Study Guide Exam Topics 1
Study Guide Exam Topics 1 EBIO 1210-001
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This 12 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tatiana Tabares on Friday September 18, 2015. The Study Guide belongs to EBIO 1210-001 at University of Colorado taught by Dr. Barbara Demmig-Adams in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 551 views. For similar materials see General Biology 1 in Biology at University of Colorado.
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Date Created: 09/18/15
EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide Exam Topics Lipids 1 Fats and their link to energy metabolism and health Know the four classes of large biological molecules and their building blocks Lipids from fatty acids Nucleic Acids DNA amp RNA from nucleotides Proteins from amino acids Large Carbohydrates polysaccharides from the simplest sugars monosaccharides 903 Know the three subgroups of lipids and their function 1 Fats store energy 2 Phospholipids form biological membranes phospholipid bilayer 3 Steroids act as hormones regulate genes Know the building blocks of a fat Fats are constructed from 2 types of smaller molecules 1 A glycerol backbone to which 2 3 fatty acids are attached Fat triglyceride glycerol 3 fatty acid chains Relate structural differences between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids to their differences in shape in fluidity in energy content and in their health effects Saturated Fats Are SOLID at room temperature Max number of hydrogens in tail A single bonds Straight in shape no kinks Found in higher amounts in animal products Less healthy you stay hungry You should reduce saturated fats from your diet EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 0 They activate genes that promote fat storage Unsaturated Fats ARe LIQUID at room temperature Less than the max number of hydrogens in tail One or more double bonds Bent shape kinks Found in higher amounts in plant products More healthy You should increase unsaturated fats in your diet 0 They activate genes that promote fat burning No kinks saturated One kink monounsaturated Two or more kinks polyunsaturated Compare the properties of nonpolar and polar bonds and predict from its bonds whether a molecule is an energy source Nonpolar bonds 0 Electrons are shared equally 0 Have high chemical potential energy 0 Low stability 0 Are an energy source Polar bonds 0 One atom hogs electrons does not share equally 0 Have low chemical potential energy 0 High stability 0 Are not an energy source Identify and use the common principles underlying structure formation and breakdown of the four classes of large biological molecules EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide Lipids 2 Phospholipids amp polarity cholesterol amp steroids Relate the properties of oxygen 0 hydrogen H and carbon C to molecules they form The solubility of a substance in water is determined by the ratio of its polar groups here 0H and CO bonds to its nonpolar groups CH bonds When forming Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids how much energy can be expeHed 0 Energy is released when either is burned to 002 or H20 An energy investment that needs to be subtracted from the energy gain is necessary to first break CH 00 or CC bonds Unsaturated fats are easier to break better energy source CC 0 Saturated fats harder to break doesn t make a good energy source CH Relate the hydrogen bond to the properties of water that support life Water is essential for life 0 Water is polar 0 Hydrogen bonds based on the electrical attraction between opposite partial electrical charges form between water molecules 0 Electrons are pulled toward oxygen I HZO s polarity is further enhanced by the 2 pairs of negative electrons on the other side a The polarity of water molecules and the resulting hydrogen bonds make a water molecules stick to other waterloving hydrophilic molecules 0 This process is called cohesion water molecules stick together Use polarity to predict whether a substance is hydrophilic or hydrophobic EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide Hydrophilic waterloving molecules have polar or charged regions that attract water and mix readily with water watersoluble o Unequal sharing of electrons electrons are held tightly between atoms with different electronegativity one atom hogs the electrons 0 Polar Hydrophobic waterfearing molecules are nonpolar waterinsoluble 0 Equal sharing of electrons held loosely between atoms 0 Nonpolar Relate nonpolar covalent bonds polar covalent bonds and electrically charged substances to solubility Know the building blocks of a phospholipid Phospholipid phosphate glycerol 2 fatty acids Hydrophilic head Hydrophobic tails Relate the structure of phospholipids to their function in biological membranes 0 Because of the structure of phospholipids they are perfect for forming membranes which have selective permeability Relate the structures of fats and phospholipids to their relative energy content 0 Monounsaturated fats are harder to break down less tails not a good energy source 0 phospholipids 0 Saturated fats are easier to break down Better energy source more tails 0 fat saturated fatty acids Classify cholesterol as a steroid and a precursor in the synthesis of important hormones o Is the precursor in synthesis of steroid hormones a Sex hormones and steroid stress hormones EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Made from saturated fatty acids link between high levels of cholesterol and high consumption of saturated fats Membranes 1 Structure amp function links to ecology Relate the basic structure of biological membranes to their principal functions Membranes bring in food amp building blocks eliminate waste keep out unwanted materials 1 Provide a barrier around cells amp subcellular spaces 0 Phospholipid bilayer provides impenetrable barrier I Forms the basic membrane structure 2 Provide controlled passageways for wanted inward amp unwanted outward substances 0 Protein channels provide selective amp controllable passageways selective permeability Relate phospholipids made from saturated monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids to membrane fluidity and the ecology of organisms o Fluidity level varies with temperature The location of an organism affects what kind of fluidity its membrane has to maintain in order to survive a A cell can increase the fluidity of its membrane by increasing the number of unsaturated fatty acids fluid a A cell can decrease the fluidity of its membrane by increasing the number of saturated fatty acids viscous o Polyunsaturated with more than one CC benefits membranes of plants in the coldest places on Earth Monounsaturated with one CC Saturated benefits membranes of plants in the hottest environments 0 The more CC bonds the more it increases fluidity and the less bonds ie saturated fats the more it decreases fluidity of makes it more packed together Identify the role of cholesterol in membrane fluidity o Acts as a quottemperature bufferquot EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide a Prevents hydrophobic chains from packing too closely together increases fluidity at low temperatures 0 Limits lateral phospholipid movement amp stabilizes membranes at high temperature Use the solubility of molecules to predict their passage through biological membranes 0 Waterinsoluble things are transported in the bloodstream by proteins called transporter proteins a Watersoluble proteins can Predict where hydrophilic versus hydrophobic components are found in various transport proteins a Hydrophilic polar or charged molecules cannot slip through the phospholipid bilayer their transport from one side to the other requires transporters transport proteins that span the entire membrane a Small hydrophobic nonpolar or noncharged molecules cross directly through the membrane without help 0 This means that a transporter protein would be hydrophilic on the outside and hydrophobic on the inside Membranes 2 Principles of active and passive transport across membranes Predict when a protein is needed for movement of substances across membranes Protein required for movement when the substance is Small Nonpolar Noncharged Hydrophobic Protein is not required for movement when the substance is 0 Polar 0 Charged EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide a Hydrophilic Predict when energy in the form of ATP is needed to fuel transport across membranes ATP energy is required when 0 Substance is moved from low to high concentration against gradient 0 Requires work ATP energy is not required when 0 Substance is moved from high to low with gradient Explain the connection between potential energy and the movement of substances across membranes 0 ATP energizes these pumps by phosphorylation 0 Each phosphate group adds more negative charges that repel each other Same charges in proximity they want to get away from each other This makes the ATP molecule very unstable and it wants to break apart They can rotate around axis but cannot get out of bond 0 ATP donor of an energized phosphate group 0 Loading from low to high potential energy adding another phosphate group on requires energy input because the ATP does not want that phosphate group o Popping off a phosphate group releases energy and makes it more stable and lower in chemical potential energy a The gradient itself is some form of energy potential energy contained in the concentration gradient can aid movement from high to low 0 ATP transfers an energized highenergy phosphate group to phosphorylate amp thereby energize 0 Sodium Potassium Pump EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 0 The action potential propagates along the axon the reversed electrical charge opens K channels behind the action potential K rushes out of the cell which restore gradient High to low gradient Apply the principal features and functions of an ATPfueled pump to the NalK pump Action Potential When Na channels open Na rushed into the cell amp rapidly reverses the original electrical gradient High to Low gradient 0 Passive Transport whenever something rushes it usually means passive Little or no energy used The action potential propagates along the axon the reversed electrical charge opens K channels behind the action potential K rushes out of the cell which restore gradient High to low gradient 0 Passive Transport NalK pump reestablishes the full electrochemical gradient with Na accumulation outside and K accumulation 0 Active Transport whenever it says pump it sounds like somebody is going to do work SodiumPotassium Pump The NalK pump is essential for nerve impulses critical for proper brain function thinking process the heart rhythm Pump requires conformational changes 0 Only possible with the presence of unsaturated fatty acids as components of membrane phospholipids o Omega3 fatty acid DHA Deficiencies can cause health problems Relate the structure of ATP to its energy content and its function in fueling the 3 major kinds of cellular work 1 Mechanical Work ex muscle contraction 2 Transport Work ex pumps especially in brain heart muscle a SodiumPotassium Pump amp Caquot2 Pump EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 3 Chemical Work ex synthesizes large molecules Membranes 3 application to nerves amp muscles links to nutrition Identify the involvement of active and passive transport in nerve function ATP binds to myosin head 0 Transfer of highenergy phosphate group to myosin head causes head to move into high energy conformation 0 Release of the phosphate group back to its original low energy position 0 Binding of another ATP Relate the function of omega3 fatty acids to their role in the prevention of disorders 0 Omega3 fatty acid DHA o Deficiencies can cause health problems 0 SodiumPotassium pump only possible with the presence of unsaturated fats Omega3 Identify the involvement of active and passive transport in muscle function Calcium is important in the process of muscle contraction Ca2 Sudden arrival of calcium during muscle contraction allows myosin head to bind to actin filament during muscle relaxation Ca2 removed Calcium is stored in the Sarcoplasmic reticulum SR sack o Membrane of the SR has several diff transport protein Some do active transport some do passive Proteins hemoglobin and sicklecell trait synthesis solubility and signaling by protein and steroid hormones Identify the sequence of information flow from DNA to RNA to proteins Information flow EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 1 from genetic information encoded as DNA blueprint genes 2 to RNA copies and 3 on to synthesis of proteins Relate altered protein structure to altered protein function for the examples of hemoglobin and myoglobin o Accumulation of very high myoglobin in diving mammals as an oxygen store made possible by evolution of a modified version of myoglobin with a high density of electrical charges on the surface of the protein that repel each other and keep the myoglobin from clumping Relate the following cell components to their respective functions Rough and smooth ER free and bound ribosomes transport vesicles cytoskeleton and the Golgi apparatus Ribosome site of protein synthesis in cell Free ribosomes floating in cytoplasm make proteins for use in same cell Bound ribosomes are bound to a membrane system Endoplasmic reticulum Rough ER o synthesizes steroid hormones that are not water soluble 0 without ribosomes 0 produces testosterone a Smooth ER 0 synthesizes protein hormones o with ribosomes 0 produces insulin protein hormone leptin Gogli Aparatus quotpita stackquot 0 Transport Vesicles Differentiate the roles of endocytosis and exocytosis in bulk transport Endocytosis Substance being ingested Exocytosis Substance being exported Endocytosis Come from the outside and spill its contents into the inside of the cell Enter the cell like LDL Exocytosis Comes from the inside and spills its contents out of the cell Leave the cell like insulin EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide Identify the role of ATP and cytoskeleton tracks in vesicle movement Cell possesses its own cytoskeleton microtubule track of cytoskeleton that the vesicles are moved along using ATP motor Movement of vesicles along tracks formed by cytoskeleton Hea h Identify genetic and dietary factors affecting LDLreceptor level and relate this to receptormediated endocytosis and heart disease amp Relate the dietary intake of different fats to the programming of human metabolism The steroid cholesterol is transported in the bloodstream via LDL low density lipoprotein Cholesterol is removed from arteries when LDL binds to a receptor in membrane and is removed from the bloodstream Genetic predisposition familial hypercholesterolemia caused by insufficient numbers of the receptor for removal of LDL carrying cholesterol from the bloodstream Inflammation amp actual plaque result from white blood cell recruitment which is triggered by the presence of glycated oxidized LDL 0 High LDL result of high saturated fat intake 0 Glycation result of chronic high blood sugar 0 Oxidation result of low fruitvegetable antioxidant intake Dietary saturated fats and trans fats downregulate gene expression of the LDL receptor gene less LDL receptor protein is available in cell membrane to remove LDL from the blood Visceral fat fat around the belly accumulation promoted by unbalanced modern diet can lead to health issues 0 only the belly fat is active in the metabolism Know in which major human tissue systems aquaporins play a role Mouth regulation of saliva output Intestines secretion of aqueous gastrointestinal juices during digestion Lungs important for lung hydration Eyes generation of tears EBIO 1210 Exam 1 Study Guide 0 Skin aquaporins needed to cool body by sweating
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