDY GUIDE ● Communism was so attractive to Third World nations because they became allies with the Soviet Union ● Two positive effects that came with communism, to these Third World countries were… government mandated literacy the idea for utopia ● The major reason why Soviet workers did not work very hard or produce quality goods, was because… Didn't take into account Human Nature people didn't want to work for the sheer pleasure of working. Planned Economy (5 year plans) quota system. Tendency to be lazy/lack of private property people would steal from their workplace, slack off, and be lazy. Low wages, communism meant no one owned anything and no one could be fired. Lacked incentive. ● Storming was a common process that included factories cramming in all of their monthly production quota in a short period of time. ● Planned Economy was the name of the Soviet Union’s economy ● Soviet governments wiped out all religions because all allegiance was to be pledged to the state. ● The government relied on terror to control the population. ● The two groups that still vote for the Communist Party in Russia are… those over the age of 55 those living in rural areas ● The older generations fondly remember the low prices*** from the “good old Communist days” ● The Four Waves of Communism First Wave: primarily to escape communism, left once the Bolsheviks took power (civil war followed) everyone that could get out, left. (19181920/21) Second Wave: End of WWII, many, who were captured by the Nazis, and those who lived in the Soviet Union, wanted to topple the communist government (they joined the Nazis and fought against their countries) these people were then taken to camps and considered countryless people. Third Wave: The Detente period (19701979) to escape religious persecution. Fourth Wave: Computer programmers. Called the “brain drain” in Russia. Some of the best and brightest left the country for better pay and technology abroad. ● Gorbachev’s Doctrine: Speech at the United Nations. 1. The Soviet Union will no longer use military force against another country (called the invasion of Afghanistan a mistake, blamed his predecessor. No more invasion, only diplomacy). 2. Ideology will no longer play a role in foreign affairs (enough of the constant antagonism between the US and USSR, just focus on cooperation). 3. Mutual security (USSR knew that the US was worried about the spread of communism. Promised that they would make the US feel secure. If the US felt secure, the USSR felt secure). 4. Renounced the idea of the class struggle (said it was outdated. No more struggle between the Bourgeoisie and the Proletariat. Work together to solve problems, specifically mentioned working together to fix up the environment). 5. The USSR would no longer support National Liberation Movements (would stop spreading communism to foreign countries. Would stop aiding countries that were communist). 6. ***Renounced the Brezhnev Doctrine (said it was dead, and completely unacceptable. ***as a result, any country that was communist, now has freedom to choose whether they want to stay communist or not. 1989, the people of eastern Europe have a revolution, renouncing communism for free elections, etc. ***Gorbachev’s rejection of the Brezhnev Doctrine gave these people the courage to reject communism and as a result there were masses of peaceful revolution. The Berlin wall fell.***except in Romania where the president and his wife were shot and arrested) Gorbachev won a Nobel Peace Prize for this. 7. Soviet Military Doctrine (Gorbachev said this would be purely defensive. The Soviet Union would only have enough weapons to protect themselves, against any attack. This was called “reasonable sufficiency”. Instead of having an arms race, looking for superiority, they only wanted to protect themselves). ● In relation to Gorbachev’s rejection of the Brezhnev Doctrine, the Bush Doctrine stated that the US would provide assistance if any one of these countries broke away from Moscow. US would give them aid to keep them from economic collapse. Purely economic help, would not help them break away from Moscow. ● The main reason Gorbachev changed the Soviet foreign policy toward the US was because he wanted economic help to get the Russian people back on their feet. ● Two reasons why Russians liked Gorbachev… ended the Cold War gave the people their freedoms and individual rights ● The main reason why Gorbachev became unpopular in his own country was because… breakup of the Soviet Union and its collapse lost their world influence no longer a global power ● Shock Therapy: The lifting of all price controls (lifting of all subsidies) government lifts all price controls, result is hyper inflation. Inflation rate in 1992 was 2000% ● Russia's greatest fear is poverty ● The three most important events of the crash of August, 1998 in Russia were… Ruble devaluation (rubles could not be converted to another currency new prime minister not confirmed Banking crisis Nothing could go through the banks ● Three reasons the Russian government was broke in 1998… government was not collecting taxes most of the economy (at least ¾) depended on a bartering system capitol flight (money leaving the country) ● One of the best consequences of the crash was that the Russian industry came back to life ● Oil brought Russia back soon after the crash ● Two things the Russian people wanted from their new president Putin was… order respect (make Russia great again) ● In 1997 the main reason relations between the US and Russia started to worsen was due to the expansion of NATO, eastward. It broke an old promise and worried Russia. ● The Russian people responded so negatively to America bombing Serbia because Clinton never asked Yeltsin first. Yeltsin had to find out through the French. It showed a lack of respect (hurt pride...betrayal) ● Two times when Russians lost their savings after the collapse of Communism in the 1990’s… economic crash of 1998 shock therapy in 1991 ● Dissident: a person who opposes official policy, especially that of an authoritarian state.
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