Psych 1101 Test 2
Psych 1101 Test 2 PSYCH 1101
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Gunawork on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to PSYCH 1101 at Georgia State University taught by Flemming in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 49 views. For similar materials see Intro to General Psychology in Psychlogy at Georgia State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Chapter 6,7a,8 MEMORY (active process) RECALL vs. RECOGNITION (types of retrieval) Recallà self generating of information & more active Recognition stimulus (C.S) & familiarity judgment Processes: 1. Encoding learning… thinking association 2. Storage retaining 3. Retrievalgetting information out Serial Position Curve Primacy effect Rehearsal Recovery effect Short Term Memory (STM) Proactive interferenold info. interferes w/ learning new things Retroactive interferennew learning w/ remembering old info. 3-STAGE MODAL/ MODEL 1. Sensory(buffer) memory è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: 50ms per. sec. 2. Short term memory (STM) è Capacity: 7 +/- 2 items… what is an item? **chunking (group w/ meaning) helps increase the capacity of short-term memory. è Duration: 15-25 sec. Processing: AUTOMATIC & EFFORTFUL è Automatic (implicit association): shallow(relevels of processing è Effortful (effective, conscious w/ a lot of attmaking: deep connection w/ long term memory 3. Long Term Memory (LTM) è Capacity: unlimited è Duration: unlimited TRANSFER to LTM Spaced vs. Massed practice –- Attention & Memory consolidation Spaced –> NOT cramming and it’s more effective Massed –> cramming Attention –> less is transferred to STM Memory –> recognition **Testing effect Retrieval Practice WORKING MEMORY Sensory / \ Phonological Loop Visuospatial Skeptical \ / Central Executive | LTM Phonological Loop – language, auditory, *(repeat words, read, verbal tasks) Central Executive – mediating (mediator) Visuospatial Skeptical – visual info. LTM includes – Sensory, Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive STM includes – Phonological Loop, Visuospatial Skeptical, and the Central Executive MEMORY AT THE NEURAL LEVEL 3 processes • Encoding • Storage • Retrieval Synaptic changesà Wiring together = long term potentiation (w/ repeated stimulation, and the release of neurotransmitters increases) Retrievalà getting information out è Retrieval cues – recognition Context – depend, Memory – encoding specificity --environmentà provides implicit/ retrieval cues (automatic) State – depend/ mood congruency FORGETTING? Encoding failure vs. Retrieval failure • Encoding failure – inattional “remembering” • Retrieval failure – retrieval is constructive “rebuilding” è Storage decay (decreases likelihood of post synaptic firing = forgetting **fades the pathways that were originally encoded è Interference/ construction errors • --Misinformation effect è Misleading past event information (MPI) è Source Amnesia COGNITION – THINKING & PROBLEM – SOLVING Thinking vs. Learning -Making association Memory – recalling association Cognition – processing – interpreting association – making sense – doing something – integrate/ transform CONCEPTS/ VISUAL IMAGERY • Prototypeà averaged form of (mental imagery) that includes necessary features of the concepts (Concepts) general ideal/ collection of facts about an idea semantically PROBLEM-SOLVING • Trial & Error with no information or completely novel situation – inefficient (randomly trying different combinations in no particular order when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Algorithms à meaningful, organized, step by step procedure (carefully checking every single combination beginning with the letter “C” before moving on to a different letter when we tried to spell PSYCHOLOGY when it was CLOOYSPHYG) • Heuristics rule-based on experience (due to likelihood of occurring) (considering logical reasoning’s to solve problems) OBSTACLES TO PROBLEM-SOLVING (prove the disapproving theory) • Mental Set “way of thinking” – default mode of thinking • Functional Fixedness default function from a familiar item • Confirmation Bias looking for information that confirms our beliefs or confirm a rule • Availability Heuristilikelihood of something that is very salient; strongest neural pathway • Over Confidence • Belief Perseveranceholding on to previously told beliefs REASONING -> transformation of information to reach conclusions Inductive Specific---------------------------- ß -------------------General- Deductive THINKING CREATIVITY à producing ideas Convergent à taking facts & arriving at a solution; problem solving (facts) (answers) Divergent à generating ideas based on one particular fact/ assumption (idea) (stimulus) LANGUAGE & THINKING (language influences thinking & thinking affects language) **Linguistic Relativity Hypothesis ^^ LANGUAGE & THE BRAIN • Wernicke’s Area à hearing words (auditory cortex and Wernicke’s area); language comprehension • Broca’s Area à speaking words (Broca’s area and the motor cortex); language production Communication – conveying any kind of meaning Language – infinite “productivity” generativity **UNIVERSAL GRAMMAR LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Receptiveà understanding (what kids do at first) Productiveà producing/ speaking (1) babble: phonemes (sound in language; ^^example. Ma ma) (2) one word: 9 months (3) 2 words: 18-24 months (4) sentences (generating, Broca’s area undergoing rapid development (semantic burst)): 28 months Critical/ sensitive periodnervous system needs input in a variety of modalities in other to grow or develop COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT • When does development begin? Critical period & synaptogenesis (starts in first trimester) < Qualitative vs. Quantitative differences/ changes > Qualitative – different type of ability – new abilities emerge over time in development; “thinking differently” Quantitative – more or less of an ability; “knowing more” v Piaget’s theory of cognitive development is a comprehensive theory about the nature and development of human intelligence. Piaget believed that one's childhood plays a vital and active role in a person's development. Assimilation – become a part of; (applying new to old) Ø Interpreting according to past experience Accommodation – adapting your old way of thinking Ø Adjusting old information to fit new experiences STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT 1. Sensorimotor (stage 0 – 2 years old) à knowledge is based on sensory experience; no interpretation/ “perception”; recognition but recall “out of sight, out of mind” à object permanence – lack it (invisible displacement) 2. Preoperational (stage 2 – 6 + 7 yeaàs lacking logic (abstract thinking)à conservation -**water amount, clay and the M&M examples from clasà egocentrism -only their point of view/ peràptheory of mind -mental perspectives, attribute a different state of knowledge to other individuals 3. Concrete operational (stage 7 – 12 years old) à mental operations -prototypes(transform information) -abstraction of the physical world 4. Formal operational (stage 12+ years) à abstract reasoning(deductive) à mental operations on abstract rules à deductive reasoning SOCIAL DEVELOPMENT • Imprint à bond based on needs being met • Attachment à emotional bond another person Task à storage situation STYLES OF ATTACHMENT à • Secure crying is absence, ceasing cry upon return • Insecure/ Anxion’sà crying in absence, continues to cry – inconstancy/ abandonment; Abuse – needs not being met, being avoided • Avoidant à no crying – ever! ^^^are indicative of how much trust you have Development of … trust, etc.: intimacy, friendships DEVELOPMENT OF SELF-CONCEPT • Mirror self-recognition – 18 months’ infants pass • Self in relation to others – changing relation to others v Erik Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development TRUST à INITIATIVE à COMPETENCE à INTIMACY à INTEGRITY v Kohlberg’s Level of Moral Development Preconventional à reward(good) & punishment(bad) (Follows rules to avoid punishment. Acts in own interest. Obedience for its own sake) Conventional à maintaining social fairness/ justice obey laws (Lives up to expectations of others. Fulfills duties and obligations of social system. Upholds laws) Post-conventional à putting aside the rules/ justified behavior (Follows self-chosen principles of justice and right. Aware that people hold different values and seeks creative solutions to ethical dilemmas. Balances concern for individual with concern for common good) DEVELOPMENT & AGING (60+ years old) - Memory - Neurocognitive disorders • Myelin sheath production goes DOWN • Acetylcholine (NT) goes DOWN (excitatory) - Amygdala response • Responsiveness only to negative events • Old people are happier
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