history 102 study guide 2
history 102 study guide 2 HIS 102
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This 6 page Study Guide was uploaded by Tessa Mosher on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to HIS 102 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by Gregory S Parsons (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see World History 20th Century in History at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Terms to know: Fascist movement: based on the ideology that exalts the nation above the individual and calls for a centralized government with a dictatorial leader, economic and social regimentation, and forcible suppression of opposition Benito Mussolini: (18831945) burst open the Italian scene with the first fascist movement in Europe. He began his political career as a socialist but was expelled from the party after supporting Italy’s entry into WWI. Created a new group called Fascio di Combattimento ( league of combat) Antisemitism: hostility toward or discrimination against Jews lebensraum (living space): a doctrine adopted by Hitler, that holds that a nations power depends on the amount of land it occupies. Thus, a nation must expand to be strong Nazi: short for the National Socialist German Workers’ Party originally the German Workers’ Party that Hitler took over and transformed into the Nazi Party Zaibatsu: powerful business cartels formed in Japan during the Meiji era and outlawed following WWII Nanjing Incident: Japanese took over Chinese capitol of Nanjing, raping and killing thousands of innocent civilians in the process for several weeks New Order in East Asia: compromised Japan, Manchuria, and China. Its hope was that Japan would drive western influence out of China Monroe Doctrine for Asia: Stated Japan would guide its Asian neighbors on the path to development and prosperity. The Great East Asian CoProsperity Sphere: Its plan included to increase its power of the empire to cause EastAsia to return to its original form of independence and coProsperity by shaking off the Yoke of Europe and America, and to let its countries and peoples develop their respective abilities in peaceful cooperation and secure livelihood. Final Solution: Was the annihilation of the Jewish people. This plan was thought up by Nazi Leaders trying to find a solution to the Jewish problem. Holocaust: A plan and tactic made up by the Nazi Party that is responsible for the death of nearly two of every three European Jews. It caused the death of 910 million other people that German leaders felt should be prosecuted (homosexuals, Gypsies, ect.) Yalta Conference 1945: Set up the Cold War framework three leaders met in Yalta to discuss how to rearrange the situation in Europe after the defeat of Nazi Germany and then how would they fight and defeat Japan. The iron curtain: the national barrier separating the former Soviet bloc and the West prior to the decline of Communism that followed the political events in Eastern Europe in 1989. The Truman Doctrine: Stated that the US would provide financial aid to countries that claimed they were threatened by communist expansion. containment: was a strategy advocated by George Kennan to contain further aggressive Soviet moves The Marshall Plan: Intended to rebuild prosperity and stability, it included 13 billion dollars for the economic recovery of war in Europe. NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization formed April 1949, Belgium, the Netherlands, France, Britain, Italy, Denmark, Norway, Portugal, and Iceland signed a treaty with US and Canada stating they would provide mutual assistance if any one of them was attacked. Warsaw Pact: 1955 military alliance between Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Romania and Soviet Union CCP: Chinese Communist Party who resisted the US in creating a coalition government with them. PLA: Peoples Liberation Army included nearly one million troops under the communists. liberation theology: an activist movement especially among the Roman Catholic clergy in Latin America that combines Marxist ideas with a call to liberate the oppressed from injustices Salvador Allende: Chilean physician and politician, known as the first Marxist to become president of a Latin American country through open elections. Augusto Pinochet: Chilean general and dictator who served as president after leading the junta that overthrew the government of Salvador Allende. Became chief of army and senator. During his rule many economic reforms were undertaken but thousands of dissidents were tortured or executed The Dirty War: 1976 when the military installed new regime, using the occasion to kill more than six thousand leftists Lula (Luiz Inácio Lua da Silva): a former lathe operator, popular among the countries working masses and came to power on the promise to introduce antipoverty programs and reverse his predecessor’s policy of privatizing major industries. NAFTA: North America Free Trade Agreement highly controversial in the United states because of the fear that US firms would move factories to Mexico where labor costs are cheaper and environmental standards less stringent. Many Mexicans felt NAFTA was more beneficial to US than its southern neighbor. Bay of Pigs: a failed attempt to invade and overthrow Castro’s government that took place on April 17, 1961 Fidel Castro: Established a regime based loosely on the Soviet Model Guantanamo: a bay on the SE coast of Cuba. It’s the site of a US naval base established in 1903, where suspected members of AlQaeda and the Taliban were held from 2002 Madres of the Plaza de Mayo: an association of argentine mothers whose children were “disappeared” during the dirty war of the military dictatorship between 1976 and 1983 Uhuru: “Freedom” in Swahili. A key slogan in African independence movements, especially in Kenya. Kwame Nkrumah: led Ghana to independence from Britain in 1057 and served as its first prime minister and president. ANC: African National Congress founded in 1912, it was the beginning of political activity by South African blacks. It was the majority party in South Africa. PanAfricanism: The concept of African continental unity and solidarity in which the common interests of African countries transcend regional boundaries. Mau Mau Movement: Kenya’s militant resistance against British colonial rule. Began as a movement agitating for the return of African land and political right in 1946. Apartheid: The system of racial segregation practiced in the Republic of S. Africa until the latest 1990’s; involved political, legal, and economic discrimination against non whites Q: Who were the supporters of the Fascist movement in Europe? alarmed conservatives and wealthy American business men from the 1920’s40’s D. p.128 What were the opposing views of Chruchill and Chamberlain on how to respond to Hitler's demands at Munich? – Churchill believed that Czechoslovakia should have been left alone and they would’ve done better that why while Chamberlain believed that Hitler’s demands of taking Czech was a good idea that even though they would be losing freedom it would set them up for a better life . Do these arguments have any winder relevance for other world crisis, such as crisis in Syria, Ukraine, and Iraq? Many people believe that other countries should help them even if that means freedom is taken away while others believe we should not help them and let them work it out themselves. Q: Based on the reading, do you think Japan was an aggressor or a victim in WWII. Did Japan bear the responsibility to wage war as an aggressor? – I believe Japan was an aggressor due mainly to the fact they refused to surrender even after they were told something horrible would happen to them if they didn’t. Based on your analysis, does Emperor Akihito's new year statement acknowledge Japan's war responsibility and apologize to those who were victimized by Japan's aggression? – I don’t think he acknowledges the aggression of Japan I think he only acknowledges that many people were killed and wounded during this time of war, no matter who was responsible for it. Q: Based on your knowledge on the Holocaust, do you think that all the Nazi are intrinsically evil? I don’t believe they were all evil, a lot of them were doing what they were told to do by leaders who struck fear in everybody’s lives. To what extent can we argue that Holocaust was only possible in the 20th century? – We can say the holocaust was only possible in the 20 century because Germany was a very well developed country and the people were easily manipulated into believing the words of Hitler they had the weaponry and other resources to be successful and other countries did not see a problem before it was to late. It would not be possible now because countries are more aware, treaties and agreements have been made to help this type of thing from happening again. Q: Study the posters produced during WWII. Can you find a common theme in terms of how the belligerent parties construct the image of self and the image of the enemy. – The image of self is very strong and patriotic, while the image of the enemy is very dehumanizing and showing they were weak. What were the strategies employed by the producers of these posters. – Strategies were mainly dehumanizing the enemy using animals to represent them, they also used positive images for the specific homeland to create nationalism to get people to either fight or support the war Q: If Cuba saw US as its archrival enemy in the world, why would it allow US to maintain a naval base on its territory? Because they believed if they did not have the naval presence and guerrilla wars were launched peasants would try to over throw old regimes According to Che, what is the goal of the Cuban Revolution? – Che believed the goal of the Cuban Revolution was for change to occur and nationalize key elements of the Cuban economy Q: D. p.295, According to Ayi Kwei Armah, who was to blame for conditions in his country (Ghana, previously known as the Gold Coast)? According to Ayi Kwei Armah the conditions for his country were to be blamed upon the rich man who was jealous and was going to take into their hands the power to steal the nation’s riches and use it for their own satisfaction. D. p.298 Why was Mboya confident that the people of Kenya could surmount the challenges of nationhood? because they had been through enough and appreciated freedom enough to defend it with their lives. Based on recent development in Kenya, was Mboya too optimistic about the future of his nation?( Please note, Kenya is the country that suffered from alShabaab terrorist attack in 2013.) I believe he was, I think that nationalism can only go so far if you are not as developed as other countries. These countries that are more developed and want something from another country will do anything possible to get it especially if they have the upper hand.
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