Biology Exam 2 Study Guide
Biology Exam 2 Study Guide Biology 1120-001
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This 13 page Study Guide was uploaded by Anzlee on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to Biology 1120-001 at Middle Tennessee State University taught by Andrew Brower in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 159 views. For similar materials see Biology in Biology at Middle Tennessee State University.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
Biology Exam 2 Study Guide Animal Diversity and Classification Defining Characteristic of Animals: • Heterotrophs • Multicellularity • Some type of movement • Sexual reproduction (no alternation of life cycles) • Embryonic development • Unique tissues (not in porifera) • Very diverse physical characteristics as well as habitat • 35 phylums Classification Branches • synapomorphy (tissues) o parazo: no symmetry, tissues, or organs o eumetozoa: shape, symmetry, and usually have organs § radiate § bilateria (develop from 3 germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm); two groups: • protosome- cleavage of zygote is spiral, blastopore becomes a mouth, predetermined fate of embryo • deuterosome- cleavage of zygote is radial, blastopore becomes an anus, identical daughter cells o three planes: sagittal, frontal, transverse Variable Trends: Body Cavity • digestive tract can be longer and larger; more storage; more surface area • acoelomates- no body cavity • pseudocoelomates- have a pseudocoel • coelomates- have a coelem Body Plans • example: triploblasts: three layers of tissues (found in some worms) DNA Sequencing • has changed the original form of classification to a genetic level Open vs. Closed Circulatory System Evolution of Nervous System • mainly in longitudinal cords through the body; usually have a brain Segmentation • locomotion is far more effective • sections can develop in different paces Feeding Habits • filter feeding (some marine animals) • deposit feeders (some worms • herbivores (some insects) • predators • parasites: endoparasites (live inside); ectoparasites (live outside) Different Forms of Movement Reproduction • usually sexual reproduction; sometimes asexual • internal vs. external fertilization • oviparity (‘live-bearing’) vs. viviparity (‘egg-bearing’) Metamorphosis • Some animals undergo metamorphosis • Complete (ex. fruit fly) vs. incomplete (ex. grasshopper) Basal Animal Clades Porifera • Sponges: o most basal animals o likely related to choanoglagellate protists o lack tissues; most lack symmetry o similar to protists o adults are sessile: attached to something and don’t move o little coordination o three layers: choanocytes, mesophyl, outer epithelial layer o draw in water through pores that gets filtered by choanocytes to feed o spicules: provide defense and structure o reproduce: sexually (release gametes) or by fragmentation (cells are totipotent: sponges can grow from one cell) o each individual makes sperm and eggs, but at different times o can re-form after cells are dissociated Organized Tissues -Epidermis and nervous system; gastrodermis -True body symmetry: radial- cnidarian and ctenophora; bilateral: all others Cnidara o mostly marine o diploblastic- two body layers with two basic body plans o carnivores o oral opening, but no anus (food goes in and out at the same place) o nematocycts- painful stinging mechanisms o classes: hydrozoa (2700 species, few are fresh water), syphozoa (jellyfish, 200 species, two life stages: medusa-free living and sessile- polyp, in ground), cubozoa (‘fire jellies’, may cause death), anthozoa (sea anemone and coral, 6200 species, colonial corals made of millions of polyps, reef is secreted exoskeletons of anthozoa species), anthozoa (sea anemones, no skeletons, can move slightly) Ctenophora o 90 species o propel themselves through the water (8 plates of cilia) o have an anus o have sticky tentacles to get prey Acoelomorpha o worms o bilateral symmetry o tripoblastic o small and live in soil, detrivores o controversial phylogenic location Lophotrochozoa Name comes from 2 main structures: • Lophophores: play a role in suspension feeding; mouth and anus can be located closely • Trochophore: swim and may feed using cilia Phylum Potifera: Rotifers • aquatic • filter feed • corona covered with cilia around mouth area • asexual and sexual species (the bdelloid species are only ever asexual) • mouth and anus at different ends • live in most soils • Relative: Phylum Cycliophora o circular mouth covered in cilia o live near mouths of lobsters Phylum Platyhelminthes: Flatworms • bilaterially symmetrical • have distinct mouth and anus • organs and internal digestive tract throughout (acoelomate) • absorb food and have excretory system composed of canals with flame cells o Class Tubellarians (Planaria) § simple eyes § gas exchange through body § can be cut and grow back other section § asexual reproduction possible through division § sexual reproduction: “penis facing” the worm that stick the other with its double penis will be the male and the other will have to produce the eggs for fertilization o Class Trematoda: flukes § Clonorchis sinensis- parasitic; live in liver of organisms, ex. humans § Schistosoma- live in digestive systems; sexual reproduction § Snails may be infected by Leucochloridium that alters snail behavior and usually is ingested by a bird which then has the host within it o Class Cestoda: tapeworms § hang on to inner walls of hosts through attachment organs (scolex) § absorb food through skin § 1% of cows are infected by tapeworms = cook your meat!! • Phylum Nemertea: ribbon worms o posses a mouth and anus o extremely simple bilateral animal; has an entire digestive system Phylum Annelids: Segmented Worms • have bristles called chaetae (many- polychaetes; few- oligochaetes) • two sets of muscles down body, can make it long ad skinny or short and fat • each segment of worm contains excretory system and nerves • muscles allow for locomotion • eat soil, get nutrients, and digest left overs o Class Polychaeta § “bristle worms” § usually live in marine ecosystems § may be free living/moving, or dug into soil § parapodia- extension of body; homologous extension of segmented body that is used for movement/locomotion § larvae start out as trochophores with bands around them § Genus Osedax- found on wale carcasses; root-like structure for absorption; bacteria helps break down marrow of wale; sexual reproduction; males are microscopic and live within females o Class Citellata § oligochaete- few bristles on each worm § tons of species § fully or only partially aquatic § can be giant § hermaphrodites- reciprocal mating; produce cocoon § some are leeches- saliva may contain anesthetic (prey cannot feel it or blood loss); some leeches are predators/scavengers; razor sharp teeth; oral and anal sucker Phylum Molluska: Molluscs • most diverse group • most morphologically posses: a shell, an oral end with grasping structure, foot- tracker muscles; internal organs and some type of nervous system; gill system • shell: calcareous; various layers with ability to secrete gases • radula: chewing mouth part (most molluscs have this, but not bivalves) • marine molluscs have planktonic larvae that can swim around and disperse themselves o Class Polplacophora- chitons § slow moving; scrape algae off of rocks for food § covered by 8 hard plates o Class Gastropoda- gastropods § snails, slugs, nudibranchs (naked gills; use toxin and venom) § single shell; many do not have shells § move by waves of muscular foot (slide along on mucus) § mostly sexual reproduction; reciprocal mating o Class bivalvia- bivalves § clams, oysters, scallops § two shells § aquatic filter feeders § only group that does not have a radula § sexual reproduction § unionid mussels put their larvae into fishes’ mouths o Class Cephalopoda- cephalopods § cuttlefishes, squids, nautiluses, octopuses § generally reduced shell (not nautiluses) § feet are modified into tentacles § additional to radula is a beak § developed eyes, nervous system, and large brain § many have the ability to change color and camouflage (chromatophores) § all predators § movement includes: crawling, swimming, and jet propulsion (ex. squids have a type of jet proportion- in through mantel, out through funnel) § ex. giant squid: architeuthis Ecdysozoa • Ecdysis: “to escape”- they all grow by shedding their exoskeleton Phylum Nematoda: Roundworms • very abundant species • some are parasitic, some free-living • bilaterally symmetrical • flexible and thick cuticle covers their bodies • pharynx allows them to suck and then pass food through their mouths • usually sexually reproducing • pseudocoel body cavity (fairly simple- pressure from being filled allows it to gain rigidly); no defined circulatory system • ex. Trichinella- trichinosis, Enterobius- pinworms, and Ascaris- intestinal roundworms • may cause many diseases: ex. filariasis- Filaria, Dirofilaria (canine heartworm) Phylum Onychophora: velvet worms • segemented, no joints on limbs • produces sticky slime to catch prey • ‘living fossil’ • not many species Phylum Tardigrada: tardigrades- “water bears” • segmented body, unjointed limbs • microscopic • aquatic organisms; may be found with mosses or lichens • usually sexual reproduction (females lay eggs; may produce genetic identical eggs which would allow for parthenogenesis asexual reproduction) • can withstand harsh environments (can dry out completely, live for many years) Phylum Anthropoda: insects, crustaceans, spiders • most diverse animal phylum (insects, crustaceans, myriapods, and chelicerate) • exoskeletons with jointed appendages (protects and provides a location for muscle attachment) • segmented body: head (sensory organs), thorax (legs/wing attachment), and abdomen (other organs/reproductive features) • eyes: generally compound- composed of many ommatidias (many lenses which take in pieces and are assembled clearly by brain; ex. fly); some are simple: ocelli/stemmata (single lenses which distinguish light vs. dark; ex. caterpillar) • circulatory system: open; reduced coelom • nervous system: double chain of segmented ganglia go along the ventral surface of body • respiratory system: no single major organ; small branches (tracheaes) act as air ducts, air then passes through spiracles from trachea • excretory system: Malpighian tubules Class Chelicerata: ticks, spiders, scorpians • anterior and posterior body sections o Arachnida; order araneae: spiders § some spin webs, many actively hunt § have poison within their glands Class Crustacea: lobster, shrimp, crabs, barnacles • larval stage • two pairs of antennae • leg pairs • barnacles- sessile • crustaceans- parasitic Class Myriapoda: centipedes, millipedes • many legs • segmented bodies Subclass Insecta • most species on earth belong to this class • various species may include wings • example: order coleoptera: beetles; order lepidoptera: butterflies and moths Non-Vertebrate Deuterostomes • zygote has radial cleavage • indeterminate development of identical daughter cells • blastopore develops into an anus • mesoderm from endodermal cells Phylum Echinodermata • hard, calcium-rich exoskeleton (ossicle plates) under skin o ossicles diffuse in flexible bodies o ossicles fuse in rigid bodies • move and feed using a water vascular system • secondary radial symmetry- bilaterally symmetrical during larvae development, but then become radially symmetrical; usually in body plan of five • endoskeleton- epidermis contain neurosensory cells; always growing • water vascular system- begins in ring canal based near esophagus and five radial canals expand through body; separate from other systems; functions in operate feet: water pressure changes expand and contract tube feet • coelom works as body cavity • reproduction- usually sexual and external • many have the ability to regenerate if their central disk is present • very diverse; 20 extinct classes, and many currently present o Class crinoidea- sea lilies and feather stars § sessile o Class asteroidean- sea stars, “starfish” o Class ophiuroidea- brittle stars § largest class § slender arms that are used for feeding, not movement o Class echinoidea- sea urchins and sand dollars § no distinct arms § move on tube feet or spines § some urchins may be venomous, some are herbivores; mouth on ventral side with five teeth § sand dollars are flat with short spines; scavengers o Class holothuroidea- sea cucumbers § scavengers § inject organs from anus for defense Phylum Xenoturbellida • “strange flatworms” • small, no brain or organs; only blind gut Phylum Hemichordata • “acorn worms” • burrow in mud • suspension feed • share traits with chordates, such as gill slits Phylum Chordata • characteristics: dorsal nerve cord, notochord, pharyngeal slits, and postanal tail • dorsal nerve cord- nerve cords run down dorsal (back) part of body • notochord- stiff and flexible support (replaced by vertebrate in vertebrates) • pharyngeal pouches- used for filter feeling in non-vertebrates; used for gill slits in aquatic vertebrates Non-vertebrate chordates: • Cephalochordata- Lancelets o no scales o notochord that runs through o simple; not many organs • Urochordata- Tunicates o sessile adults o tadpole larvae that have chordata characteristics o filter-feeder o no major cavity or segmentation Vertebrates: Fishes and Amphibians (chordata continued) • evolved in ocean • vertebral column • distinct head • neural arch • internal organs (liver, kidney, endocrine glands, circulatory system) • endoskeleton • six groups of fishes: hagfish, lampreys, sharks and rays, ray-finned fishes, coelacanths, and lungfish (over half of vertebrates are fish) • four groups of terrestrial animals: salamanders and frogs, turtles/snakes/lizards, birds, and mammals Fish • Hagfish o no eyes, fins, or jaws • Lampreys o dorsal fins, no jaws or eyes • Chondrichthyes o sharks and rays o jaws; teeth- system of losing teeth o lay eggs or eggs or live birth • Ray-finned fishes o body covered in scales o internal bone skeleton o highly mobile fins o lateral line system- allows them to sense pressure within the water o gill cover (operculum) o swim bladder- allows for buoyancy in water o usually external fertilization • Lungfish o lobe-finned fishes o possess lungs o can support weight while on land Terrestrial • Amphibians o legs, lungs, more advanced heart o eggs prone to desiccation so they lay them in water o breathe by gulping Reptiles (including birds) Reptilia: turtles, snakes, lizards, alligators and crocodiles • amniotic egg contains: embryo sack, yolk sac for nutrients, allantois sac for waste, and the albumen provides water • adaptations for land o thoracic breathing- expansion of rib cage allows for negative pressure to draw in air o amniota- breathing through rib cage or diaphragm and improves circulator system; dry and water tight skin, scales made of keratin o internal fertilization o cold-blooded: ectothermic- heat obtained from external sources; poikilothermic- body temperature fluctuates with outside temperature (birds and mammals are homoeothermic endotherms) • Testudinia- turtles and tortoises o Order Chelonia § anapsid- differ because they do not have temporal holes in skull § have a protective shell (carapace- top part, plastron- bottom part) § turtles- usually aquatic and carnivorous § tortoises- terrestrial and herbivorous § must lay eggs on land § envirornment determines sex § many migrate § some grow very large and/or old § Euryapsida- extinct marine reptile § o Order Rhynchocephalia- lizardlike; only found on New Zealand coast; endangered • Lepidosauria- snakes and lizards o Order Squamata § lower jaw not joined to skull directly § copulatory organ is paired in males § Mosasaurs- extinct marine lizard § about 3000 species of snakes • batesian mimincry- harmless species benefits from looking like a venomous species (ex. scarlet kingsnake looks like coral snake) § Amphisbaenia- worm lizards • Crocodilia- crocodiles and alligators o haven’t changed over millions of years o resemble birds more than other reptiles (care for young; four-chambered heart) • Aves- birds o many dinosaur birds lived through Cretaceous mass extinction § ex. of dinosaurs: archaeopteryx and microraptor gui o feathers (reptilian scales were modified) o flight skeleton (thin and hallow bones) o present day bird adaptations § efficient respiration (air flow trades between lungs and different sacs) § efficient circulatory system § endothermy (body regulates semi-constant temperature) § feathers: insulation, signaling, flight § higher blood pressure and heart beat speed § large four-chambered heart § metabolism and skeletal changes allow for more efficient flying • long keel sternum bone for large flight muscles, produce heat in tissues, hallow bones o Order Passeriformes- songbirds; 60% of bird species; bright colors and elaborate songs
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