Human Mating Psychology
Human Mating Psychology
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Date Created: 09/05/14
Psychology 146 Human Mating Midterm Fairgame Sheet i Metatheoretical position that the human brain contains a collection is encountered by our ancestors over the course of human evolution What are general properties of specialized mechanisms a No argument that specialized machines are fully formed at birth develop over time EP not deny importance of learning p Evolutionary psychology does not argue for the importance of instincts learning instead argues that specialized mechanisms guide many learning processes Specialized b Natural selection is slow relatively speaking It takes a long time to build up a complex mechanism Our ancestors spent millions of years in a hunter gather lifestyle Agriculture and modern notions of civilization are only around 10000 years oldthis is like an instant in evolutionary time Humans are not adapted to some aspects of the modern world Natural selection is the than do alternative genes at the same locus spot on a chromosome EG if genes caused construction of brain mechanisms that caused men to be sexually attracted to postmenopausal women what would happen to those genes relative to those that encoded for alternative designs They would go extinct because postmenopausal women cant have children Mechanisms exist Is bird song innate No it is a specialized brain mechanism made from the It is a combination of nature and nurture Nature is needed to developed a specialized mechanism and frame for specific song bird leaming however it needs nature to provide an input for the mechanism to process Female swamp sparrows do not sing even if exposed to the same songs as males Whv a Two Basic Levels Addresses exists or an outcome occurs Ultimate explanation for above question is that ii Addresses outcomes occur on a level Proximate answer to above question is that for guiding the leaming of song that females do not possess IE brain structures present in juvenile males that guide the construction of a singing machine In the schematic model s specialized mechanisms what is the developmental program and what is the cognitive program What makes a mechanism specialized mechanism is specialized if genes increased in frequency because they contributed to the development of the cognitive program a like hormones b Any Whv do we not have car phobias Because we have not of cars even though they are the leading cause of death This shows that some past adaptations are not fit for our modern world There39s been no for Whereas we do have spider phobias because such a specialized mechanism has been selected for despite its current uselessness What kind of evidence do we look at when predicting the function of specialized mechanisms and their pada tive nroblemsthev were desi2ned to solve Which species are the most relevant for examining ancestors of chimps and apes 9 10 Which species may be most relevant for examining Dns no common decent but gt How does EP explain how humans choose what to eat What if your nutritional needs change Fatty salty and sweet foods are nutrient rich but hard to obtain the environment of our ancestors so taste is a mechanism for motivation Explains why today we bitter foods are usually toxic What is meant by quotstone age mind in a modern worldquot For the food example an insatiable craving for 12 l3 l4 l5 l6 17 18 sweets and fats might have been beneficial on the savannah but today there is a hyperavailability of these foods but we still crave them even though they are available to use This may be a leading cause of obesity in humans Nutritional needs commonly change in pregnant women They need more energy to support fetal growth but fetuses are especially vulnerable to toxins and pathogens How did our ancestors solve the problem in finding food In ancestral societies women typically gather plant foods memory for location of valuable foods What is Darwins theory on sexual selection Darwin argued that sexual selection Trait is sexually selected if it but is not necessary for survival or for reproduction in the absence of rivals Sexual selection is a subset of natural selection artificial category and operates according to same mechanism Why do we have sexes at all To to increase resistance against pathogens Gamete survival depends on the 21 of the gametes but has a lower number that can be produced while the small but can be produced in infinite amounts sex Females of most species make larger typical parental investment than do males The r competition for mating opportunities often resulting in larger size and more elaborate courtship displaystraits Usually males the sex With perfect monogamy zmale rate of reproduction female rate of reproduction Expect limited sex differences in sexual selection In total polygyny females make much larger investment a Sex Role reversals species in which males make greater typical parental investment Examples include wading birds seahorses Females RS is limited by of males she can get to brood eggs The females are larger more aggressive more colorful and more eager to mate What are the forms of mate competition a Direct fights other pkT Often selects for larger size aggressiveness earlier mortality b Choice by members of the opposite sex Selects for traits that opposite sex finds attractive Why do we see sex differences in human aggression risktaking mortality What are females choosing What are the models of female choice evolutionIntersexual selection a y sons selection If enough females prefer a male trait long tail the trait can spread in males even if it harms survival For a range of values of s and a can be shown that genes for long tails will spread preference genes for long tails will become linked to longtailed genes and thus will also spread by sexual selection Issues regarding how process gets started slightly longer tail associated with higher survival probability then positive feedback pushes length beyond optimum Can complement other sexual selection processes Crucial Tempting to explain obviously costly male traits as the result of runaway selection h Male Rather than choosing arbitrary traits females who prefer more ornamented males may produce healthier offspring by doing so e signals can be Z Idea is that only or produce them to a greater extent than those of lower quality are able to If organism can afford to produce signals must have enough energy to do other survivalrelated things as well or those would be prioritized What enforces the honesty of sex signals d Ge Because males in many species do not provide paternal investment in offspring generally thought that Example healthier males may have immune systems better adapted to local parasites and females offspring could inherit genes for these immune responses 2 Males with brighter plumage may be better at finding food and delivering it to femalesoffspring caretonids and red color dependent on diet Male song rate may index food abundance in territory and thus direct benefits vs genetic bene ts Male sizedominance may be preferred for protection direct benefit vs for good genes primate species like chimpanzees Healthier males may provide better paternal care to offspring Direct benefits arguments played more minor role in evolutionary biology probably bc males provide nothing but sperm in most species In humans 19 Wt enforces honesty of sexual signals Social Hierarchy 20 What is direct empirical evidence for signals of genetic quality in males a 4 Peahens randomly assigned to mate with each male Eggs incubated by chickens and later in an incubator standardized rearing conditions control for matemal effects Measured the mean area of each peacock s eyespots Correlated eyespot size to mean weight of offspring on day 84 Released 12 offspring from each male into a park and counted number of marked offspring that had survived after 24 months b In barn swallows strong female preference for length and symmetry of male tail feathers Moller 1990 crossfostered 12 nestlings of fathers with longer vs shorter tails and infected nests with a common parasite 21 What is Zahavi39s argument for why most exaggerated male traits are more likely to be costly signals of quality than arbitrarv targest of female preferences 22 How does PIT intraintersexual competition and models of female choice apply to humans Parental Investment Theory predict certain male and female constraints in reproduction and how these constraints design different sexual strategies mechanisms in pursuing and competing for mates Constraints also predict the differences in what males and females prefer in a partner Female choice predicts possible adaptations in our ancestral society to secure resources for the survival of her and her offspring What is a women39s tvpical investment What are her constraints energy and resources in making a baby She is eenst What is men39s tvpical investment What are his constraints such as food protection territory and paternal investment He is 25 What does this mean for sexual strategies between men and women Because men and women have different constraints that limit reproductive success they have adopted separate strategies for maximizing reproduction and passing on their genes a Men i Men have faced selection pressure to mate with additional women when possible thereby creating a desire for sexual variety Important to remember that male desire for variety in sexual partners not grounded in conscious desire to have more children Rather output of mechanism that was shaped by selection Those males who took advantage of opportunities with more than one partner were rewarded with increased offspring These offspring probabilistically carry copies of the very genes that build designs that seek partner variety 1 If the sex difference in eagerness for sexsexual variety occurs by design how does it develop Y Fetal testes produce androgens like testosterone Testosterone turns on some genes rather than others and this differential gene activation contributes to sex differences in development 2 Evidence for desire of sexual variety a The tendency for males to be b Men more than women wanted to pb when asked randomly by female strangers on campus c hile female fantasy are about one male Females quality Males Quantity b Women 26 What factors create strong intrasexual competition between males a Limited access to fertile females b Strong female choosiness c Variance in reproductive success of women to have children d Variance in the reproductive success within men 27 How do men compete with each other Men kill men far more than women kill women Young men commit the most murders Partnered men commit the fewest murders The data on b competence dominance condition men tried landing more sweet skateboard tricks in front of females c men make riskier bets in public than in private women show no effect d In a mating mindset men make more wealth signaling purchases more generosity signaling purchases not more than women though more conspicuous purchases and less inconspicuous purchases 28 How do women compete with each other a 2 Want to lower the fidelity of rival females Men are especially susceptible to acquisitions of infidelity because they o not have 100 maternal certainty b Women at high fertility vs low fertility rate other women as less attractive Especially if women are wearing red Women derogate the sexual fidelity of other women wearing red because red is a cue for sex c Women at high vs low fertility are less cooperative with other women who are more attractive 29 What characteristics do men gnd women want in g romantic partner Do they want the same or different due to the constraints that limit each other reproductive success Because women have a greater difficulty obtaining resources while pregnant she wants mates that can provide 0 Men on the other hand are limited by the females reproductive health and ability to carry a child 30 How does PI theorv explain differences in mate preferences in males and females The he because they do not have physically bear children and they can reproduce much faster than women can Therefore women should be much choosier than men 31 How did researchers first studv mgte preferences Just ask themself report studies 32 What are the potential problems with selfreport survevs Survey results find consistent sex differences Men stronger preferences for physical attractiveness women stronger preferences for resource possession etc e g Buss 1989 However the traits that show sex differences usually not ratedranked among most important for either sex near middle or bottom of ranking lists If predictions from parental investment theory are correct shouldn t attractiveness for men and income for women be rated more important than they are a Methodological problems with rating ranking lists of traits i May only be if think about your own preferences what pool of people do you imagine Example may rank creativity more important than income but may be picturing only people with college educations in the potential pool of mates may not picture people who never finished high school ii Say creativity is very important ow raterank traits in this case What is more important creativity or attractiveness b 2 of Kindness Is kindness actually more important than resources physical attractiveness etc Premise of argument T For kindness providing bene ts to others at a cost to oneself this is especially clear A mate being kind to strangers may be giving up resources that could be invested in one s self or one s offspring imagine how you would feel about your spouse giving half hisher income to charity A mate being kind to yourself though should be beneficial to you For dominance use of forceful tactics to obtain desired outcomes for self situation is opposite of kindness A mate s dominance over others may acquire resources for self A mate s dominance toward self may be detrimental to own interests Especially for women rating men s dominance Study 1 Rate the importance of traits related to kindness trustworthiness and dominance when considering a partner s behavior directed toward 1 self and 2 other member s of partner s same sex Potential problem with Study 1 is that whom they would also want treated well Added rate traits without imagining any target Results This alters who might be expected to be most attractive peace corps volunteers exhibit high kindness toward unrelated others but perhaps no more partnerspecific kindness than other people In addition kindness may predict low dominance May help explain lack of peace corps groupies c Problems run much deeper than the issue of targetspecificity Asking people what they want in a mate does not this raises many possible issues i which may be wrong lnputoutput mapping may occur iii Selfreport may tap into language and consciousness programs that are 1 State those preferences that make you look good 2 State preferences to manipulate behaviors of partners The actual 33 What are the limitatio 34 ns of speed dating studies and face policv capturing studies Can we con dentlv conclude that phvsical attractiveness is most important to both sexes 35 What kind of methods are researchers utiiing now to prevent these problems a Budget and Trade off Methods Budget methods can make these issues explicit to subjects by forcing them to consider the entire range of possible mates Li et al 2002 Budget Method Subjects allocated 20 mate dollars where 1 10 increment on that trait spend 8 and get 80th percentile for that trait After finish spending 20 given 20 more then 20 more again Traits are physical attractiveness social level creativity kindness and liveliness Li et al 2002 hypothesized that women consider social status resource holding a necessity and men consider physical attractiveness a necessity Necessity is defined as something spend most on given small budget Essentially means that getting a minimum amount of these traits is crucial in a mate before considering other characteristics Using a trade off method resource control became the most important necessity for women and physical attractiveness the most important necessity for men Suggests that what is most important in a mate depends crucially on the method used to measure preferences Subjects also treated kindness as both a necessity and luxury investing in it at high levels at all budgets Even in budget methodology kindness and intelligence seem to be privileged as the most important traits Li et al 2002 people may desire as kind a mate as possible so much so that they continue to invest in increasing kindness as their mate budget increases Spending on attractiveness and income levels off at higher budgets leading Li et al to conclude that people want minimum amounts of these but higher amounts not as important Defining the targets of kindness target specific c Policy Capturing Methodology Present a series of individuals who vary on specific traits to raters have raters judge their mate attractiveness Then test correlation between traits and mate attractiveness ratings Example say women met 20 men who varied in height Correlation between men s height and their mate attractiveness ratings is estimate of women s preference for height even if women do not consciously know they are choosing based on height Can use multiple regression to test in uence of multiple traits simultaneously eg how important is kindness when physical attractiveness is held constant i Roney Lab Present series of faces to raters Raters rate for traits like kind intelligent physically attractive dominant Raters also rate for mate attractiveness General finding People self report that kindness and intelligence are most important to them but physical attractiveness is actually strongest predictor of mate attractiveness Unconscious factors Women s attractiveness ratings affected by testosterone levels of men in photos though women not consciously aware that affected by these cues Cues that generate mate attraction may not be those to which subjects have conscious access d Experimental Policy Capturing Build representations of targets non physical traits by pairing behavioral descriptions with faces in a training phase Pair some faces multiple times with high kindness descriptions others with low kindness same faces paired with different information across different raters Subjects at the end rate faces for how much they would like to date them Regression model tests how much high vs low kindness predicts dating ratings when physical attractiveness is in the same model 36 What should choosv women want according to Buss and PI theorv Buss In species with male parental investment ability and willingness to provide resources related to parental investment Ancestral women likely could not have had more than 10 children in a lifetime Variance in women s reproductive success thus in part depend on what fraction of 10 kids survived and reproduced Genes that led to choices of mates that caused greater fraction of kids to survive and reproduce should have spread in population Men s provisioning of food shelter territory protection could have increased survival rates of women s offspring Hypothesis Females more than males should value attributes in potential mates such as ambition industriousness and earning capacity Conclusion women rated quotgood nancial prospect more than males in 36 out of 37 countries 37 What should men want according to Buss and PI theorv From PI theory For males more than females reproduction is limited by access to reproductively valuable or fertile mates Female fertility is strongly age graded zero until puberty and after menopause declining by midthirties Male fertility is not nearly as strongly agegraded Therefore Males more than females will value relative youth and physical attractiveness in 38 39 40 41 42 Conclusion How did Buss determine whether men are designed as short term or long term mates According to Buss are men designed for short or long term maters if males in our evolutionary past have tended to selection should have favored male preferences for females in their who show cues that are 0 If males in our evolutionary past have tended to see ers selection should have favored preferences for females in their who show cues indicative of Conclusion men rated quot quot just as much as women but prefered younger women relative to women who preferred older men This was significant in 37 37 countries if males in our evolutionary past have tended to seek shortterm mating partners selection should have favored rnale preferences for females in their early 20 s 2749 years it can be inferred that males in these samples prefer to marry females who are approximately old Supports the idea that men are designed for nd seek fe in women more than reproductive value long term mating What are alternative explanations for Buss39s ndings Eagly amp Wood 1999 argue that and not sexdifferentiated brain mechanisms preferences Busses research is also highly c and many are not sure that by subtracting age preference with actual age married is a good way to determine which ages males prefer to mate withthus still unsure whether men are long term or short term mating partners Are the most kind and intelligent people the most desirable as potential mates Sef report surveys men rate intelligence much higher than physical attractiveness Unlike kindness intelligence is not targetspecific However intelligence might matter in a mother to keep her young alive Do humans posses specialized mechanism that are designed to find particular phvsical cues attractive An evolutionary approach predicts that any such Can compare this position against null hypothesis that For other animals the physical ideal is 100 instinctively determined Thus all baboons of a particular species pursue the same ideal For humans on the other hand ideals of beauty are learned there is no such thing as natural human beauty Polhemus 1988 a i Had been generally argued that children learn norms of attractiveness over first few years of life Langlois et al 1987 exposed in which one had been prerated by adults as attractive and the other prerated as unattractive Video camera filmed the infants and raters blind to photo side on the screen scored fixations to the left and right sides ii Langlois et al 1990 12 month olds played more and had more positive affect when in presence of adult vs unattractive mask played more with doll Many studies show that correlations between 50 and 90 Infant and crosscultural findings suggest may be What cues signal attractiveness for males and females What are their benefits a FA Asymmetry of the two sides of traits that are symmetrical on average in the population because two sides are regulated by same genes for traits Causes of developmental instability pathogens bacteria viruses plant toxins mutations i Benefits of choosing Symmetrical partners iii 1 Symmetry may index possession of to local parasites genes able to resist toxins lack of mutations Symmetry may indicate and thus greater 3 Nonhuman species FA predicts growth rate survival probability and mating success b Body FA computed by measuring left and right sides of a series of traits eg feet width elbow width ear length etc and then computing overall index of asymmetry These traits expected to be symmetrical if developmental program proceeds without problems No evidence that FA can itself be detected by observers Cannot simply look at someone and estimate their FA lifetime of sex partners Still true if facial attractiveness held constant i Some evidence that women may vs when they don t owback studies quot3 If so orgasm could function as form of 2 Thornhill et al 1995 measured body FA of men and recorded couples reports of frequency of women s orgasm More No evidence that women s symmetry predicted their partners orgasm frequency Their interpretation odor penis some morphology something that cues body FA Brown et al 2005 First measured body FA in Jamaican young men and women mean age 18 Proposed that R Low FAhigh quality men will have muscles etc Videotaped subjects dancing and used motion capture technology subjects wore 41 infrared re ectors and 8 cameras captured the motion computer program mapped it onto a standard animation Using motion capture can isolate movement cues from physical appearance of person dancing Subjects watched animations and rated on scale from bad dancer to good dancer Results symmetrical n women too but weaker effect c heterozygosity i ii iii Possible benefits associated with averageness 1 May signal greater h different alleles of genes inherited from mother and father b in immune system genes 2 average traits sometimes Langlois amp Roggman 1990 Composite faces formed by averaging shape and texture of multiple faces are judged more attractive than the individual faces Independent Effects of Averageness and Symmetry Averaged is this why averageness is more attractive Rhodes et al 1999 Created composite average faces from 24 faces Then warped real faces toward or away from the average making them more or less average wo making symmetrical Results d Mice prefer odors of females prefer odors of males with fewer MHC genes in common 2 possible functions 0 2 i MHCdependent Odor Preferences in Humans Wedekind et al 1995 method 44 men and 49 women blood samples to determine MHC genes Men wore Tshirts to bed for 2 nights Women sniffed 3 Tshirts of men MHC similar to them and 3 Tshirts of men MHC dissimilar to them Rated shirts for pleasantness sexiness intensity 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 More similar couples longer time to get pregnant in IVF studies gt rates of spontaneous abortions in MHC similar couples Among Hutterites no birth control longer birth spacing in more MHCsimilar couples during process of mate choice basic effect replicated for men smelling Tshirts from women What techniques are used to study svmmetrv and facial attractiveness Different techniques converged on finding that more symmetrical faces found more attractive in both men and women eg measuring left and right feature sizes and comparing Construct combine left w left and right w right to create symmetrical faces Mealey et al 1999 Identical twins for whom genes are same but developmental stability may vary Rated twins faces for attractiveness also rated similarity of leftleft and rightright chimeras What are possible alternative explanations for FAI orgasm relationship Could be those more attractive women happen to be more orgasmic What would be a more definitive test of the hvpothesis how could you test it in nonhuman species In another species rates Or could randomly assign women How can hormones signal higher or lower fitness in a person Testosterone imposes costs such as imrnunosuppression What evidence supports that testosterone is a Costlv Signal indicator to females and thus a tness indicator in humans Testosterone appears to act as a signal that including growth of secondary sex traits vs survival functions eg immune responses Physical cues associated with higher testosterone may therefore could indicate better genes passed on to female s offspring T injections can c T humannonhuman d T What sexual dimorphic secondary sex characteristics are cues to higher testosterone and thus greater fitness in men a has been proposed as a cue to testosterone exposure in humans greater facial masculinity proposed as Muscularity correlates with 1 Could be key cue of men s body FA 2 Could index developmental instability l Muscularity may be good proxy for testosterone exposure 2 Costly signal that can energy diverted from fat storage immune responses 3 Sell et al 2009 Are masculine faces considered most attractive It is highly of women This is known as the When choosing most attractive face women generally select faces that have to the average male face Perrett et a1 1998 Why Johnston et al 2001 Perrett et al 1998 However when women are Johnston et al 2001 PentonVoak et al 1999 Why do women prefer slightly It is 51 53 54 55 56 57 Is muscularitv attractive to women Is it a linear or curvilinear relationship What direct evidence indicates that facial masculinitv signals health and increased fitness a Thornhill amp Gangestad 2006 2 Men with more Recall facial symmetry as index for developmental stability b Gangestad amp Thornhill 2003 Body symmetry another measure of developmental stability between muscularity and attractiveness judgments Like faces argument proposed that this Does testosterone levels directly predict higher reproductive success via higher levels of attractiveness If not then how would T predict reproductive success Does T predict short term or long term attractiveness There is a small correlation between morning salivary T and lifetime number of sex partners controlling for age nonparametric correlation but but not greater attractiveness but not long term attractiveness Roney et al 2006 Men s testosterone had a small positive effect on women s ratings of shortterm attractiveness Testosterone had no effect on ratings of longterm attractiveness Are standards o attractiveness arbitrary or have mate preferences evolved because thev reveal biologically meaningful information Recent data suggests perceptual stimuli found attractive may not be arbitrary but instead signal components of health genetic quality and maybe indirect benefits Male physical attractiveness judgments may in large part be medical examinations and job interviews performed by perceptual machinery specially designed for that task and female choice for direct benefits andor indirect benefits a and heterozygosity respectively b Preference for d but constrained by preferences for paternal quality e but constrained by preferences for paternal quality Even among the class of fertile women are there cues that mark some women as more chronicallv fertile healthv than others Yes such as shorter birth spacing and higher rates of offspring survival Whv does fertilitv mgtter to a male Clearly strong selection pressure on ancestral men to choose fertile vs infertile females as mating partners energy should be unattractive Imagine a woman can have a child every 4 years75 children over a 30 year career But if a woman can have a child a every 3 years 10 children over a 30 year career And if you Incorporate survival rates Child every 4 years with 80 survival rate6 children Child every 3 years with 90 survival rate 9 children f women are more fertile they can have more offspring to pass on genes Whv does female reproductive capacitv varv so much in humans What are the sources of female variance in reproductive c21pacitv a bipedalism and large brains make it difficult for human females in childbirth death is likely 58 59 60 61 62 c Human babies are especially helpless require long periods of intensive care d Conclusion Men should be attracted to cues that women can produce many surviving offspring What gualities do sexually dimorphic cues from hormones signal in men and women gbesides symmetry and averageness a Men and Women Facial Feminization Perrett et al 1998 created composite average male and female faces Then feminized face by exaggerating differences between average female and average male face masculinized face by reducing difference between face and average masculine face Subjects consistently prefer feminized faces to faces given average female shape Suggests ferninization improves attractiveness above and beyond averageness b Men testosterone signaling immunocopetience general condition c Women Estrogen signaling Fertility Are there physical cues that predict individual differences between women in estrogen concentrations Higher estrogen is associated with higher fertility a Facial Cues 1824 year old women Face photographs urine samples for estrogen assay HighE composite face was rated much more attractive health and feminine than low E composite face i In natural faces late follicular estrogen correlated with ratings of face attractiveness femininity and health These effects were only women not wearing make up b Vocal Cues Women with higher estrogen have higher voices Vocal attractiveness tracks hormonal changes across the menstrual cycle Higher vocal pitch is associated with a more attractive face in composite faces and natural faces Vocal attractiveness predicts visual attractiveness Higher voices are rated as more attractive c Body Features that may predict sex hormones Waist to hip ratio breast size Why may makeup mimic cues of higher sex hormones There is no correlation between higher estrogen and facial attractiveness health and fertility when make up is on indicating that make up is mimicking the effects of the hormones or that they block the cues that display increased hormones What body features may predict sex hormones a Waist to Hip Ratio males find normal body weigh women with 07 low WHR most attractive There was found to be more estrogen in women with a low WHR Women with lower WHR actually had smaller BMI weightheightz and body fat than high WHR women Estrogen affects fat distribution not total body fat The 37 relative increase in E2 observed in the narrow waists large breasts group could be interpreted as indicating that these women would be almost 3 times as likely to get pregnant as other women b Breast Size What may WHR predict in women Explain the quotsir mixalot theoryquot a Fertility lower WHR may indicate that women have more estrogen and are more likely to get pregnant b Neurodevelopment Instead of indicating fertiltity low WHR may indicate presence of specialized fat stores that contain important nutrients Focus on the importance of long chain fatty acids LCFAs omega 3 omega 6 i Gaulin chain of argument Longchain fatty acids important for brain development make up 20 of dry weight of brain positive relationship between LCFA intake by mothers prenatal vitamins and child s IQ Gluteofemoral butt and thigh fat is primary storage site of LCFA in women low WHR should predict high LCFA Most of LCFA in breast milk comes from mothers fat stores instead of from current diet LCFA are scarce in diet and have to be acquired over periods of time and then stored in gluteofemoral fat this fat is protected and generally only used during late pregnancy and lactation Therefore low WHR may indicate ability to contribute more to LCFA to brain development and thus grow larger healthier brain Sir mix a lot theory ii Early Evidence for neurodevelopment argument 1 WHR increases as parity of births increase 2 Mothers WHR predicts child39s IQ 63 What are possible alternative explanations for the association between mother39s WHR and child39s IO alternatives to the idea that low WHR causes high 10 It may c such as income father39s education mothers commitment to healthy living exercise eating well cause both low WHR and child to eat sleep exercis better Unclear now if WHR signals E LCA or both 64 What are the direct Effects of E on attractiveness After controlling for BMI estrogen predicted ratings of body attractiveness
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