Quiz 3 Review: World War I and the Interwar Years
Quiz 3 Review: World War I and the Interwar Years HIST 2051-001
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This 9 page Study Guide was uploaded by Amy Brogan on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIST 2051-001 at University of Cincinnati taught by James Streckfuss in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see American Military History in History at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Streckfuss Amy Brogan Quiz 3 Review World War I (1914-1916) o What were the European’s Expectations of “the next great war in Europe” before 1914? everyone convinced that the war is going to be short and that they will win o War plans: German war plans based on idea that they are going to fight both French and Russians, they expect that Russians will be slower to mobilize. They will defeat the French first and then turn it back to Russia and fight them. (Basic thesis of von Schlieffen plan, dies in 1905, plan trusted to Helmet von Mulke [second one, the original was the one who put his own money into railroads] if he had been alive they might have won) this is the nephew and not nearly as gifted Who has your back? o Bismarck’s League of the Three Emperors: Germany/Russia/Austria (1873-1884) o Triple alliance: military supplementary agreement Germany/Austria/Italy (1882) o German-Russian Reassurance Treaty – 1887 – Germany rejects Russia’s request to extend the treaty in 1890, shortly after Kaiser Wilhelm sacked Bismarck o Dual Alliance: France and Russia (1892) o Triple Entente: France/Russia/Britain (1907) o Railroad lines 1914 made certain alliances necessary (for moving troops and supplies through other countries and/or to opposite fronts) What were the assumptions about the nature of the coming war? o Lack of understanding how new machinery was going to work; fighting with 20 century th weapons but with 19 century tactics, old style uniform (France, quickly discovered it’s not what you want to be wearing running towards machine guns) o Tried to use Calvary, present in every army at the start of the war (first month or so), but as the war goes on they fade away and give in to airplanes as the new scouts [Tanks 1916] Armies have spent a lot towards developing airplanes and constructing the air force, Germans slower because et hey spent it on airships/zeppelins Precedent: WWI not the first to use airplanes, small war between Spain and Portugal that used airplanes, but not widespread adoption and several skeptics Ferdinand Fosch: French general 1918 supreme Allies commander, brings in unity of command, beginning of the war claims the airplane is useless. By 1918 his is a true believe and has extensive use of them General Assumptions (1914) o War is inevitable o We can win o War will be short o Victory will go to the attacker o Losses will be heavy Mobilization and Logistics: does mobilization really mean war? o Didn’t have too, but it did in this instance. Once the Germans started moving there wasn’t anything that could really stop it. How did the Great Power’s war plans influence the decision for, and early course of, the war? o Everybody was thinking about timing, about when to launch an attack with the greatest success, although condemned for starting the war, it is better than waiting to be attacked. Von Schlieffen plan wasn’t what Schlieffen had planned, Mulke the younger had altered it too much to be truly recognized o Von Schlieffen plan: cut through Belgium and attack France’s flank from inside their own country and take Paris (assumed Belgium stepped aside so they wouldn’t be attacked themselves) French plan: attack Germany head on Assumptions (all wrong) Belgian rail network will be captured largely intact Belgians will put up only a token of resistance The Russians will be unable to attack until their mobilization is complete The right wing will be able to sustain high speed of advance The French will be unable to switch forces from Alsace-Lorraine to counter the right wing The British don’t really matter Why did the von Schlieffen plan fail? o Headquarters is at the back of the army; communication is nearly impossible Why stalemate in 1914? o Exhaustion of armies o Exhaustion of ammunition Shell scandal (no ammunition), bars/pubs closed at 11 o’clock because the workers allegedly were showing up to make shells drunk, or not at all. Pub ban in effect till a few years ago o Density of forces o Lethality of weapons o Limited heavy artillery (industrial war, who can build more and the longest?) o No assailable flanks o All war plans failed Why not just stop? o Politically impossible o Spontaneous outburst of peace on Christmas day – both sides meet out in no-mans-land and exchange gifts and play soccer together. Goes back the next day Technological development at the beginning of the war o Shoot: machine gun, artillery pieces o Move: horse carts, trucks, ships, airplanes o Communicate: Trenches hardwired between layers and works until no-man-land. Then runners are sent, or carrier pigeons, signal flags Contact patrol – airplane sent out to find how far the advance has gone. Advancing infantries carried white bedclothes to communicate with the plane’s cloxonhorn to layout the panels to say where the front line is. Or Backpacks with mirrors. Problems: infantry didn’t trust the airplane: either hide, or shoot at it because assumed it was the enemy. Planes then had to fly low enough to distinguish uniform colors. Frequently unsuccessful Carrier pigeons, telephone, telephone exchange (system of wires) o How do you fight through this? Trenches outlined in white because French soil is chalky Aftermath of artillery attack, the ground is pox-marked with shell holes Trenches built in zig-zag: invaded trenches can’t be mowed down by enemy fire, straight lines are weak structurally America’s Role o What do the French and British want the Americans to do? Make a second front where the Germans just left? Fill in where the home army is the weakest? Sep up production of shells and weapons? Send them bodies. Home will teach them how to do everything, just send them o Why not? would be sending the men to die, too many deaths would lose support of the war. Wilson and Persian wanted a self-standing independent army. Wilson for political reasons: wanted a seat at peace agreements that America could gain from. Persian wanted it in case we had to fight our way out of Europe. The Interwar Years (1919-1941) America formed two armies to fight in Europe, and now that the war was over, a third army was put together to inhabit/occupy Germany. It was seen as an honor, but of course everyone wanted to go home as quickly as they could. The public wanted them back, and wanted to downsize the army once they got back. The only logistics challenge they didn’t face getting home was the U-Boats that were no longer shooting at them. One of the ways they kept the soldiers occupied while waiting for a ship home was to start the university of the AEF where they could take science, language, and history courses. The Army of Occupation o Allied forces drove North and East to peaceably occupy Germany and Austria o Confiscated German ammunitions, the German fleet, required the surrender of the German air force If found that peace couldn’t go on, then Germany would be without their arms o Gradually drawing down from 8 initial US Divisions, American remained on the ground until JAN 1923 A Difficult economic transition o The American economy had a few very difficult years between 1918 and 1921 during the transition back to a peacetime economy o Wartime production ceased, inflation rose, and unemployment spiked as the troops returned home to find jobs o Nativist sentiments were inflamed because some Americans viewed immigrants as economic competitors o The recession was short-lived, since WWI stimulated development and investment in new technology that contributed to business boom of the 1920’s o Farmers had a difficult time transitioning. During the war they were doing well because three countries needed their goods (food, caster beans for castor oil) After the war o 2 million men involved in civilian occupation New Constitutional Amendments o Prohibition – 28 o Women’s Suffrage – 19 o Racial tension: End of WWI called for abolition of 4 African American Regular Army regiments Most African American officers were eliminated from active duty for alleged poor performance With no allocations for officers to attend service schools, the lack of proficiency caused considerable attrition on the number of African American reserve officers French passed out papers to their units before Americans came over to not to be too friendly with AA/blacks in the presence of American troops because of the racial tensions. The French had black units for some time before this Summer 1919: Red Summer Two dozen cities experienced violent, racially-motivated uprisings o Including: Washington DC, Chicago, and Omaha Lynchings in the south occurred frequently North: whites sometimes reacted violently to AA arriving as the Great Migration was underway Red Scare (v1.0) o A growing climate of xenophobia (anti-radicalism and nativism) accompanied the repressive shift in the government’s attitude toward dissent during WWI and into the 20’s. o Many feared anarchism or Bolshevism would seize the United States o Units were sent into Russia during WWI to fight the Bolsheviks/Red Army on the side of the White Russians, Allied governments sent in forces to fight as well, but this information becomes smashed with WWI The First amendment rights of Americans were sometimes supplanted as the country succumbed to anti-communist hysteria. During this period, “alien” residents were targeted and deported o Passed the espionage and expedition acts: restrictions on freedom of speech o Lots of anti-German hysteria Large community of German immigrants in Over-the-Rhine, Ohio. Mostly seen in churches with German script Banning of teaching of German in public schools Changing of street names and Aglo-sized them William Howard Taft = Hummbart Street Taft Avenue = can see the old German street sign here War Department o Congress says no to a larger standing army recommended by the department o Military made a sound argument that we needed a standing army instead of rushing a military up to speed after declaring war But public more interested in going back to way things were Congress denied funding National Defense Act 1920 o Represented a major redesign of the army o Did away with expansive army of old o Three organizations Congress gave it what was supposed to be enough funding Reserve triple the size of pre-war, but still less than the plan Fluctuated depending on the budget o New Branches Chemical, Aviation, Finance o War department charged with planning responsibilities and contingency plans o *meant the army was abandoning isolationism, means there would be an argument going on in the public Postwar Operations & Responsibilities o Garrisons left over from Spanish-American War and from protecting the Canal Panama Canal opened in 1914 Cuban, Philippine, and Panamanian Garrisons o Siberian Expedition: clean-up army o Mexican Border control: cleanup of left over stuff out of punitive expedition to capture Poncho Villa o Frontier forts: from Indian Wars, maintain presence to keep wars behind us o Mentor and Training reserve components: something new o Domestic employment: euphemism for 20’s to keep unions under control, war between coal miners’ union in West Virginia vs. Army (10,000) and owners Violent coal miner’s strike Army used aviators o Depression: army ran civilian conservation corps – golden jewel in New Deal = more successful practice – took young men into national park for conservation duties, served as another reserve force in WWII when group was disbanded and right into the army Popular Attitudes o Isolationism became such a problem that FDR had to maneuver deftly to make America ready for WWII, even if public was not supportive of actions We need to concern ourselves with American problems--- what they do over there is none of our business… we must remain neutral o Arms race important to WWI – become interested in arms downgrade Scrapped 60% of surface fleet – (Prelude to War, next week) o Kellogg-Brian Pack: wars could be simply outlawed – many world powers signed on o Airplanes are cool – public infatuated with Aviation in 1920’s Military: airplanes were at center of key debate: argument over what WWI had proved about military aviation and what it would mean in the future General Billy Mitchel: father was US Senator, grew up around DC, learned how to play power politics game, when WWI hit he was already overseas to be a military observer (April 1917). Once we involved in the War, Mitchel became aviation commander of US’s first army. After the war he used his skills to become leading advocate of forming a bombing force Funding became a problem all over the world for their militaries. Aviators used the argument that the air force was cheaper (then, not now). Could buy a whole air force with money of one battleship. Better for strategic bombing then whole army moving out. Cheaper in lives as well, will bomb industrial centers first to stop the enemy before the war can go too far. And factories are in cities, so bombing civilians, a price to pay, and civilian population will demand stop to war The Washington Naval Conference o World’s first disbarment conference o Navies were the primary means of projected military power at the time The more ships a country had, the more powerful they were o Number, size, and armaments of ships were the arms race of the day o United states hosed Japan, China, France, Britain, Italy, Belgium, Netherlands, and Portugal o Agreed on limiting Navies in order to prevent another war Neutrality Acts o Responses to Japanese invasion/German Neutrality Act of 1935 o Neutrality acts of 1936 o Neutrality acts of 1937 Geoffrey Till on Interwar Naval Decision-Makers o “They are not dealing with blacks and whites, but with shades of gray.” Murray and Millett Military Innovation, 193 The Colored War Plans o The beginning of true contingency war planning o A bank of plans, continuously updated, each of which centered on US conflict with a different country Each country coded by own color o Many contingency plans were highly unlikely at the time o The Plans Orange – War with Japan – where we focused most of our thought Black Germany Gray Central America and Caribbean Brown Uprising in the Tan Intervention in Cuba Philippines Red Great Britain (With Red-Orange Two front war Vs. sub-variants: crimson, Japan and British scarlet, ruby, Garnet, empire; Came to conclusion that we and emerald for could not do both and dominions) needed to focus on the Atlantic Yellow China Gold France / French Caribbean Green Mexico o The colored war planning continued until, in 1938, it became clear that the excrement was impacting the oscillating air current distribution device in Europe, and the US could potentially be facing a war on two fronts. This lead to combinations and alterations of the colored plans to create the Rainbow Plans R1: US alone; regional defense R2: US, Br, Fr; R1 plus Pacific R3: US alone; R1 plus Pacific R4: US alone; R1 plus hemispheric R5: US, Br, Fr; R1 plus Europe First Strategic Options o 1919-1933 – orange plan is dominant o 1931-1940 – R2 o 1940: R4 recommended by Joint Board o 1940-41: FDR tacitly enacted R5 through commitments to Britain Innovations o US Army Armor, 1930’s Unclear mission “Shoehorned” the tank; incremental progress Invented to the need of an ability to cross no-man’s land between trenches, and to get through barbed wire and past enemy fire Fitting the innovation into the existing military statement Innovated when mission emerged (1940) o Used to be that inventors made the products and then talked to the army trying to sell their wares Patterns of acceptance o Innovation shoehorning brigading, new combined arms, ubiquity o Shoehorning: force-fitting the innovation into existing practices o Brigading: setting the innovation off in its own organization Homogeneous organizations: groups working with one type of innovation so only one type of any replacement parts Penalty of being first o Research and development is always an expensive endeavor, became cheaper with time o Military today still operates some B-52’s, which have been around for half a century (though it’s been modified, basic airframe and need is the same) o Initial investments constraints options, initial investments exhausts resources The rise of Military Air Power o Given high priority for R&D and budgeting o Recognized as separate branch 1920 o Renamed Air Corps, recognized as combat arm, given places in Secretary of War cabinet and General staffs 1962 o 1947 – air force becomes its own division, not in time for WWII or during Air War over Britain o Spanish Civil War: Germany was not allowed to make certain things, but when Hitler came to power, the started to build them anyway. The developed air forces needed testing eventually o “Strategic Bombing System” – bomb force o Airpower was cheap enough in the 20’s that a small power could combat the larger powers with an air force Italy came into WWII late on the side of Germany, at the end of the war the press of the day mentioned the big four (wit Italy) or three (w/out Italy) o 1940-41 “Blitz”: 18,000 tons of bombs on London/7 months; 90,000 KIA/7 months Numbers aren’t the real story in the Battle of Britain 2 theories”: 1. Destroy industrial infrastructure, 2. Destroy civilian moral who will rise up and demand their country w=to surrender The latter theory never develops; instead of capitulating, they grow even stronger and fight harder Royal family advised to get out of the capital (and stay in the country) but they stay, the Queen “how can I ever look the population of east London in the eye again if I don’t stay?” o Fighter command using Radar to scramble half the RAF Not all because if a second attack comes soon after the first, there won’t be time for everyone to refuel US Air War Plans? 15 November 1941 o “If war with the Japanese does come, we’ll fight mercilessly. Flying fortresses will be dispatched immediately to set the paper cities of Japan on fire. There won’t be any hesitation about bombing civilians – it will be all out.” o Time magazine reporter to his editor after off-the-record briefing by the Army chief of staff o Target: Japanese homeland and concurred territory Seekt’s Charter to his Committees o We’re going to learn from experience (previous war and battles) ROTC: right after fighting = Right After Action Review (RAAR) o Produce “short, concise studies on the newly gained experiences of the war and consider the following points; What new situations arose in the war that had not been considered before the war? How effective were our pre-war view in dealing with the above situations? What new guidelines have been developed from the use of new weaponry in the war? Which new problems put forward by the war have not yet found a solution?” Shift in Sentiment o Common man ideologically supports the Allied Democracies but still wants to stay out of the hostilities o Support the strengthening the military to provide hemispheric defense – “Fortress America” o Protective Mobilization and the “Lend-Lease Act” Lend-lease act: send ammunition and resources to Britain and France so they can win the fight with our help Protective Mobilization Initiatives France Attacked June 22, 1940 o President could send help without okay from Congress because it was not a declaration of war December 29, 1940 – Year before we join the war o “We must be the great arsenal of democracy. For us this is an emergency as serious as war itself. We must apply ourselves to our task with the same resolution, the same sense of urgency, the same spirit of patriotism and sacrifice as we should show we were at war.” – FDR o We’re going to be building things and sending them to our allies Louisiana Maneuvers, 1941 o Not joined the war yet, but everyone knows it’s coming o Conducting army maneuvers in Louisiana to practice
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