Psychology 100 Exam 2 Study Guide
Psychology 100 Exam 2 Study Guide PSYCH 100
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This 11 page Study Guide was uploaded by Christopher Raite on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 100 at Pennsylvania State University taught by Joshua Wede in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Pennsylvania State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
PSYCH 100: Introduction to Psychology Josh Wede Spring ‘16 Study Guide for Exam 2 Exam Date: during class on Thursday, March 17th The exam will consist of 40 multiple choice questions. The exam questions will mainly be based on material from lecture (and also discussed in the book) but some questions will be based on material that is only covered in the textbook. Remember, you won’t be asked about simple definitions or facts – so make sure you understand the following concepts. Lectures 8 and Chapter 3 (see Exam 2 Schedule for page numbers) 1. Know the Gestalt grouping principles: proximity, similarity, closure, continuity and common region. Proximity: When objects are close together, they tend to be perceived as a group Similarity: When objects look similar people tend to perceive them as a group or pattern Closure: When objects are incomplete, People fill the remainder to a make a familiar object Continuity: When the eye is compelled to move thought on object and onto another Common Regions: Objects are in a common are and perceived as a group 2. What are the two binocular cues to depth perception and how do they work. Binocular Cues: 1. Retinal Disparity: Our left and right eye view slightly different things, images are combined, allows us to see 3d 2. Convergence: Our eyes move closer to focus on close objects and further apart for distant objects 3. Know the monocular cues for perceiving depth relative size, interposition (occlusion), aerial perspective, texture gradient, linear perspective and motion parallax. Monocular Cues: 1. Relative Size: If two objects are similar in size, the one that casts the smaller retinal image is further away 2. Interposition (occultation): If one object is blocking another the blocking image is closer 3. Aerial Perspective: Clear objects are closer, further objects appear hazey in the atmosphere 4. Texture Gradient: The less texture there is in an image the further away it is 5. Linear Perspective: Parallel lines converge in great distance, highway example 6. Motion Parallax: Closer objects move faster than further away objects 4. What is a perceptual constancy? Know size, shape and color constancies. Perceptual Constancy: Perceiving properties to be the same even though the physical properties are changing Size Constancy: We perceive objects as the same size even if retinal changes Shape Constancy: We perceive objects as the same shape even though the retinal changes Color Constancy: Colors seem the same until seen in a new background Aerial perspective: More atmosphere leads to more haze, closer objects appear more clearly Binocular disparity: eyes perceive slightly different images, combine them to perceive as one Closure: Incomplete objects are filled to form a familiar image Common region: Objects in common areas are perceived as a group/ pattern Continuity: When the eye is compelled to move through one image onto another Convergence: our eyes move together to focus on something closer; further apart for distant objects Figureground: our mind figures out which is the figure/ ground, creates an after image of the two objects (opponent process theory) Interposition (occultation): If one object blocks another the blocker image is closer Linear perspective: Parallel lines appear to converge with distance, the more the lines converge the greater the difference Motion parallax: close objects appear to move more quickly than objects far away, looking our a car window as you drive Proximity: when objects are placed close together they appear as a group, not the separate images they actually are Relative size: If two objects are similar in size, the one that casts a smaller retinal image is further away Similarity (checkerboard illusion): people make images a group or pattern because the individual images look similar Texture gradient: we see fewer details in further away images Lectures 9a11 and Chapter 6 & Readings before Ch 1 (see Exam 2 Schedule) 1. Know the strategies for deep processing. Deep Processing: 1. Semantic Processing: When we encode the meaning of a word and relate it to similar words with similar meaning to understand the word 2. Elaboration Rehearsal: Linking words or giving them more elaboration for better recall 2. What is memory? Memory: The persistence of learning overtime through active encoding, storage, and retrieval of information 3. Know the basic memory processes – encoding, storage and retrieval. Basic Memory Processes: 1. Encoding: Getting information into the memory system 2. Storage: Retention of information 3. Retrieval: Getting information out 4. What is the information processing model? Know the threestage model of memory. Know that working memory contains visual and auditory elements. 3 Stages of Memory: 1. Sensory Memory: Immediate brief recording of sensory information 2. Short Term Memory: Holds onto items for a short time 3. Long Term: Relatively permanent and unlimited storage 4. Working Memory (Short Term Memory): More realistic and complex than short term memory, contains visual and auditory elements 5. Know that we automatically process things in time and space. Know that other things require effort to process. Automatic Processing: Information that is processed effortlessly in time and space Effortful Processing: Novel information committed to memory requires effort, like learning a new concept from text. 6. Know the three ways to encode information. What typically leads to better performance? 3 Ways to Encode Information: 1. Acoustic Encoding: Auditory/ sound encoding 2. Visual Encoding: visual structure of things 3. Semantic Encoding: Encoding through connecting things with deeper meaning Semantic is the best form, leads to best performance Rehearsal: 1. Maintenance Rehearsal: Repeating information in working memory, memorizing facts, once you stop they generally go away 2. Elaborative Rehearsal: Relating information to prior knowledge, transfers memory from STM to LTM so it becomes meaningful 7. Know the three memory stores (sensory, working/shortterm, and longterm) and the characteristics of each. Sensory Memory: Main process: pattern recognition, large capacity but brief duration, longer the time delay the greater the memory loss Short Term Memory: Encoding visual and auditory information, capacity can expand using chunking, duration is about 12 30 seconds Long Term Memory: Essentially unlimited capacity from 1000 billion to 1,000,000 billion bits of information capacity 8. What is selective attention? What role does it play in memory? Selective Attention: Attention process acts like a funnel, more energy used to process important information, funnels out what is not import which leads to stronger memory of important facts 9. Know the serial position effect and the tip of the tongue phenomena. Serial Position Effect: The tendency to recall the first and last items of a set better than the middle information Tip of the Tongue Phenomena: When retrieval of particular information isn’t very strong, leads to remembering some but not all of the information 10. Know that context, mental state (drunk, sober), and mood can affect memory, including the results of studies that show it. Know how forgetting can be due to failures of encoding, storage or retrieval. State Dependent Learning: Matched testing results in the best results (drunk/drunk, happy/ happy), 11. Understand the difference between proactive and retroactive interference. Can sleeping help? Proactive Interference: Information learned first interferes with newly learned information Retroactive Interference: Information learned later interferes with information learned earlier Sleep helps avoid retroactive interference and leads to better recall 12. Know that memory is a reconstructive process and how reconstruction can lead to false memories (e.g. misinformation effect & source amnesia). Know the Loftus study (car accident study). We filter or fill in missing pieces of information to make our recall more coherent Misinformation Effect: Incorporating misleading information to try and change someone’s memory of an event Source Amnesia: Attributing an event to the wrong source 13. Is it possible to implant memories? Know the studies that provide evidence for implanted memories. Yes it is possible to implant memories, study of Christopher, told by brother when he was 5 implanted memories. Hyman and Billings asked about 5 memories of someone only one was true 14. What is long term potentiation? Long Term Potentiation: Synaptic enhancement that results from experience and is part of the neural basis for memory 15. Where are implicit and explicit memories processed? Know the differences between retrograde and anterograde amnesia. In anterograde amnesia, can memories still be formed? Implicit Memories Cerebellum Explicit Memories Hippocampus Anterograde Amnesia: Cannot form new declarative memories after a traumatic event, only recall before Retrograde Amnesia: Loss of memory for the past Chunking: combining numbers in a recognizable pattern for better recall Consolidation: The structure and functioning of the neurons are change in Constructive processing: Process in which memories are built and strengthened Decay: Loss of memory trace, loss of information from non use Declarative LTM: Consciously recalled memory, facts and verbal knowledge Distributed practice: Breaking practice up into short sessions overtime Echoic memory: Sensory Memory: Memory of how we hear things and is stored for longer than iconic memory Elaborative rehearsal: Occurs when we transfer memories from STM to LTM leads to strong LTM, relates information to prior knowledge Encoding specificity: Tendency for a memory to be improved if the surroundings when the memory is first stored are present Episodic memory: Episodes, memories that are easily retrieved, memories that are from personal memory Explicit memory: Intentional or consciously recalled information False positive: being 100% positive about a fact that is untrue Flashbulb memories: 9/11, the sudden onset of a clear memory that is emotionally significant and comes to you “all of a sudden” Iconic memory: Sensory memory: visual memories, stored for less time then echoic memories Implicit memory: Unconscious memory, experimental or function, procedures, muscle memory that can not be explained but can be acted out Information processing model: Sensory Memory Short Term Memory Long term Memory Maintenance rehearsal: Repeating information to keep it in working memory, memorizing facts, once you stop it goes away Misinformation effect: Recall of episodic memories that become less accurate when post information is falsified to change the memory Primacy effect: First items are remembered better than middle items, first is primary Procedural (Nondeclarative) : Long term memory, how we do things, implicit memories, motor skills, riding bike, walking, talking , cannot be explained Recall: How we retrieve information learned earlier Recency effect: Last items are remembered better than middle items, last is most recent Recognition: The ability to recognize previously encountered events, tests, word searches Relearning: how long it takes a person to relearn material that was already learned Retrieval cue: Memories are held in storage by a web of associations, these associations act as anchors for us to retrieve memory Semantic memory: Facts and figures which are recalled with deeper meaning Spacing effect: Distributed Study leads to better retrieval than massed practice Lectures 12 & 13 and Chapter 8 (see Exam 2 Schedule for page numbers) 1. Know what a teratogen is. In particular, know fetal alcohol syndrome and the associated symptoms. Tetragon: Any substance that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm FAS leads to small disproportioned head, lifelong brain abnormalities and is the leading cause of mental retardation 2. How can we measure what infants know (habituation)? Habituation: Decreased responsiveness with repeated stimulation, with infants we focus on faces and see if they can distinguish them and other shapes and colors 3. Know how brain develops prenatally and after birth. After birth the brain starts as one cell then 2,4,8,16… within 1 week cells start to differentiate 4. What is a schema? Know assimilation and accommodation. Schema: How we organize information within our brain Assimilation: Our interpretation of new information in terms of our existing schema Accommodation: Adapting or adjusting our schemas to fit a new experience 5. Know Piaget’s stages of cognitive development. What are some criticisms of Piaget’s theory? 1. Sensorimotor Stage: Birth to 2 years old, take in the work through our senses, gain object permanence 2. Preoperational Stage: 27 years old, learns language not logic, children are egocentric and only have their own view points, start to form theory of mind how feelings and perception predict behavior 3. Concrete Operational Stage: 711 years old, can think logically, gain understanding of math and basic functions 4. Formal Operational Stage: 11+, can form abstract concepts Criticisms: Underestimated ability of young children 6. Know how attachments can develop, including Harlow’s studies on monkeys. Attachments are formed with contact comfort Comfort > food Longer the attachment the more harmful it is 7. What is the Strange situation test? Strange Situation Test: Placing people with strangers after long terms of attachment or no attachment to see the reactions 8. Know the three parenting styles, and know which one seems to be the best? Parenting Styles: 1. Authoritarian: Strict, expect obedience 2. Permissive: Lenient, submit to children 3. Authoritative: Middle ground of parenting Authoritative is best children have highest self esteem, but correlation does not equal causation 9. What changes take place in the brain during adolescence? Pruning begins where we get tide of some neural connections to make room for important connections 10. Know Kohlberg’s stages of moral development. Stages of Moral Development: 1. Preconventional: <9; show morality to avoid punishment, do things until punished, good things to seek reward 2. Conventional: Early adolescence; rules are upheld for personal sake 3. Post conventional: Affirms peoples rights or follows own personal beliefs 11. Know that parents and peers help to shape our identity. Peer influence: Talk, act, dress like our peers Seek acceptance from our peers, feel vulnerable if not Accommodation: Adapting or adjusting our schemas to fit new experiences Adolescence: teenage years when we transition into adulthood Assimilation: our first thoughts on interpreting new information into our existing schema Attachment: strong emotional connections that shape our development and personality Conservation: Logical thinking that develops in concrete operational stage Crosssectional design: Two different groups compared actively to see preferences Crosssequential design: compares multiple groups over years Dizygotic twins: Fraternal twins, 2 eggs, share half of the genes Egocentrism: A child’s inability to see a situation from another person’s point of view, think everyone sees as they do Genes: things that shape and form who we are Imaginary audience: Extreme self consciousness, “everyone is looking at me” Longitudinal design: A design that examines development in one person over a very long time Monozygotic twins: Identical twins, same sex and features, same set of 46 chromosomes Nature: Anything we are born with that is natural Nurture: All outside factors not from within that shape our personality Object permanence: Understanding that objects still exist even when not visible, sensomitor stage Personal fable: Belief that an individual is unique and different from everyone else Secure attachment: Feeling of being protected by caregivers and are very dependent on them, show extreme distress when caregiver leaves Stranger anxiety: Fear of strangers when child first becomes mobile Teratogen: Any substance that can reach the embryo or fetus and cause harm Theory of mind: Ideas about our own and other’s mental states and how feelings perception and thoughts can predict behavior.
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