a. Alexander’s ancient biographer who gives his own account of the campaigns of Alexander.
2. Hellenistic Kingdoms
a. After 45 year of war 276 BC, the Epigoni wars finally come to an end, and where there was once one empire of Alexander, 3 Hellenistic Empires emerged, each carved out by one
b. Egypt Ptolemaic Empire
c. Macedonia Antigonid Empire
d. Syria Seleucid Empire
3. Seleucus I
b. Conquers what is called the Seleucid Empire, which is by far the biggest of the Hellenistic Empires.
c. Seleucus decides that he wants to invade India, so he invades India
d. Unfortunately for him most of India had been unified, unlike when Alexander had invaded.
e. Now the Mauryan Empire had 500,000 soldiers and 5,000 was Elephants f. Therefore Seleucus was unable to conquer any territory and was chased back out. g. He was forced to give up territory in the Middle East
4. Chandragupta Maurya
a. Chandragupta Maurya
b. Born in the kingdom of Maghada
c. The people of India had no written history so the information we have comes from the Greeks
d. When he was still young he was involved in a plot to overthrow the king, one of his relatives
e. The plot failed, so he was forced to flee, he fled to the other side of India
f. He took refuge with King Porus
g. He was with King Porus when Alexander the Great invaded India
h. Alexander III fights against an army led by King Porus
i. King Porus and his men
j. Alexander allows Porus to continue to run his kingdom, but now on behalf of Alexander. k. After the battle Chandragupta met Alexander and was impressed with what Alexander had accomplished.
l. He begins to conquer territories around northern India after Alexander’s death. m. In 321 he returns to Maghada and Maghada is captured
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n. This marks the beginning of the Mauryan Empire and for the first time ever most of India would be unified.
5. Mauryan Empire
a. In 321 Chandragupta returns to Maghada and Maghada is captured
b. This marks the beginning of the Mauryan Empire and for the first time ever most of India would be unified.
c. Asoka began his reign by committing numerous atrocities including killing hundreds of his own brothers and killing those who were against Mauryan Empire
a. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the law that governs the universe and specifically human behavior.
a. The main religion in India. It emphasizes reincarnation, based on the results of the previous life, and the disability of escaping this cycle. Its various forms feature both asceticism and the pleasures of ordinary life and encompass a multitude of gods as different manifestations of one ultimate reality.
a. A religion and philosophy based on the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama around 500 BCE. Principally practiced in China, India, and other parts of Asia, Buddhism has 360 million followers and is considered a major world religion. We also discuss several other topics like trigonal stereogenic center
10. Siddhartha Gautama
a. Buddhism is based on his teachings
a. He was king from 269-232 BC
b. During his reign they conquered most of India
c. Army of 700,000 and 7,000 war elephants
d. Began his reign by committing numerous atrocities including killing hundreds of his own brothers and killing those who were against Mauryan Empire
e. He then converts to Buddhism and rules as nicely as possible
f. He was then known as Asoka the beloved If you want to learn more check out What is The Difference in Society and Culture?
a. A system of thought based on the teachings of Confucius that developed into the ruling ideology of the Chinese state.
a. A Chinese philosophy that argued that human beings were by nature evil and would follow the correct only if coerced by harsh laws and stiff punishments. Adopted as official ideology by the Qin dynasty, it was later rejected but remained influential 14. Daoism We also discuss several other topics like rp soi
a. A Chinese philosophy traditionally ascribed to the perhaps legendary Lao Tzu, which holds that acceptance and spontaneity are the keys to harmonious interaction with the universal order; an alternative to Confucianism.
15. Ying Cheng
a. He was one of the most important Chinese rulers.
b. “Wang” means king.
c. He was the king of China
d. Was king from 249-210BC
e. His goal in life was to unify all of China
f. He was incredibly ruthless in the pursuit of this goal
g. In the end he was successful
h. In 221 he completed the conquest of all of China, creating the first unified Chinese state. i. In recognition of his success he gave himself a new title
j. He called himself Shih Huang-di
k. It meant first emperor
l. He was the first emperor of China
m. As emperor he does everything he can to tie his nation together.
n. For example, he imposes one monetary system under all of china
o. He imposes standardized weights and measures
p. He built thousands of miles of roads
q. He imposed one system of writing on all of China
r. He built the first Great Wall of China
s. After his death there was a brief civil war
16. Liu Bang
a. He sees power and makes himself emperor of China
b. He establishes the Han dynasty which is the first great ruling dynasty of Chinese history c. Considered the Golden Age of Chinese history
d. Most powerful country on Earth up until this time
17. Han Dynasty
a. Established by Liu Bang
18. Roman Republic
a. Was very similar to a Greek Polis If you want to learn more check out warranty service processing of complaints and costs of litigation are examples of
∙ Had a hoplite army
∙ It had citizenship and assemblies and voting
∙ Roman citizens elected city officials, who had a specific job within the Roman government
∙ The citizens voted on all important laws and decisions
∙ Appeared to be a democratic polis, which means all male citizen
regardless of wealth had a vote and could participate, but in fact it was a very narrow oligarchy.
∙ Every office in Rome lasted only one year, except for the Senate
∙ Most of the priests were Senators and they used religion to keep political power.
b. 146 BC was a key date in Roman history because they destroyed Carthage. ∙ Carthage had been the last real threat to Rome, and when they were destroyed Rome was supreme in the Mediterranean world.
∙ Rome would remain supreme for the next 600 years.
∙ 13 years after defeating Carthage, romans began fighting between
∙ The Roman revolution lasted just over a century, the roman revolution would eventually destroy the roman republic and replaced it with a
c. Roman Revolution led to the fall of Roman Republic and rise of Roman Empire 19. Senate
a. Election to office
i. To be part of the Senate, you had to win a lot of elections. Don't forget about the age old question of math 3070 study guide
ii. Had to spend huge amounts of money
iii. Had to have a campaign organization to rally voters
iv. Had to shake voters hand to get them to vote for you as well as giving speeches v. Throw mud at rivals
i. 300 guys in the Senate, all were wealthy, but all he different ideas on how to run Rome.
ii. Different ideas on laws being passed and on how the money should be spent. iii. They never fought on whether or not they should go to war, but instead on how the war should be fought
iv. Who receives the important military commands
v. Who will lead the Roman army into battle?
vi. All senators dreamed to have a huge military victory because it brought military glory and glory translated to political power in Rome.
c. Senators always accepted defeat, which means that if they lost an election or a debate on policy, or if they didn’t get the command they wanted they would be upset, but they would accept it
d. They would not do anything unprecedented, illegal, or violent.
e. Some senators became corrupted and were willing to do anything for power, even resort to violence and civil war
20. T. Sempronius Gracchus
a. Elected as one of the ten tribunes in 133
b. Came from a powerful family
c. Realized Rome had some very serious problems that need to be fixed
d. He tries to fix two of the problems
i. For the first time in Roman history, they were having trouble finding enough Roman soldiers.
ii. Roman soldiers were usually farmers and the number of farmers had dropped dramatically.
1. There was a huge number of poor people in Rome
iii. Many were people who had lost their farms and came to Rome to look for work. iv. At this time Rome did not have a welfare system
e. He takes his idea to the Senate
i. He tells them why not take all the land in Italy, owned by the state, and divide it up amongst the poor.
ii. By doing this poor get money and are eligible for military service.
iii. After intense debate the Senate says no.
iv. Gracchus refuses to accept defeat and takes his idea directly to the people in the tribal assembly
v. This was not illegal, but it had never been done before.
vi. The people pass his law
f. The Senate is very upset about this and got madder as Gracchus continued to pass laws in the assembly as he continued to ignore the Senate.
i. They consider him a traitor to his class, the final straw happens late in the year when he announces that he would run for re-election.
ii. In the senate, Publius Cornelius Nasica, along with others were enraged Nasica and Gracchus were cousins
iii. Nasica is saying that Gracchus is trying to make himself a tyrant
iv. Nasica and some of the other Senators march out along with armed followers of the Senate.
g. Nasica marches up to Capitol Hill and club Tiberius Gracchus to death.
i. Gracchus only served one year, but he accomplished a lot.
ii. For the first time ever there has been violence in the Roman political process. iii. No city official had ever been assassinated before.
iv. After this, violence will become more common.
21. C. Marius
a. Elected as one of the two consuls in Rome
b. They are the co-presidents of Rome
c. Given a good war to fight, the problem was that he couldn’t find enough soldiers for his army.
d. Marius does something revolutionary, announces that he will accept poor volunteers in to his army and if they cannot afford their own stuff the state will provide for them. e. He was a great general and the soldiers proved they could fight just well as people with money
f. Marius and his soldiers win three major wars.
g. Marius and his soldiers come back to Rome
h. Marius goes to the Senate and asks them to give his soldiers land and says that they fought well for Rome and Rome should help them out.
i. Marius doesn’t accept defeat.
j. Marius goes to one of the tribunes and the tribune proposes the idea directly to the assembly.
k. The law passes and soldiers get their land
l. Senate doesn’t kill Marius because he has 50,000 soldiers
22. Cn. Pompey Magnus
a. Part of the first triumvirate
b. Helped Julius Caesar get elected
c. Near the end of the decade the alliance began to break apart
d. The first blow came in 54BC when Julia died, important politically because she was married to Pompey. Julia was the daughter of Julius
e. Pompey and Julia actually fell in love.
f. Julia died in childbirth and the baby dies as well.
g. The 2nd blow comes in 53BC, when Crassus is killed.
h. Crassus went to the east to attack Parthia, unfortunately, he is defeated, captured, and is beheaded, and used as a prop in a play.
i. Pompey and Caesar break up
j. He became jealous of Caesar’s military success
k. He used to be the most popular general, but now its Caesar
l. Pompey joins with the Senate to try and bring Caesar down
m. They order Caesar to give up his provinces and his army, basically his power n. Caesar refuses to accept defeat and has a large loyal army that will back him up. o. Caesar takes his army and marches into Italy, starting the second Civil War. p. Pompey and the Senate are surprised that he decided to fight because he only had one army and Pompey and the Senate had 4.
q. They didn’t have any of the armies with them so they flee to Greece.
r. Caesar takes over Rome without a fight
23. C. Julius Caesar
a. Passed laws benefitting Pompey and Crassus because they helped him get in to office. b. Gets appointed governor of two provinces
c. At the time these two provinces were at the front of the Roman Empire
d. Julius Caesar tries to win military glory
e. In 58 BC Caesar invades Gaul
f. It takes him a while but by 50BC Caesar conquers all of Gaul
g. By conquering Gaul, Caesar won incredible military glory
h. By 50BC, he had a very large, well trained, experienced, and loyal army. i. The soldiers loved Caesar and would follow him anywhere
24. Battle of Pharsalus
a. The army of Caesar defeats the army of Pompey and the Senate
b. Pompey flees from Pharsalus and instead of going for another army, he flees to Egypt. c. Ptolemy XIII is king of Egypt at the time
d. Descendant of one of the generals of Alexander the Great
e. Ptolemy heard about the battle of Pharsalus and correctly guessed that Caesar would now rule Rome, so he decides to get in good with Caesar.
f. As Pompey gets off the boat in Egypt, he is assassinated by Ptolemy’s men. g. Caesar arrives a short time after and Ptolemy hands Caesar the head of Pompey thinking that Caesar would be happy
h. Caesar was not happy, he claimed he wanted to spare Pompey, so rather than thanking Ptolemy he kicks him of the throne of Egypt and Ptolemy disappears.
i. Ptolemy is replaced by his sister Cleopatra and at the age of 19, she becomes queen of Egypt.
j. Caesar spends the next year in Egypt hanging out with Cleopatra and they become an item.
k. She gives birth to a boy named Ptolemy Caesarion
l. Caesar never lost a battle
m. Becomes dictator for 10 years
n. In early 44BC, he announces he will be dictator for life.
o. Rumors began to fly that he would make himself king of Rome
p. Many Senators did not want to see this happen because they would lose their power. 25. Cleopatra
a. Ptolemy is replaced by his sister Cleopatra and at the age of 19, she becomes queen of Egypt.
b. Caesar spends the next year in Egypt hanging out with Cleopatra and they become an item.
c. She gives birth to a boy named Ptolemy Caesarion
26. M. Junius Brutus and C. Cassius Longinus
a. They had been spared by Caesar
b. On March 15, 44BC Caesar is assassinated by Brutus, Cassius and the others. c. After the kill Caesar they tell everyone what they did.
d. They tell people they restored liberty
e. At that moment they realize they might have made a mistake because most people liked Caesar.
f. Brutus, Cassius and the others leave Rome and go East
g. Brutus and Cassius commit suicide after losing battle of Philippi
27. M. Antonius
a. Antonius was Caesar’s second in command and he becomes very powerful very quickly. b. After Philippi Antonius goes East to rule his provinces and reunites with Cleopatra c. He falls madly in love with Cleopatra, divorces his roman wife and marries Cleopatra.
d. Divorce was not acceptable
e. The thing that made it worse was that Antonius was married to Octavius’ sister. f. Cleopatra gives birth to twins, a boy and a girl and Antonius announced that all his lands will go to his children with Cleopatra and not his roman children.
g. This didn’t go well with the Roman people and Octavius uses this as an excuse 28. C. Octavius Augustus
a. Caius Octavius becomes powerful quickly as well
b. Also known as Augustus
c. He was only 18 years old, but he was Caesars closest male roman relative. d. He was his Great nephew, Caesar named him his successor in his will.
e. Many didn’t take him seriously until it was too late.
29. Octavius and Antonius
a. They take their army east, to fight the army of Brutus and Cassius to fight the battle of Philippi
b. The Battle off Philippi
c. The armies of Octavius and Antonius win and Brutus and Cassius commit suicide. d. Octavius and Antonius are now rulers of Rome.
e. One rules west and the other rules east.
f. Octavius wants to get rid of Antonius
30. Battle of Actium
a. Octavius says Cleopatra wants to rule the whole world and that she must be stopped. b. Declares war on Cleopatra and Egypt
c. One big battle, the battle of Actium
d. The navy of Octavius destroys the navy of Antonius and Cleopatra.
e. They flee to Egypt, Antonius commits suicide and she tries to make moves on Octavius and when that fails she too commits suicide.
f. Octavius becomes Rome’s first emperor in Rome