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Study guide for Exam 2 of Gen Chem 2

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by: Matthew Goetz

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Study guide for Exam 2 of Gen Chem 2 chem 10061-001

Marketplace > Kent State University > Chemistry > chem 10061-001 > Study guide for Exam 2 of Gen Chem 2
Matthew Goetz
KSU
GPA 3.925

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These notes cover everything from chapter 13 until the end of the notes on transitional species.
COURSE
general chemistry 2
PROF.
David bowers
TYPE
Study Guide
PAGES
4
WORDS
KARMA
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1 review
"I love that I can count on (Matthew for top notch notes! Especially around test time..."
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This 4 page Study Guide was uploaded by Matthew Goetz on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to chem 10061-001 at Kent State University taught by David bowers in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see general chemistry 2 in Chemistry at Kent State University.

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Date Created: 03/13/16
Gen Chem Study Guide 2   A majority of this test will focus on solution properties.   To determine them, we will use 6 base equations:  ­ Molality = (moles of solute/kg of solvent)  ­ Parts by mass = (mass of solute/total mass) ­ Parts by volume = (volume of solute/ total volume) ­ Mole fraction = (moles of solute/ total moles)  ­ Parts per million = (mass of solute/total mass of solution) x 100,000  These equations may be used to calculate colligative properties.  ­ These are changes that occur in a solvent when a solute is added.  ­ They are vapor pressure reduction, boiling point elevation, freezing point depression,  and a change in osmotic pressure.  ­ These properties depend on the # of solute particles dissolved.  ­ These properties occur because:  ­ Solute particles in the solution raise entropy, which reduces vapor pressure.        ­Solute particles in solution make it harder for solutions to change phase.   Nonvolatile nonelectrolyte solutions ­ These experience all of the colligative properties that were described above.  ­ These don’t involve ionic solutes, so they don’t dissolve.   These experience a vapor pressure reduction, expressed by this equation: ­ X is the mole fraction ­ Psolv is the vapor pressure of pure solvent.   These experience boiling point elevation, expressed by this equation:  ­ Kb is a given constant.  ­ M is the molality of the solution.   These experience freezing point depression, expressed by this equation:  ­ The parts of this equation are the same as the boiling point elevation.   The osmotic pressure of these solutions also changes, expressed by:   π = mrt  ­ M is the molarity.  ­ R is a constant .08206 ­ T is the temperature of kelvin.      The colligative properties of volatile, nonelectrolyte solutions:  ­    Depress the volatility and vapor pressure of each other.      Strong electrolyte solutions:  ­    Due to dissociation, one must multiply equations by the Van’t Hoff factor.  ­    This is the factor that states how many moles will be present after ionic dissociation. ­    The equations are the same for this, just multiplied by the vant hoff factor.  In kinetics, (molarity x seconds) is the speed of reactions.  Chemical kinetics: The study of reaction rates.  ­    Reaction rates may be sped up or slowed down by controlling:  ­    Concentration of solute ­    Temperature ­    The presence of a catalyst ­    Physical state of the solution     Reaction rate =  (Change in concentration/ change in time) Reactions slow over time as products form and impede the colliding of reactants.  ­ Therefore, the reactions are fastest when they first start. • For reactions involving coefficients, use the equation: aA + bB yields cC + dD.  Rate law expression: For instantaneous rates,  ­  Rate = k[A]^x[B]^y  ­ k is the rate constant ­x and y are the orders of reaction with respect to the reactants  ­ Rate law only includes reactions!!! ­ Reaction orders are determined by experiment.   First order reactions are when the rate of A is directly proportional to the  concentration. So, if A doubles, then the concentration doubles as well.   Second order reactions are when the rate is the square of the concentration. So, if A  doubles, then the concentration quadruples. Or, if A triples, then the concentration is  multiplied by 9.   Zero order reactions are when the Rate has no effect on the concentration.   To determine the rate constant K:  ­  k = (rate/ [A]^m[B]^n)   The units for K will vary though depending on the equation.  ­  Zero order reactions use the unit     mol/Lxs ­First order reactions use the unit      1/s  ­Second order reactions use the unit     L/molxs  Integrated rate laws: Show how time and rate are related.  ­  Half­life: Time it takes for a concentration to halve.  ­ This is important in first order reactions.  ­ In first order reactions the concentration doesn’t affect half­life though.  ­ Half­life may be solved using the equation:  Collision theory: Reaction rate in relation to the # of solute particles.  ­ This theory is due to the fact that particles must collide to react.  ­ This is the basis of rate laws.  ­ If concentration increases then more collisions may occur, so the reaction will speed  up.  ­ A collision that yields a product is called an effective collision. ­ This requires particles to collide in the correct orientation and with  enough energy to overcome the activation energy.  ­ This is important because many collisions of particles don’t result in  formation of a product.  ­ Temperature is also an important factor, for it increases kinetic energy in a system.   For most reactions that occur at room temperature: ­ Increasing 10 degrees Celsius doubles the rate.  ­ This is a rule of thumb.   The Clausius Clapeyron equation may be used to calculate the activation energy if you  know the rate constant at 2 different temperatures.   Structures of molecules and their orientations affect their reactivity.   A = the collision frequency factor. A =pZ. ­ P = orientation probability factor.  ­ Z = collision frequency.  ­ P is high for individual atoms.   Transition state theory: Between reactants and products, there is a transitional species that forms.  ­ This is a high energy, unstable species that only exists for a brief instant.  ­ Such a brief existence that they have never been isolated.  ­ These have higher coordination numbers due to partial bonds that form.  ­

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