Cultural Anthropology STUDY GUIDE TWO
Cultural Anthropology STUDY GUIDE TWO ANT 10
Kutztown University of Pennsylvania
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Ashlee Notetaker on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to ANT 10 at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania taught by Dr. Donner in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Kutztown University of Pennsylvania.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Cultural Anthropology: Study Guide Two Chapter 6 – Race and Ethnicity Ethnicity is based on cultural similarities and differences in a society or nation. Similarities are between members of the same ethnic group; the differences are between that group and others. Ethnic group: share certain beliefs, values, habits, customs and norms because of their common background. Define themselves as different and special. Distinction may arise from language, religion, historical experience, geographic placement, kinship or “race.” Status: the various positions that people occupy in society. Ascribed status: people have little or no choice about occupying them. o Example: age, gender Achieved status: come through choices, actions, efforts, talents or accomplishments, may be positive or negative. o Example: physician, senator, convicted felon Race: ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis. Racism: discrimination towards such a group. Often race is assumed to derive from physical characteristics while ethnicity is derived from learned ones, but both are ultimately shaped by culture. Culture constructs race – you learn how to perceive it. Learn to assume certain behaviors are associated with various races. Race does not exist in a biological/scientific sense. o No pure races. o Not found in DNA. o Every human group is variable. o Every region has physical/biological differences. Culturally constructed: o Learned and varies in different cultures. Race in America Hypodescent: the assignment of people whose parents come from different ethnic/racial categories to a single category, usually the one with lower socio- economic status or prestige. Traditional in American society, but might be changing. Thomas Jefferson and Sally Hemings – Sally was 50% European/ 50% African American and had children with Thomas Jefferson. This is where Thomas Jefferson European and African American ancestry stems from. Descent: social identity based on ancestry. Stratified: class-structured, with differences in wealth, prestige and power. Multiculturalism: view of cultural diversity as valuable and worth maintaining. Assimilation: absorption of minorities within a dominate culture. o Becoming like the dominate group or culture. o Can create ethnic harmony. o Forced assimilation; ethnocide. Forcing the groups to become like the dominate group or culture. Genocide is killing the people. o Ethnic groups can be in contact for generations without assimilating and can live in peaceful coexistence. Plural Society: society with economically interdependent ethnic groups. Ethnic Conflict Prejudice: devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes. o Personal dislike Stereotypes: fixed ideas – often unfavorable – about what members of a group are like. Discrimination: policies and practices that harm a group and its members. o De Jure: by law (old south) o De Facto: by practice IQ + Race Developed to test children with biological learning defects; never intended to measure “normal” intelligence. Given to soldiers during WWI; generally IQ scores followed degree of assimilation into American society but were interpreted to reflect intelligence and nationality. Results were used after WWI to set immigration quotas. Chapter 7 – Making a Living Adaptive Strategy: means of making a living; productive system. System of economic and recourse production. Adaptation The use of ones environment to survive and reproduce. o Humans Environment Technology (Means of Production) – different technologies in the same environment. Human Production Systems (Modes of Production) – social organization; how are humans organized to use technology in a particular environment. Division of Labor: allocations of work to different categories of people. Stratification: allocations of resources to different categories of people. Rich, poor, nobility, commoner, slave Per-capita energy: energy production (rough estimate) used per person, per day. Food-Foraging: hunters and gatherers. Mobile Technology – has to be something you can carry. Pre-metal – non-metal. Mobile residence – not random. o Seasonal camps Low populations – 1 per 10 square miles. Limited work specialization – men hunt, women gather. Limited stratification – people are equal (egalitarian). 5-10,000 Kcal per person/per day. Horticulture (farmers 1) is cultivation that makes intensive use of none of the factors of production: land, labor, capital, and machinery. Horticulturalist use simple tools such as hoes and digging sticks to grow their crops. Their fields are not permanently cultivated and lie fallow for varying lengths of time. Slash and burn; digging stick, root crops. Sedentary 10-100 people per square mile; villages. Part-time specialists (crafts, weaving, pottery). Limited stratification – big man, and chief. 10—20,000 Kcal (higher levels of energy production). Agriculture (farmers 2) is cultivation that requires more labor than horticulture does, because it uses land intensively and continuously. The greater labor demands associated with agriculture reflect its common use of domesticated animals, irrigation, or terracing. Plow; grains, animal to pull (ox, mule, horse). o Boost in energy production. People in very different environments. o In terms of adaptive patterns is very similar. Sedentary (stay in one place), but with rural/urban differences. o Farmers lived outside of town – peasants. o Urban centers – religion, markets, rulers, artisans. Very high population. Full-time specialist. Stratified social class. o Nobility, commoners, slaves o Ascribed at birth – born into it. Worst thing to be born as is peasant or farmer. 20 – 50,000 Kcal per person. Domesticated Animals – use animals as means of production. Irrigation – schedule their planting because they can control water. Industrial Manufacturing agriculture o Fossil fuels as energy source. Water in early period – water wheels. Mobile – peasants and farmers move into city, people could be moving globally. o As technology changes, people move around. High population levels. o Scientifically oriented enhances medical care. o Eventually levels off. Increases specialization o Very specialized work roles, doctors, teachers, engineers. Very complex stratification. o Achievement is more important than in agricultural systems. Achieved vs. Ascribed Open vs. Closed Open: people move between different social classes. Closed: whatever you’re born into will always be your social class. Very high levels of energy – 50 -200,000 Kcal per person. Alienation in Industrial economies – means they don’t feel strong pride in or personal identification with their products. o Malaysian factory women are a case of industrial alienation. They are worked very hard by men supervisors who do not value them as people/human. Post-Industrial, Present Information, services, global o Today the richest people on the world are in information, this was a shift from service. o Global – not created in one place. Mobile – people are moving around. Population levels off. Division of labor is more complex, highly specialized work roles. Stratification increase – more bosses, more layers. Higher levels of energy – 250,000 Kcal per person. Economic Systems Value Capitalism – supply and demand. o In market, industrial societies. Pre-capitalist societies – context and relationship. o In non-industrial societies combine economic, social, kinship, religion Exchange and Social Relations Reciprocity is exchange between social equals, who are normally related by kinship, marriage, or another close personal tie. Because it occurs between social equals, it is dominant in the more egalitarian societies – among foragers, cultivators, and pastoralists. There are three degrees of reciprocity: Generalized: give without expectation of return. Balanced: give and expect to get something back of equal value. Negative: plan to gain from transaction (cheating, lying). Redistribution operates when goods, services, or their equivalent move from the local level to a center. The center may be a capital, a regional collection point, or a storehouse nears a chief’s residence. Products often move through a hierarchy of officials for storage at the center. Along the way, officials and their dependents may consume some of them, but the exchange principle here is redistribution. The flow of foods eventually reverses direction – out from the center, down through the hierarchy, and back to the common people. Taxes Markets Supply and demand Exchange Formal and informal Prestige and exchange Conspicuous consumption – expenditure on or consumption of luxuries on a lavish scale in an attempt to enhance one's prestige. o Rolex, high heels Chapter 8 – Political Organization Uncentralized Political Systems – divide power among several units, which usually occupy distinct territories. Centralized Political Systems – concentrate power and decision-making in a single unit, which can be dispersed geographically, but is more frequently focused within a single city. Formal sanctions Leader and institution Social Order is maintained by norms –everyone breaks norms. Norms are defined differently in different societies and different times. Bands – a small kin-based group (all its members are related by kinship or marriage) found among foragers. Informal Inuit, San (Juhansi) o Song duels Tribes – have economies based on non-intensive food production (horticulture and pastoralism). Living in villages and organized into kin groups based on common descent (cans and lineages), tribes have no formal government and no reliable means of enforcing political decisions. Informal Pantribal sodality o Age sets o Initiation o Clubs Informal leaders, influence not authority. o Headman, big man Segmentary Lineage – Nuer (sudan), Evans – Pritchard Chiefdom refers to a form of sociopolitical organization intermediate between the tribe and the state. In chiefdoms, social relations were based mainly on kinship, marriage, descent, age, generation, and gender – just as in bands and tribes. However, although chiefdoms were kin based, they featured differential access to resources (some people had more wealth, prestige, and power than other did) and a permanent political structure. Stratum endogamy is marriage within one’s own group. Chiefdom and State Formal sanctions (laws, courts, often written, punishments are often impersonal, punish for breaking rules; reward for following rules). Centralized leadership/political systems. Chiefdom and state will use informal sanctions in personal and family relationships, but formal ones in many interactions beyond these groups. State Formal sanctions. Population control, boundaries, immigration. Judiciary – laws, courts Enforcement, military and police. Fiscal, taxation. Add citizenship. Stratification o Mark – wealth, means of production o Max Weber – power, wealth and prestige Social Control and Authority Decentralized/Uncentralized systems o Informal sanctions o No central leader or institution Sanctions – good/bad things that affect behavior. Informal Sanctions – personal, interaction gossip, ridicule, praise, avoidance. Formal Sanctions – written, institutional jail, fines, awards, promotions, penalties. Internalized Norms: sense of right and wrong. Hegemony is social order in which subordinates accept hierarchy as “natural.” Mind control
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