Midterm Study Guide
Popular in The American Experience: The United States and the World
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This 0 page Study Guide was uploaded by Katharine Anthony on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS113U at Pace University taught by Barbara Blumberg in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 68 views. For similar materials see The American Experience: The United States and the World in History at Pace University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
1 3 Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin and the Bolsheviks Vladimir Lenin Leon Trotsky Joseph Stalin and the Bolsheviks all have to do with the 1917 Red Revolution They were communists who wanted to free Russia from the monarchy that was still in power Stalin in particular was important to the coming of World War II because he made a deal with Nazi Germany and Hitler to help him take over Poland The assistance of invasion of Poland by Nazi Germany started World War II because Britain and France realized they could no longerjust let Hitler take up pieces of land Woodrow Wilson39s Fourteen Point peace plan Woodrow Wilson39s Fourteen Point peace plan was to be a treaty at the end of World War I This peace plan was supposed allow equal trade for all self determination of nationalities which allowed Poland to become a nation and redrew the Baltic countries no secret treaties which was why there were allies in WWI or switched sides during the war a reduction in arms as well as peace on land and sea to stop possible bombings Unfortunately during the peace conference in Versailles Germany was not allowed and for the most part ignored Since the fourteen point peace plan was ignored and much harsher and unfair treaty was created instead This harsher treaty destroyed the German economy government and German pride which allowed for Hitler39s rise to power and World War II because of Hitler39s promises to bring about the return of the glory of Germany David LloydGeorge Georges Clemenceau and Woodrow Wilson at Versailles 4 Woodrow Wilson was the president of the United States David Lloyd George was the Prime Minister of Great Britain and Georges Clemenceau was the leader of France These three leaders were few of those who worked on the Treaty of Versailles With their works in the Treaty of Versailles they helped bring about World War II because of the harsh and unfair points in the treaty to make Germany concede With these harsh points Germany39s government pride and economy was destroyed bringing about the idea that Germany needed to go back to its glory days something that Hitler said that he could do K Marx F Engels and the quotCommunist Manifestoquot 5 Marx and Engels are both the authors of the quotCommunist Manifestoquot The communist manifesto was a book about the idea of Communism This idea of communism was about sharing property with all and destroying the power disparity between the bourgeois and the proletariat This brought about the Bolshevik Revolution in 1917 in Russia This revolution pulled Russia out of World War One and made the Russians sign a separate peace with the Germans This separate peace treaty caused Russia to be not included in the Treaty of Versailles making any possible choices that they wanted to have land wise unimportant making them lose a large amount of land Adolf Hitler and Mein Kampf Adolph Hitler came into power in an impoverished Germany who39s army had become a token force and a government that was full of ghting and backstreet murder of politicians Sent into the ranks of the German Worker39s Party which was full of racism and social change as a spy Hitler then rose through the ranks He makes friends with people and the leaders of the Nazi party starts to take shape and he begins to get money and people to train from the Army Hitler begins to promise Nordic supremacy and the hatred ofJews as civil war neared In 1923 he tried to invade Bavaria and is tried and jailed for 5 years He serves 9 months but writes Mein Kampf the bible of Nazism which most did not take seriously unless they were followers of Hitler Mein Kampf detailed exactly who Hitler hated which included communists black people anyone who wasn39t of the pure 39Aryan39 race Slavic people the French etc and Jewish people With Hitler39s rise to power he brought about World War II because the world realized as he began his genocide against all who were not Germanic or Nordic they needed to stop him from world domination Benito Mussolini Benito Mussolini pre WW1 was a Marxist who was against the war Creating the word Fascist out of the Latin word Fasci for a bundle of sticks symbolizing a united Italy Mussolini told Italians he wanted Italy to be powerful and militarize and create an empire that he could solve economic problems gain ItaIy international respect To do this he started creating and organizing the para military group the Black Shirts to ght communists These Black Shirts helped Mussolini take power in Italy and become I Duce destroying anyone who was against him such as democrats and communists while glorifying war Mussolini helped bring about WWII by showing that the League of Nations was a pointless group that would not at all go against countries who attacked other members of the League of Nations with the attack of Ethiopia in 1935 7 Francisco Franco Spanish Republic Loyalists and the Spanish Civil War 19361939 The Spanish Civil War 19361939 was a war between Spanish fascists who attacked Spanish liberals The Fascists were led by Francisco Franco who was a general he promised that the glory of Spain was to return with a cross and a sword This civil war ended up becoming a holy and class war Those who were Loyalists created a people39s army that went up against priests and nuns This caused for Franco39s men to terrorize civilians he received help from Hitler and Mussolini who sent troops or money In 1939 the Spanish Civil War ends and Franco takes power making Spain a dictatorship The Spanish Civil War helped show just how much power both Hitler and Mussolini were gaining the Abraham Lincoln Battalion the International Brigades The Abraham Lincoln Battalion and the International Brigades were brigades that were not Spanish but went to help the Loyalists in Spanish Civil War The Abraham Lincoln Battalion had more than 3000 Americans Unfortunately they did not have enough supplies These brigades are important to the coming of WWII because it helped create a more isolationist view in America and what could be expected during World War Two the Washington Conference and the 1922 treaties that came out of President Harding39s secretary of state called an international conference to meet in Washington DC Japan France Britain Italy and all the countries who had a stake or interest in the Far East were invited a lot of the land in Asia had become colonies of European countries France had what is now Laos Cambodia and Vietnam Britain was controlling Hong Kong India and ports America had control of the Philippines At this conference three treaties came into being There was a Treaty that pledged that each of the countries would respect each other39s property in colonies in Asia and no one would try to grab another39s property If any differences arise among these conference countries rather than going to war against each other they will call a conference and settle whatever differences peacefully All countries that signed including Japan agreed to respect the independence of China and would not try and split it up into colonies and all would have an equal chance to trade and invest in China Because a new naval arms race had started back up there was a treaty 10 11 that said quotLet39s agree to freeze the size of our navies at the size they are right now in 1921 and for 10 years we pledge not to build big war shipsquot It seemed after this conference peace in Asia would be good These treaties however did not have any enforcement though making the peace very weak Because the enforcement was incredibly weak and Japan was treated poorly by the Western countries it helped cause WWII because they realized that they should have control of Asia all to themselves Emperor Hirohito and the Japanese militarists By the late 192039s very nationalistic politicians emerged in Japan Military leaders power had increased and Japan had become increasingly sure they did not want to continue close cooperation with the US and that was not the way to make Japan powerful The Japanese government had a parliament voting of the middle and upper classes and they had an emperor The Emperor was not an absolute monarch he had ministers could listen to the advice of the military He was looked upon as almost godlike however and if he threw his support behind any group of politicians then it went a long way with them getting power and doing what they wanted A new emperor came to the throne in the 192039s 1819 years old when coronated He was impressionable ambitious for his country He listened to these nationalistic leaders it went a long way to them gaining power Also in the late 192039s they almost conducted a reign of terror at home Nationalists started to assassinate their political rivals who were moderate and wanted to continue cooperation with the US In the 193039s this nationalistic group came to power in Japan with the emperor39s support because the Japanese people wanted to support him because it would be unpatriotic not to At home in Japan they began to do what they preached and attacked Western culture and started almost a dictatorship got rid of those they did not like Japanese Communist party The Japanese militarists and Emperor Hirohito brought about World War Two because of the idea ofJapanese superiority This superiority idea as well as the emperor being so young and impressionable caused the idea that Japan did not have to listen to the West and that they could take over colonies which ended up angering the colonialists Greater East Asia Coprosperity Sphere Japanese attack on Manchuria and China quotThe Greater East Asia CoProsperity Spherequot was an idea created by the Japanese militants within the government They started to drive out Western 12 13 cultural in uences out ofJapan Leaders say traditional culture is far more superior Then they began to preach the economic problems and become as great as the US or Britain or the West is that they have to come to control and dominate all of East Asia economically politically and militarily and make it a special zone Like the Monroe Doctrine where the US says they have control of the entire rest of the Americas and not interfere Under the Greater East Asia CoProsperity Sphere all countries that were Western Colonies had to become part ofJapan and the westerners had to be pushed out and all of China had to be dominated Japanese superiority was preached To make this idea more acceptable for other Asian countries they said they would treat them better than the West To this day there is still strong resentment of what the Japanese did in WW2 from those they conquered Sept 1931 in violation of all the treaties of the Washington Conference and all promises of the League of Nations that they made they blew up a small incident that had happened as an excuse for a massive invasion of Manchuria the northern most province of China Japan had built up a modern army air force This along with the fact that China was quite weak and they used the same techniques that Germans and Italians did in Spain and bombing villages and killing civilians Soldiers shoot anyone rape women and commit atrocities Quickly they were winning and taking over Manchuria Afterwards Japan put on the throne in Manchuria Manchukuo the last emperor that China had it was a republic by 1931 so he was technically out of a job This emperor was pretty much just a puppet to the Japanese government This helped cause world war two because of the fact that the League of Nations though not very powerful or useful against any attacks on any members they began to ignore and put economic sanctions on them pressuring them to ght against them more Chiang Kaishek v Mao Zedong v Japan The Chinese wasn39t able to resist more effectively because even though they had a bigger population and weaker army they should have put up a greater defense They were not more effective because a civil war was going in China Cheng Kaishek was the leader of the Nationalist Party friendly to the big land lords of China China developed a communist movement and party with Mao Zedong The Communists started a revolt against the Nationalist Government This civil war makes it easy for the Japanese to take control of such a big area of China Henry Stimson39s Doctrine of Nonrecognition 14 15 The US and President HooverR was busy with the Great Depression and wasn39t inclined in getting involved in foreign affairs Hoover39s secretary of State Henry Stimson R was for an effective strong foreign policy When Japan attacked Manchuria and especially with the brutal treatment of civilians he wanted Hoover to have an incredibly strong stand and have the US take actions againstJapan economic sanctions especially since they needed the steel arms and oil the US was selling to them Afterwards they put on the throne in Manchuria Manchukuo the last emperor that China had it was a republic by 1931 so he was technically out of a job This emperor was pretty much just a puppet Stimson was disgusted by this and asked Hoover if he could make a speech about how he feels about the atrocities that went on quotThe United States will not recognize any change in ownerships in territory that had been brought about by force aggression and therefore the US will not recognize Manchukuo will not exchange diplomats as far as the US is concerned that is Manchuria the northern part of Chinaquot This is important to World War Two because it shows how tense things were between Japan and America Stalin collective security and the popular front Josef Stalin is in power It39s completely communist and industrialized However once Hitler starts rebuilding Germany it39s really obvious Germany is a lot more powerful than the Soviet Union Stalin becomes increasingly afraid of Hitler and his rise to power in Germany He is fairly sure that eventually he will head eastward and steal land from the Soviet Union 1936 Stalin begins to preach a foreign policy caIIed Collective Security Britain US France and pledge to stop Hitler and his land grabs Since Communism is what it is however the other countries do not trust Communist Russia The Soviet Union was in contact with communist parties in countries all over the world quotPut the revolution on hold if you are in a democratic country that opposes Fascism Instead join Popular Front governmentquot This didn39t really work because most out of Russia didn39t trust the Communists or Communism Because of the distrust of Communists there wasn t a way to make sure that Germany would not continue conquering leading to WWII Munich Conference 1938 HitIer Mussolini Chamberlain France39s Ieader all agree to meet in Munich Czechoslovakia is not invited When meeting opens Hitler greeted the others with a raving ranting denunciation against the Czechs and tells both Britain and France they have to make them make sense This scares both of them and they both agree that they will tell Czechoslovakia they have to give up the SudetenIand and if they resisted they are on their own HitIer 16 17 promises if they give him the Sudetenland that was the last thing Germany would take Czechoslovakia gives them the Sudetenland and all the Czechs who were hated by the Germans were treated like the German Jews Chamberlain was proud that he pulled Britain and the world back from the brink of war Hitler for 6 months kept his word then without anything March 1939 Hitler sent his armies into the rest of Czechoslovakia conquering the whole thing and incorporated the Czech part into Germany The Slovak part was controlled by the Nazi party of Slovakia This all happened so quickly that Britain and France did nothing but it brought about a major awakening Finally even Chamberlain realized there was not appeasing Hitler Nye Committee hearings The United States also felt like they were tricked into the war This feeling came from a congressional investigation that was carried out in 19341935 Senator Gerald Nye The Committee was called the Nye committee The committee asked a lot of questions quotWho was eager for us to join the war And whyquot American investors who had lent a lot of money to the French and British governments and who were afraid they would lose in World War One and would not get their money back they were anxious to make sure that we went into the war and won Big Banks Wall Street types and so on were in it for economic gain Arms manufacturers were eager so that they could make a fortune in selling arms and ammunitions from selling These people who had made money off the war were called Merchants of Death Big banks businessmen in Wall Street were not popular in the 192039s 1929 Economic collapse because of reckless spending and investing Americans blame investors and Wall Street people They decide not to let these people trick them into getting into another war and would not get involved Neutrality Acts 1935 1936 1937 The Provisions of these neutrality acts and how they were supposed to keep us out of war The United States and its business men are forbidden to sell any munitions or war supplies or to transport any munitions or war supplies to any belligerents Banks may not make any loans to any belligerents lf countries that are at war want to buy non war goods from the United States oil machinery they may do so but no loans they must pay upfront for whatever they buy and they must send their own ships to our shores to carry whatever they39re carrying back to their own country cash and carry principle No American ship may travel into a war zone and no Americans may book passage on ships of belligerent countries or go into war zones They thought this protected them Whatever Roosevelt39s feeling about these laws he did go along with them and signed them into law He also at the time of the Munich conference was the voices of feeling that everything had been worked out The United States further showed how isolationist they were by not taking in any refugees about having people come in We were so strict about it see the St Louis The rst crux in the isolationism came when Roosevelt starting in 1937 started to question a bit He gave an exploratory speech in 1937 about how he didn39t want to get involved but we39re kidding ourselves when war is raging or about to rage it39s contagious and we39re going to get pulled in He was criticized for saying that and backed down for months Only after Hitler took all of Czechoslovakia and started going after Poland that Roosevelt tried to do whatever he could to deter Hitler from further aggressions He wrote after all of Czechoslovakia and open letter to Mussolini and Hitler that they would give public guarantees that they would not attack 31 written nations for at least 10 years During the really tense spring and summer of 1939 while Hitler was saying he would go into Poland Roosevelt wanted to throw the weight of the US against Hitler Sending the message if you cause the outbreak of WWII the US will not get involved but it will send all the help they can towards Britain and France against you This goes against the neutrality acts He goes to congress to get these repealed and they decline this The message we sent to Hitler instead is that we will do nothing 19 Nuremberg Laws 1935 Kristalnacht the quot nal solutionquot Eli Wiesel Night death camps testimony at the Nuremberg War Crimes trials 1935 Nuremburg Laws Jews were stripped of citizenship could not be teachers hold positions in government could not marry or have any sexual contact with nonJewish Germans and de ned what makes you Jewish 18 Kristallnacht also known as the Night of Broken Glass was when German mobs incensed because a Jewish person in Paris shot at and assassinated a Nazi of cial They attacked people burned synagogues and Torahs Stores were smashed and people broke into people39s homes ManyJewish people were arrested and sent to concentration camps Hitler said the Jews had to pay for all the damage to their property and had a ne imposed Very few countries after Kristallnacht would take in Jewish refugees Britain took the children and the US took in Jewish people like Albert Einstein Ghettos start popping up in Poland France and Belgium once they were taken by Germany Jewish people forced to live into them the plan was to starve them out In 19411942 the quot nal solutionquot began Concentration camps start to become the only 39solution39 to the fact there were 6 million Jews in Europe Some concentration camps were work camps some were simply death camps In Night Birkhau and Auschwitz right next to each other Two lines Wiesel39s mother and sister were immediately killed while Wiesel and his father became workers quotLie about your agequot Estimated 6 million Jewish people 10 million including Romani Gays Catholics 20 the St Louis St Louis was German ship that held a thousand of German Jewish people went to Cuba Though they had visas Battista did not allow them off They went next to America Miami speci cally For a number of days people pleaded with the Roosevelt administration to make an exception It sails back to Europe France Britain Holland Belgium take in these refugees
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