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UCLA / Ancient Near East / AN N EA 15 / cleopatra and hatshepsut

cleopatra and hatshepsut

cleopatra and hatshepsut


Professor Kathlyn Cooney

Who is Cleopatra?

ANE 15 – Women and Power in the Ancient World

Final Exam Questions

(an outline is great, get the big ideas down, pick and choose the evidences wisely,

Your final exam will include two of the following essay questions. Prepare answers in advance of the exam. Include discussion of the geographical context, cultural context, archaeological evidence, and primary text evidence, if appropriate.

You do not need to do additional research to prepare these answers. Working with the class powerpoints, lecture notes and readings is enough!

1.​​Compare and contrast Hatshepsut’s power methodology with Cleopatra’s. Include discussion of ideological, economic, political, military and sexual power. (how they gained and use power)


Thesis: ​Due to different Egyptian eras and situations that Egypt found themselves in, Hatshepsut and Cleopatra utilized all components of the IEMPS power, however Hatshepsut focused most of her attention on ideological power which led to increase in political and economic power. Cleopatra on the other hand used mostly sexual power to obtain military and political power by linking herself to numerous powerful Roman men.

Who is Caesarion?

Background ­ ​summary of Egypt situation in Hatshepsut/ Cleopatra’s time Hatshepsut: stable, wealthy, Egypt put a lot of emphasis on dynastic succession and divine kinship that allowed her to sustain her throne in the elite’s best interest to preserve the dynasty.

Cleopatra’s time ­ steps into power in a time of political and social confusion, Egypt was in massive debt since it had to pay tribute to the Roman Empire to prevent it from actually invading. Ptolemy was in charge of the emperor after Alexandre the Great left him in power, Ptolemy’s time was filled with throne competition If you want to learn more check out How do you find the domain and range of an inverse function?

(Ideological ­ hatshepsut)​had a lot more ideological/sexual power in relation to her job as God’s wife of Amun​, temple of Amun, ideological base of power (since she started when she was 10)​while Cleopatra did not had any formal title that granted her to have sexual power. Hatshepsut calls herself emphasis on being the daughter of the King ­ linkage to divine right (kingship) to rule ­ stated that Amun chose her from birth/ linked herself to her father thutmose I chose her to be the King of Egypt​. Ideological depictions, mural and image, name of her was all before Thutmose III, to establish her power

Why did Roman Women have so much power in the Principate formation and early Principate?

However, Cleopatra’s time context changed from Hatshepsut that the Mediterranean sea was basically influenced heavily by the Roman Empire, the emphasis on divine kingship wasn’t as strong thus she did not need to justify herself to have Ideological power. How she links herself to Isis and her tomb to the Isis temple.

Economic​­ Hatshepsut’s time Egypt was already wealthy and campaign to the south made her more wealthy, had a lot of building projects such as temples and monuments that also had ideological implications. The temples had functions similar of that to a bank as well.

Economic ­ Cleopatra ­ ​Both had great economic knowledge and power but Egypt was pretty much in debt during Cleopatra’s time since they had to pay so much tax to Roman empire while hatshepsut handled everything really well and didn’t have much problem handing the whole economy. Improved the economy, making Egypt more stable, had access to gold and coinage, and finance Antony’s campaign. These all partly came from relationships with Antony that he gave her more land ­ linking to more economic power. We also discuss several other topics like What is Fluidity?

Military ­ Can’t really say who had more power since the context of each era was different. Hatshepsut ruled during a time of prime thus she had really peaceful societies to deal with. Campaign to the South or Nubia to get resources (powerpoint).​She had military power at the age of 10 as soon as she became God’s wife of Amun through the slaves and “dowry” she got from her father since it is seen as marrying to a God, but she never really had to formally utilize her military power such as leading war expeditions like Cleopatra did. She let thutmose III to engage in military expeditions

However, Cleopatra on the other hand had to lead war expeditions with Marc Antony as she associated herself with him. Her era was a difficult time for Egypt as the Roman Empire was almost going to defeat and take Egypt as it’s own Empire. she not only started her throne to immediately trying to keep Egypt safe from the Roman Empire. Active leader of the military ­ We also discuss several other topics like zoology study guide

especially in the navy, fought but lost at battle of Actium

Political ­ Hatshepsut (strong elements of both) connection to Thutmose I strong ruler God’s Wife of Amun gave her so much military and economic resources at a young age, that lead her to have so much political power along with helpers such as Senemut and wealth of Egypt ­ divine kingship no question can be asked

Cleopatra Political ­ connections to Antony and Caesar ­ acknowledge as a powerful world leader and respectfully by other rulers asking for her help ­ land, money, relationships and good reputation ­ ability to eliminate threats to her throne and competitions

Sexual ­ biggest contrast between Cleopatra and Hatshepsut,​since we don’t really know anything about Hatshepsut’s sexual power although there could be there’s just no evidence. No male connections in terms of relationships or affairs, never need to build relationships according to romance. Takes on male appearance as her reign goes on. We also discuss several other topics like econ 310

Cleopatra is known to have multiple children through vast linkages with different powerful general and monarch and she portrays herself as very feminine since she uses her sexual power so much to attain what she wants. While Hatshepsut had to portray herself as masculine in the temples to make Egypt but the fact that she is suitable and legitimate for divine kingship. Beauty and intelligence.

Final Exam problem Hatchepsut vs Cleopatra

● Regency, on the midterm, somebody who is ideally the mother of a young son who is too young to rule

● Old Egyptian method of maintaining dynastic succession

● Ideally, mother of young king rules on behalf of her own son

● Hatshepsut = not mother of Thutmose III

● Isis = mother of Thutmose III

● Year 7 crowns herself the king, perhaps since she is his aunt she feels the need to extend her regency

● Crowned by year 7 and represented as a man by year 7

● Justifies as heir to her father Thutmose I, her rule Don't forget about the age old question of math 2174
If you want to learn more check out ger 2010 study guide

● Avoiding the connection of being the regent

● Divine birth scene mythology, funerary complex, ways out the methodology ● All her story to justify her rule

● Doesn’t link to a man (biggest difference with Cleopatra), formally deny her sexual power since there is no evidence

● Middle picture masculine clothing, transformation

● Always give herself the power even if she is ruling as co­king, displaying herself in front of Thutmose III instead of behind

● Afterwards about 25 years after her reign, Thutmose III is able to wipe out her records, since Hatshepsut was so successful it is easy to appropriate


● Lived 69­30 BCE

● Female King to ruled for about 20 years along the lines of the length as Hatshepsut but with a series of men

● Initially ruled alongside her father Ptolemy XII.

● Then ruled alongside her brothers, Ptolemy XIII and Ptolemy XIV, each of whom she married, no children with her husband

● As sole ruler, linked herself to Julius Caesar not formal power or union in the eyes of Rome

● Linked herself to Marc Antony

● After their military defeat, Cleopatra killed herself, and Egypt became a province of Roman Empire

● Is this an innovation? or is she an innovative ruler? or is she a product of her time and new time of Egypt

Cleopatra’s geographic context

● protected on all four sides, more unified culture and language, in terms of kingship and rule

● Hatshepsut’s era: Egypt value dynastic succession and allow a woman to come in and maintain stability instead of Greek

● Map of Egypt in Cleopatra’s time: E​gypt part of globalized Mediterranean world, Egypt needs to pay off/placate Romans

● Cleopatra’s father had to pay a lot of tribute to Rome to prevent them from invading, thus Egypt is going into debt

● Strange client stage that they have to pay taxes to the Roman Empire but still independent

● No longer centered inward, it now has to be able to interact in a grander scale with the larger mediterranean

Cleopatra’s family context

● Placed in Egypt to control the area after Alexandre the Great

● Macedonians not native Egyptian family: how do they adjust to dynastic succession? Not an easy process, since it is brought from Macedonia to the Egyptian royal family as Cleopatra killed so many relatives

Reign of Ptolemy XII

● Deep in debt

● Loss of Cyprus and cyrenaica (eastern Libya)

● On a trip to Rome, attempted coup by his daughter Cleopatra VI, who was killed by Berenike IV, who was executed by Roman intervention

● Cleopatra VII = co­regent with her father at age 14

● Ptolemy XII died 51 BCE, leaving throne to Cleopatra VII (18 years old) and Ptolemy XIII (10 years old)

● These are not just individual actors that are acting on their own will and alone in the mess, all of these people are entourages, advisors, estates, accountants of their own, backing Ptolemy XIII, instigating the in­fighting or linking, people fight for their interest in their own units, backed with their own group of people, pushing the drive, to assess how much of the motivation came from

● broke down from time period of Hatshepsut, everyone in the palace worships and protects the king, she can bribe people to listen to them

● Elites are not buying into the idea of stasis, and they have more interest in trying to get their royal family member to compete against each other.

Politics during early reign

● rule with half­brother Ptolemy XIII always rocky

● 50 BCE expelled from Alexandria through Roman intervention

● Ptolemy XIII executed Pompey. Backfired with Caesar, Pompey was Caesar’s son­in­law ● Cleopatra VII allies Caesar and thus Alexandria

○ smuggled in a carpet to meet Caesar

○ 9 months after meeting Caesar, Caesarian was born

● Ptolemy XIII assassinated. Cleopatra VII restored to throne with Ptolemy XIV ● When Caesar left for Rome, he left three garrisons

● Visit to Rome with Caesarion when Caesar murdered in 44 BCE

● Returned to Egypt, murdered Ptolemy XIV

Politics later in her reign

● 43 ­ 30 BCE Directly involved herself in Roman civil war

● 41 BCE Marc Antony brought her on as ally, stayed in Alexandria

● 41 BCE had her sister Arsinoe murdered on steps of Artemis temple at Ephesus ● 40 BCE she bore him twins, Alexander Helios and Cleopatra Selene II ● 34 BCE after conquest of Armenia by Marc Antony, Cleopatra VII and Caesarion

crowned co­kings of Egypt and Cyprus. Alexander Helios ruler of Armenia, Parthia, and Media. Cleopatra Selene II ruler of Libya and Cyrenaica and Ptolemy Philadelphus (cleopatra VII and Marc Antony’s youngest child) ruler of Phoenicia, Syria, and Cilicia. ● The East vs. Rome!

● 33 BCE Antony and Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) at odds and Octavian declared war against Egypt

● 31 BCE Battle of Actium. Marc Antony commits suicide. Octavian invaded Egypt ● Unique, ill­laid plan amongst a bunch of children of how Cleopatra divided her children as king of regions when they are six

● Perceive as a way to build up her own power in her command

Politics later in her reign

● 33 BCE Antony and Octavian (Caesar’s grandnephew) at odds and Octavian declared war against Egypt

● 31 BCE Battle of Actium. Marc Antony commits suicide. Octavian invades Egypt

Dramatis Personae

Cleopatra: Fierce queen of Egypt

Caesar: Roman dictator and general, lover of Cleopatra, killed in the senate Antony: Successful Roman general, loyal supporter of Caesar, member of the triumvirate, lover of Cleopatra, eventual rival of Octavian, kills himself in Alexandria

Octavian: Nephew and heir of Caesar, member of the triumvirate, eventually rival of Antony, really amazing sneaky brilliant politician, will become Caesar Augustus, the leader of rome

Caesarion: Son of Cleopatra and Caesar. Cleopatra tries to set him up to rule Egypt, but he is killed by Octavian

Ptolemy XII : Clepatra’s father


Egypt and Rome

Cleopatra struggled to keep Egypt together under the pressure of Rome, and Egyptian values are different and against Roman values.

The story so far

Cleopatra steps into power in a time of political and social confusion

Rome ­ civil war, assassinations, drama and intrigue

Egypt ­ unstable rule, massive debt, and threatened by Rome

Connects herself to a series of men to stay in power ­ there were a lot of women who tried to step into power where people respected but failed

Egypt seems to be doing much better under her rule but it’s still richer than other poor areas Ptolemy XII puts her in a bad position

Unable to maintain her position under mist of confusion

The Sources

Largely Roman sources written in order to portray her negatively

Horace and a Sibylline Oracle date from her reign

Plutarch, Cassius Dio, Josephus written after her death

Many overly dramatic ­ Rome portrayed her as desperate

This negative, exotic seductress is the Cleopatra of Hollywood

Cleopatra was highly intelligent and educated

Antonius usually has a very dramatic description of everything

She was the first Ptolemy line to speak Egyptian, while her family spoke Greek ● Cleopatra herself! She is quite an accomplished author ­ The Cosmetics ○ Treatise known only from fragments

○ Does not get the respect it deserves ­ not really about make up, but a medical guide

○ talks about slaves that can help with hair loss and skin conditions

○ References suggest other medical and scientific knowledge as well

Cleopatra’s Ideological Power

Divine kingship is not tolerable in Rome, but she needed to use ideological power to gain more power in Egypt

entered into the position of divine kingship, as with other Egyptian kings

Often shows her piety

● Day after father’s death, travels to instal a Buchis bull

● Described on the Bucheum stele

● Finished the temple of Hathar at Dendera, and used it to further her position and Caesarions’

Convey her children as forefront of religious Egypt

Isis ­ wife of Osiris ­ ruler of the gods

Convenient because Isis is considered as the female line of Ptolemy ● Linked to Egyptian goddesses during her lifetime

● Placing Cleopatra’s statue as a direction of Isis

● Julius Caesar had statue of her as Isis placed at Venus Genetrix temple in Forum Julium Frequent connections to Isis

● Isis stele

● built her tomb near the temple of Isis

● Depictions at Dendera include attributes

● Built temple to Isis near Ptolemais Hermiou ­ depicted as male similar to Hatshepsut ● According to Plutarch, often appeared as Isis at state functions and on coinage, Useful medium of propaganda

Cleopatra’s Economic Power

● Debt, famine characterized much of her reign

● May have turned this around during her reign

● Reports of economic chaos diminish after few years of her reign, but still had to debased currency

● we know Egypt was relatively rich in her reign because Rome was desperate to take over

● She would be given control of a number of territories

● Antony giving up parts of Roman empire was not happy

● Take control of best timber and bitumen resources ­ as you build ships ­ naval battles are what is going on, not only control money and the navy

● Also gives her trade centers of Phoenicia ­ economic, therefore military, thus political power and pursuits

● Gave certain useful Romans tax exemptions ­ side note: tax exemption for P. Canidius Crassus

● suggest she is involved in politics and economies shows how educated she is and able to take control of what is going on in her homeland

Active Leader of Military

Lead naval expeditions

Commanded egyptian army and borrow her men

Cleopatra’s political power

● In Egypt, she is seen as a pharaoh, and honored by her subjects

● Also written to respectfully by other rulers asking for her help

● Removes political rivals

● Lighthouse has become a very functional status of the port, gymnasia is a place to discuss political and social area

● When alexander takes over and after he died, one of the queens of Seleucid married into a Ptolemy thus Cleopatra does have both ancestry

● Once augustus comes to power he wants roman women to be great mothers and portray roman families as cohesive

Sexual Power

Overcome Caesar with her charm

Cleopatra knows how to manipulate power using children, time her pregnancies very carefully

The end: Battle of Actium

Unwise military strategies

Numbers were superior and Antony as leader, but they still lost.

The Final Days

Cleopatra tries to distance herself from Antony, put Caesarian on the throne, and leave ­ perhaps for India

She puts strong emphasis to put her son in a leader position


Unclear if infants died of natural causes

2.​​Compare and contrast female power in Greece and Persia. Use IEMP(S) as a guide for your answer. Include both sparta and athens

Ideological ­ Greece deities considered power but that didn’t apply to reality. Priestesses do exist but the ideological power didn’t really matter back then. Ideological women’s role outlined Helena Troy shows the lack of power. Penelope ­ perfect Greek women example.

Ideological Persia ­ Achamenid Empire ideological policies, cults and temples, Zeoroastrianism ideologies were linked to realities that supported women’s education

Economical ­ Greece trade systems excluded women

Sparta had women as head of households, “mothers of the men” took care of duties or helped men, agriculture was difficult ­ Spartan slaves did the work, Trade removed men from domestic places, herding

Athens ­ women didn’t have much or have any right to own property, no professions except prostitute, hereditary monarch lineage so women really have any chance in that system

Persia Economical ­ sataraap system ­ can participate in trade and obtain taxes, keep their own finances and can own property ­ core systems ­ e.g. Atossa had economic power since she was Darius’ wife and had bank invaded power but still kept her as wife

Decentralized and competitive system of Persia, women had some chances of gaining power, Artemisia of Caria ­ queen of satrapy

Military ­ Greece ­ athens didn't have any power, Sparta was the exception, women had physical education and knew how to take action, were able to step in on behalf of their husband when they were away in war. Women mentality was for the state. Specific examples:

Military ­ Persia ­ how decentralized system and artemisia of Caria ­ naval commander and contributed 5 ship, gain power through male. Persia had a large land and navy, men were needed so women were also left at home. (Combine with Sparta)

Political ­ In Greece (democracy) women literally had no political power, since they were seen as so much less than a mature male citizen in the system, excluded from the political power. Spara: hereditary monarchy ­ so there are more opportunities for women to gain power

Persia Political ­ also hereditary monarchy ­ Amestris

Sexual in Greece ­ typical women in Athens, Sparta is the exception

Sexual in Persia : polygamy in Persia, because having women having more power through multiple relationships, Roxana killed off all the other wives due to fear of their sons taking over etc.

Women and Power in Ancient Persia


● Persian Empire 4th century BCE, empire makes things a little different , modern day Iran, west of India, mountain ranges, steppes and plains and rivers

● Economy will be mixed between rain­fed agriculture and herding

● Economy of the core in Ancient Persia is different from economy in the Ancient Persia ● Empire taken everything in hegemony, how will you unite all different culture and languages

● Religion is one of the things that the Empire wants to win cooperation and hearts of people, because there’re so many push backs

● Reason to build empire is to pull wealth (mineral wealth, resource wealth) through agriculture and labor to supply its core

● Extraction of labor and resources = definition of empire (expand and invade new places with big rush of wealth)

● Gain with diminishing returns, military is too expensive to continue invasions, therefore empire seems to break down so often

● Each time the empire falls apart, the system is more able to handle complicated = Grow (assyrian ­ persia ­ alexander the great ­ roman empire)

● Roman empire never reconstituted

● Ability to unify politically: not able to create big urban centers, politically driven by the king, urbanism is low in our system

● Unification of the Persian Homeland alone: not too easy, no river, permeable places you can go in and out of the empire

● Lock down control of the empire, it enabled her to unify

● Empire is inherently decentralized: put representatives in the cities they’ve conquered to put down rebellions and pull taxes, making sure they’re able to extract resources ● But at the same time, local rulers are very inclined to act in their own interest since the transportation of messages is not very good

● Allow him to take some of his taxes to get rich, raising his own personal army is fraught in all kinds of potential danger, in order to make his agenda your agenda ● As you are pulling in resources to the core, make sure

● Inherently a balance between local systems and the agenda of local empires ● Empire doesn’t care about local cultures [who may think that a woman cannot rule], look past what a local culture cannot

Persian Government System

● Achaemenid empire founded by Cyrus the Great, 6th century BCE, taken over by Alexander the Great 330 BCE (couple hundred years)

● Hereditary monarchy supported by elites, professional bureaucracy, land army, and navy ● Satrapy system to administer empire = regional autonomy in exchange for tax and trade. Vassal king or governor (think in a decentralized way in order to push into the empire) assign persian native or use fierce competition to take over the area

● Royal inspectors “Eyes and Ears of King” kept watch on provinces. Postal system. Aramaic = lingua franca

● 10,000 immortals = royal bodyguards and personal army of king

● Imperial rule = constant balance of authoritarianism with crushing of rebellions. Constant threat of coup

● No empire needs to use native language, religion to win other people over ● Driving force for empire = economic power

● Husband/father/brother or her son

Women in Persia

● Like any hereditary monarchy, women gained power through father, husband, son ● could sometimes act as as queen regent for a young son. could act as queen at the end of a dynasty. no examples of regents in Persia, however

● Women had dynastic power (soft power) and economic power

● Zoroastrianism supported women’s education, rights, and to some extent, rule ● Problem with our sources (Greek historians with agenda; few Persian sources, anti Persian)


● Daughter of Median ruler Astyages. Acc. to Herodotus, Astyages dreamed Mandana urinated so much that it flooded the world or that a vine grew from her and covered everything = offspring would take over the world

● Power is from her womb

● Married Cambyses I. Mother of Cyrus the Great who started the Persian Empire


● Cyrus the great’s daughter

● Married to her full­brother Cambyses (next of kin marriage in Zoroastrian law allows concentration of wealth in one family and such a marriage produces a son with glory of rulers hip on both sides) to prevent competitive systems

● When Cambyses died, another son of Cyrus the great, Bardiya became king and she married him

● Coup = Darius killed Bardiya, and took Atossa as his highest placed wife. Xerxes is her son with Darius

● she is the lynch pin to power! But she wields no political power on her own. Dynastic power of Persian woman

● She controlled wealth property (Elamite tablets) and it could not be taken from her. Economic power

● (Bardiya’s daughter Parmis inherited a huge amount of property. She continued to control property even after death of Bardiya. Important position at Darius’ court, only documented in his administrative sources, never in Greek sources)

● claim right of light a coups of blood shed

● Very rich, access to great economic power, wields that power over her husband in succession

● Great control of property

Amestris of Persia

● Wife of Xerxes. 5th century BCE

● After death of husband, influential during reign of son Artaxerxes I.

● Her other son Achaemenes killed by Egyptian rebels. Satrap Megabyzus cut a deal to end rebellion, and she was enraged. Finally got to crucify the Egyptian leader Inarus and several others five years later

● The influence was institutional, not personal, based on belonging to family of Achaemenids. Sui generis independently own her own administration and economic system. she was a powerful women

● working her soft power to get politically

● institutional power of her money and her son = work through patriarchal system ● notice it’s a family power can often be independent of the King

● the revenge she enacted was enacted through her own personal economic forces but independent of her sources

Artemesia of Caria

● Vassal queen to Persian empire. Queen of the satrapy of Caria. Inherited from her father Lygdamis 5th century BCE. Probably Phrygian (Anatolia). Persians essentially allowed her power, power that locals wouldn’t have allowed. Her sympathy to the Achaemenid house ensured her rule locally

● Female naval commander who participated in battle of Salamis acc. to Herodotus. Contributed five ships

● Encourage Xerxes to attack Greeks by land and sea. erxes refused and attacked at Salamis where he was defeated

● After defeat, counseled him to retreat to Anatolia. Cared for Xerxes’ sons at Ephesus ● wield power as a female commander of power

● naval commander ­ working the system, former title as queen she acted in her command ● In this case, Persian empire doesn’t care if she’s a woman, if she can expand the empire and extract sources


● Persian (or Bactrian) wife of Alexander the Great

● Accompanied him on campaign to India

● Mother of alexander IV

● Had Alexander’s other wives murdered

● Protected by Alexander’s mother Olympias until her assassination by Cassander. Roxana and her son killed by Cassander

● she ends up being murdered in turn

3.​​Ancient Rome and China were part of two imperial systems that included women in their power structures. How did women exercise power in each system? How are these systems different from one another?


Systems ­ governments structure, their values

Ancient Rome had so much informal power since powerful women were mostly wives of important male figure. No stable dynasty like China did.

Livia, Lucila, ​they advised their husbands on strategies or military expeditions and gave advices through that.

China ­ dynastic succession and mandate of heaven. because of filial piety most cases where women exercised power was of powerful Empress Dowager (widow of former emperor) that took over from her weak son. More formal power and titles

Empress Lu ­ issued _______ ­ symbol of emperor ­ evidence of formal power and execution

Cutthroat and competitive

Multiple affairs vs harem to gain political power (Rome was competitive in general, but Harem was competitive)

Ideology was more important (private property was passed through patrilineal line) China has confucianism ­ respect the elders, mandate of heaven help you to maintain dynasty but varies depending on how the emperor behaved.

Rome­ super competitive killing possible

Women Power in Roman Empire

Line of mountains separating the country into east and west

Super hard to organize, always in constant competition within itself ­ constant goggles up other entities and what makes them grow bigger

Economy ­ agriculture revenue ­ main economic resource ­ grain based and wheat A limited set of elites ­ oligarchy system

Senate ­ exclusively males working with plebeian councils

Complications come with an increase in urbanization

Power in the hands of a middle class act like a mob ­ communal and brutal physical force Dictator pops in and out, warlords have to listen to them

People who are constantly fighting against each other have to work together More centralization in the military aspect

Place that values money and economic power more than other places

mediterranean sea is the main part ­ 1: 5: 50

Around 30 BCE we see move Roman Empires go from competing warlords to more centralized governmental system

Emperor system doesn’t start until Princeps ­ Julius Caesar

Princeps is not the most long lived

Roman Government

● Republic vs Principate

● Empire is a different thing from Republic and Principate

● Republic = decentralized ,highly competitive system of rule

○ Patriarchal system in which women had to be under leadership of a man and were formally excluded from power

○ Female power = only informally held

● Principate = Emperor chosen by kind of hereditary monarchy

○ so power given to women as wife, mother, daughter of the emperor

○ Female power still informally conferred

○ Family units in competition (warlords) constantly remarrying to create alliances ○ Women involved in competition

○ Female power still informally held, but there is a kind of title and label associated with the King, thus making their power more overt

○ You are connecting to her wealth ­ warlording expressed through marriage

1. smart, educated females will find power

2. females are going to find power in crisis rather in status quo

As a member of the family power she can yield economic and military power If a woman has ideological power generally means she’s sacrificing potential economic and military power

She often does so through immorality ­ by sleeping with man outside of marriage and buidling power through lovers

Average age of death ­ earlier empire there are more stability

Men ruling in middle age for just 6 years ­ the amount of turnovers are extraordinary


● First husband murdered after political run­in with Cicero, and she dragged his body through the streets in mourning

● Cicero ­ important senator

● Fulvia is great at influencing the mob, ferment support

● Second husband killed while fighting for Julius Caesar in North Africa ● Marc Antony was her 3rd husband. 46 BCE. Political force together and had two sons ● Finding her power through informality

● Octavian married her daughter to cement alliance with Marc Antony

● From a rich, new­money, populist family with a network of Roman gangs. Great power in Roman politics (old patricians and plebeian family, not considered elite)

● Went after enemies, including Cicero in 43 BCE

● Helped organize an Perusine War against Octavian in 42 BCE while Antony was in Egypt (with Cleopatra)

● 41 BCE Octavian divorced Fulvia’s daughter and accused Fulvia of trying to gain power ● First Roman woman to appear on coinage

● While Antony in the east, she publicly proclaimed Marc Antony superior to Octavian in Perusine war in 42 ­ 41 BCE, in which she raised 8 legions, fighting in Italy. Defeated and she fled to Greece with her children. Antony is angry she started a war in his absence

● She died in exile. Antony married Octavian’s sister

● Cleopatra cleverly links with Julius Caesar and Mark Anthony

● Only woman who almost created her genetic legacy in history

Octavia the Younger

● Partly senatorial

● Sister to Octavian (Augustus)

● 4th wife of Marc Antony (her 2nd marriage) = approved Senate. Seen as a means of bringing together Mark Antony and Octavia

● She supplied wealth for armies, but he abandoned her for Clepatra in 39 BCE. He divorced her in 32 BCE

● After his suicide, she raised his children from wife Fulvia and children from Cleopatra, in addition to her two daughters with him and two sons from earlier marriage ● Remembered for the virtues of a Roman patrician woman. Honored at her death by all of Rome


● Daughter of Octavian (Augustus). Only natural child of Augustus. He divorced her mother Scribonia on day of her birth because he wanted to marry Livia

● 2nd husband was Agrippa (at 16), Augustus’ most trusted general (the one that is being picked)

● 3rd husband was Tiberius, Augustus’ step­son (who had to divorce to marry her) ● Said to have been promiscuous; many lovers

● Arrested for adultery and treason. Marriage to Tiberius dissolved by Augustus ● Exiled to island of Pandateria with her mother. Allowed no visitors and no wine ● Her three sons with Agrippa all adopted by Augustus, but after exile, they were murdered ● When Tiberius became emperor, cut off her allowance and may have starved her to death

We have a system that encourages a great deal of partner switching and shifting among heterosexual partners in Ancient Rome, that helps form the organic women power


● 3rd wife of Octavian

● 39 BC ­ 8 years before Octavian will become Caesar Augustus

● Pregant with the second son (in the picture of powerpoint)

● Married for 51 years

● One of the reason hereditary monarchy will fail

● Roman understand ideologically that monogamous relationship in a marriage: no harem allowed

● Unsuccessful hier

● A ton of principate guys that cannot create offsprings ­ create many problems for women to push sons into power

● Other children such as Tiberius

● Treated as a counselor ­ no formal power of rule but Octavian listens to her advices and opinions

● 2nd power is through her son, typical good roman women, trying to influence the authority of people who have power

● Very clever

● In a system that you can have marriage that provides them economical and political power with serial monogamy but you can also have lovers

● Rome: serial monogamy vs lover relationships below the surface

● Marriage is legitimised but informal pairing system below connecting other roman powerful families to create political power

● Livia steps back from affairs or ostentatious power when everyone is rich and can show off his or her power

● Livia and Octavian keeps things very austere

● Livia sees potential in Julia to make his own genetic offspring to her son Tiberius ­ marriage linkage but…

● Essentially making her husband to abandon his own daughter Julia and gets him to take her son Tiberius to take on the throne direction ­ she is very powerful in terms of overlooking his genetic offspring and legacy

● Removing the grandsons of Octavian (Agrippa and Julia’s sons) murdering his grandsons

● Able to use informal sexual, political and economic power and also work through ancient formal power push through status quo ­ such as murdering Octavian’s grandsons ● Using her husband’s formal power to push away Julia to secure her son’s throne ● Continuously manipulating principates even during Tiberius’s reign makes Tiberius hates her

Julia’s level of anxiety was off the charts ­ marrying Tiberius because her mother­in­law tells her to and the exiled by Octavian because Livia was telling Octavian things bad about her

Valeria Messalina

● 3rd wife of Claudius when he’s not an emperor

● Empress using her son (not her husband’s genetic legacy) to get throne power ● learned that the informal sexual pairings to use political power

● The fact that she and her lover plotted against the emperor lead to her execution

Agrippina the Younger

● Essentially the only heir left of Augustus Caesar

● Pass over for assassination by Livia since she’s not a male, but used to marry potential males who can be the emperor in the future

● Sister of emperor Caligula ­ historians tell us that Druscilla

● As the hereditary monarchy ­ informal sexual pairings ­ incestuous for political powers ● She was in a plot to kill her brother Caligula, and a plot to kill herself

● Exiled by her brother and not killed

● Granddaughter of Caesar Augustus and has a son Nero: she has to best position to the princeps position than anyone else, people will try their best to kill Nero, especially Valeria

● Ends up becoming the 4th wife of emperor Claudius ­ problem here: serial monogamy because she’s marrying her uncle

● Removes many other threats brutally, as she watched so many assassinations and grew up around anxiety and political murders

● Going after Britannicus

● Crowning Nero as princep after she gets what she wants she poisons her husband and uncle

● Ends up ruling alongside him ­ regent, kind of steps back enough from that rule

Why did Roman Women have so much power in the Principate formation and early Principate? ● So much competition among the families to utilize sexual power

● In other places there would be a morality break

● Women are powerful players

● Ideological allows women to act as agents

● competition increases so much as the hereditary monarchy gets so bad you end up getting monarchy leaders that are moving in and out of power

● big overall pattern that in the second and 3rd century CE there’s such a military element of who’s going to be the next princeps that women have no power in between


● Roman treaty with her husband broken upon his death because the crown could not pass to daughters (no male heir), and her independent lands seized by Romans ● Queen of the Iceni tribe in Britain who led a revolt against Roman forces ● 60­61 CE destroyed Colchestor (a Roman colonia), routed a Roman legion, burned Londinium and St. Albans

● Defeated

● CRISIS ­ no men left and ends up loosing

● Create a coalition


● Priestess, used as a kind of a judge deal with those conflicts

● helped to create a coalition of germans when they are invading 69­70 CE ● not killed but taken into custody and taken hostage until natural death


● 3rd century CE Queen of Palmyra (North Eastern Syria)

● Empire is fragmented after his death

● Ruled after her husband Odaenthus’ death in 267 CE

● Of Sele


● Daughter of Marcus Aurelius

● Married to Lucius Verus. At his death married Pompeianus

● Caught in a plot against her brother and is exiled

● After she trying to work informal sexual power in the ways of early principate and gain control

● Good faith attempt


● Neo­platonist philosopher in Roman Alexandria 4th ­ 5th CE, christianity has long been established


● Chinese Neolithic (ca. 5000 ­ 2000 B.C.E), before the advent of written records in China, only the remains of the material culture provide clues about what life might have been like for women in the early period

● Earliest phases of Chinese history, paleographic sources for the most part include inscriptions made on oracle bones

Prehistory China

● Evidences of late­Neolithic mortuary evidence points to the sexual segregation of labor, the inferior social status of women in relation to men, and the inclusion of women as the focus of ritual activity in ancestral cults

● Archeologists interpret that women were designated to weave

● Evidences of infanticide ­ better care provided for male than female children, or at least a cultural context in which the burial of women did not warrant the same ritual attention given to men as men greatly outnumbered women in ancient tombs

● However a significant number of female skeletons found buried with objects such as beads, jade bracelets, pots, ivory combs, and spindle whorls, although women were less frequently the recipients of such ritual treatment at death, they were not entirely excluded from such religious observances


● Political power in China was traditionally hereditary: power in each Zhou dynasty state was concentrated in the hands of a lineage whose members were regarded as legitimate rulers

● Extending kingship of politics meant that traditional female roles in the family became imbued with fantastic new potential. The wives and mothers of emperors became important players in court politics as they extended their powers from the imperial family to the empire as a whole. Some empresses dowager dominated weak or young emperors outright.

● During the Han, women began to manage many of the myriad daily activities of the inner palace. Palace ladies were organized into carefully delineated formal ranks with specific duties corresponding in structure to the extermal male bureaucracy.

● The increasing formalization of female power in the palace coincided with a marked exclusion of women from the official bureaucratic process in the government as a whole

● Since male bureaucracy fought hard to exclude palace women from the most vital functions of the government, ambitious ladies could extend their power beyond the court only by undermining the male bureaucracy’s authority.

● Female participation in palace offices evolved along with the rise of bureaucratic administration in general

● In Qin and I Ian, geneology and connections were often more respected than formal civil service rank. Moreover, imperial consorts used court intrigues to wield power outside the inner palace and did not have to limit themselves to the grand titles but minimal powers of palace bureaucracy

● The general trend toward increasing bureaucratization in early government began to contrict women’s roles in politicels.

● The uptopian ​Rites of Zhou p​rovided the theory behind this new practice of Han providing equivalent bureaucratic and noble ranks for each grade of imperial consort ­ advocated an idealized system in which the ruler’s may palace ladies were to be distinguished as one of the nine consorts (jiupin), dynastic ladies (shifu), or female attedatns (nuyu). Although not correlated to specific bureaucratic offices, these women were to be assigned official duties within the palace depending on their rank. The nine consorts oversaw education of lower­ranking concubines; dynastic ladies dedicated themselves to ritual observances; and female attendants kept track of the order of precedence in the king’s bed

● Early Western Han emperors had roughly a dozen consorts each. But by the reign of Emperor Wu the inner palace has several thousand inhabitants. In response, the number ranks for consorts expanded from eight to fourteen.

● Managing an establishment as enormous as the imperial palace required a large and highly efficient organization ­ complex bureaucratic organs evolved to manage the innumerable details of palace life

● One palace office managed the households of empress dowager and heir apparent. Specific offices were devoted to matters such as ritual sacrifices, food preperation, textile production, music, living quarters, and marshalling the palace’s multitude of servants and eunuchs.

● In 18 BCE, the various palace departments were finally centralized under the jurisdiction of a single office


● Real female power in government derived from kingship roles, although palace ladies held lofty titles and palace offices

● The early Chinese state was ruled not by an isolated individual but by the Liu family (custom dictated that the choice of ruler was an internal matter for the imperial family to decide, not a government affair)

● This temporary void in the kinship hierarchy allowed the ruling line’s senior woman to assume the role of kin group head. She could then use this authority to choose and legitimate a new male ruler

● Powerful men might interfere with the process and imperial concubines might resort to assassination or other forms of intrigue to upset the usual order and have a son declared ruler. Nevertheless, in theory only the empress dowager had final formal approval over imperial succession

● The stabilization of Han rule gradually made the abstract institution of emperorship more important than the person who actually sat on it

● Elaborate rituals and moral teachings upheld the imperial dignity, evolving into a sophisticated ideology centered on the symbolism of the emperor

● The tradition of powerful empresses dowager began soon after the founding of the Han: Empress Lu issuing a decree usurped the emperor’s most basic prerogative, so complete was Lu’s control of government from 195 to 180 BCE that the historian Sima Qian, author of the class account of the era, did not recognize Hui as having reigned because all the decrees issued druing his so­called riegn were issued in his mother’s name

● A peasant working in fields near the Wei River during the Cultural Revolution discovered a square seal of the finest translucent jade topped with a dragon and tiger, seal’s inscription reads “Seal of the Empress Dowager”

● Han dowager regents received officials in full public view at the opposite end of the throne hall from the titular ruler and received a copy of every memorial presented to the emperor (this earned the animosity of those who believed that an adult emperor ought to rule in his own right)

● The founder of the Eastern Han dynasty, Emperor Guanwu so detested Empress Lu’s shamelessly blatant usurpation of imperial power that he ordered her ancestral tablet removed from her husband’s shrine in retribution

● During the Eastern Han, empress dowager became more involved in court politics than ever. Despite Guanwu’s deliberate desecration of Empress Lu’s memory, that powerful woman had nevertheless set a precedent for female domination that was played out repeatedly during the reigns of weak emperors throughout the

remainder of the dynasty

● The empress dowager’s kinship role as the emperor’s mother entitled her to a say in affairs of state

● Men of talent saw how empresses and their relatives monopolized opportunities and pursued intrigues and they expressed their criticism in writing. The changing protrayals of Empress Lu in historyical narratives exemplify this trend

Consort Kin

● During the Eastern Han, the height of power for empresses dowager, 9/13 emperors were merely puppets ­ true authority was vested in imperial women and their kin (used weak emperors as pawns to legitimize their own authority)

● More often, however, both emperor and empress dowager were manipulated by the empress dowager’s male relatives, some of whom could claim priviledges due to their own kinship links to the emperor

● Influential experts on rituals declared that the parents of a ruler’s spouse were not considered his subjects, elevating imperial in­laws to a uniquely priviledged status

● Consort relatives gained power from the prevailing dynastic system and usually prefered t owork within it rather than overthrow it (see Wang Mang example) ● An unusually and destabilizing characteristic of Han government was the cycle of domination by successive families of imperial in­laws ­ the importance of the mother’s role within the kinship system made this remarkable political system possible

● A family’s continued power depended on repeated marrying its women to emperors, but no single consort family was able to marry its relatives into the imperial line for more than 3 generations during the Western Han.

● When kinship ties to the ruling Lius became too weak, a consort family’s fortunes collapsed

● Empresses sometimes met an unhappy fat such as dismissal or forced suicide after rivals eliminated the entire consort clan or killed a key supporter (right after Empress Lu died, her enemies and jealous members of the Liu clan banded together to utterly annihilate the Lu family)

● During the witchcraft hysteria of 91 BCE the suicide of Empress Wei paved the way for her natal family’s complete destruction.

● Bureaucrats were the perennial enemies of consort kin

● The power of consort relatives led to the rise of other great enemy of officialdom: the eunuchs. Being the only nonrelatives regularly allowed near the empress, eunuchs inevitably shared influence with the women they served

● Eunuchs also formed a pool of ambitious well­placed men outside the external bureaucracy who hungered for power and wealth


● For women to gain power within a system of government based on patrilineal principles, they ahd to undermine its fundamental instutitions, the struggle of the mothers and wives of the emperors to gain power within a government in which legitimate authority belonged to men brought chaos upon China

Empress Dowager Lu

● She bore Kao­tsu Emperor Hui the Filial, who was by nature weak and soft­hearted ● Rarely saw the emperor and they became more estranged

● Was a woman of very strong will

● Emperor Kao­tsu passed away in the Palace of Lasting Joy and the heir apparent, Emperor Hui, succeeded to the throne

● Bore the greatest hatred for Lady Ch’i and her son, the king of Chao, thus ordered her to be imprisoned ­ later gave him poison to drink when her son wasnt around ● Empress Lu later cut of Lady Ch’i’s hands and feet, plucked out her eyes, burned her ears, gaver her a potion to drink which made her dumb, and had her thrown into the privy calling her the human pig

● Empress Lu showed her son Lady Ch’i and her son grew ill and couldn’t get out of bed later sent a messenger to report to her mother that “I will never be fit to rule the empire” thus no longer took part of affairs of state so that his illness grew worse

● Because the king of Ch’i was his elder brother, Emperor Hui seated him in the place of honor ­ which later got her furious

● Emperor Hui the Filial passed away, mourning was announced and Empress Dowager Lu lamented but no tears fell from her eyes

● Began deliberations with the idea of making kings fo the memebers of her own Lu family (wanting to elevate the members of her family to the positions of kings) ● Still with an eye to making kings of the members of her own family, she greated positions to the sons of Emperor Hui by his ladies in waiting

● The daughter of Chang Ao, the marquis of Hsuan­ping had been made the empress of Emperor Hui. When she failed to give birth to a son, she pretended to be pregnant and substituting a child born to one of the emperor’s ladies in waiting, called it her own

● Fearing that the emperor would revolt in the future she kept him shut up in the Long Halls and gave it out that the emperor was gravely ill, later had him murdered in his place of confinement (king of Chao)

● Later she passed away herself, leaving the majority of her family to rule in office ● Empress Lu’s daughter was married to Chang Ao, the marquis of Hsuan­ping, and their daughter became the empress of Emperor Hui ­ replace Emperor Hui’s concubines’ son and gave it to her daughter ­ hoping to establish firm ties that would bind her family more securely to the source of power

Shih chi 49: The Hereditary Houses of the Families Related to the Emperors by Marriage ● From antiquity the emperors and kings who were chosen by destiny to found new dynasties, as well as those who by birth succeeded to the throne and carried on the institutions of their predecessors, have won glory through the virtue of their own families, but have been aided also by the families related to them by marriage. Thus the Hsia dynasty arose from Emperor Yu’s marraige to the Tu­shan family, whole the banishment of the last Hsia ruler, Chieh, was brought about by his empress, Mo­hsi.

Empress Dowager Po, Mother of Emperor Wen

● Father was a man of Wu whose family name was Po

● During Ch’in dynasty he had once had relations with Dame Wei, a daughter of the former royal family of the state of Wei, and bore Lady Po

● After the feudal lords revolted against the Ch’in dynasty Wei Pao was set up as king of Wei, and Dame Wei summoned her daughter to live in the palace of Wei, also took her to be physiognomized by a certain Hsu Fu and he examiend her face and said “She shall give birth to a Son of Heaven”

● After Kao­tsu took over Wei Pao, Lady Po was sent to work in the Weaving Rooms, and her childhood friends Madam Kuan and Chao Tzu­erh promised each other “whichever wins honor first shall not forget her friends” thus Kao­Tsu moved by their promise, summoned Lady Po and favored her

● Lady Po said “Last night I dreamed that an azure dragon lay upon my belly” then Kao tsu and her had a son who became the king of Tai

● Empress Dowager Lu spared her because she had rarely seen the emperor, was permitted to depart and accompany her son to Tai

● After Empress Dowager Lu died, because of Po family’s humane and upright conduct, the king of Tai was invited to come to the capital and became Emperor Wen ● Father of Dowager Po was honored with the posthumous title of Ling­wen or “Divine Order Marquis”, villagers who live near his tomb set up rituals regularly

● Empress Dowager Po considered that since her mother’s family had been descendants of the kings of Wei and since she had lost her parents early, her high position as empress dowager was due in reality to the efforts of the Wei family ­ she ordered them to be exempt from labor, and honored them with gifts

Empress Dowager Tou, Mother of Emperor Ching

● Native of Kuan­chin

● One of the palace ladies selected by Empress Lu to various kings

● Sent to king of Tai, he gave his attention all to her and she bore him a daughter named Piao and later two sons

● Lady Tou’s elder son was the oldest male heir, the emperor appointed him heir apparent and made her his empress


● The zhou dynasty ­ families were organized as patrilineal, exogamous kin groups ● Elite women entered marriages as primary wives, secondary wives or concubines ● Spring and Autumn period elite men could have more than one primary wife at a time

● Hany dynasty however, prohibited polygamy but allowed men to acquire concubines

● Divorce was permissable and could be initiated by either spouse or at times by both kinsmen and nonkinsmen, to fulfill political but personal objectives ● The ​Zuo Commentary ​(​filled wtih anecdotes concerning the schemes, intrigues, suffering, and heroic actions of women from the Psring and Autumn period. These quasi­historical narratives represetned the most repvalent literary roles of owmen)

protrays elite women who, through the institution of marriage, acted as important mediators between political equals engaged in intense competition for status and power in a multistate system

● Elite women who made political marriages were expected to forge good relations between their states and those they had married into ­ in the short run she used her influence to look after the interests of the state ruled by her natal lineage and in the long run to produce a line of heir who would be amenable to maintaining friendly and supportive relations with it

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