Study Guide 2
Study Guide 2 History 110A
Cal State Fullerton
Popular in World Civilization to 16th Century
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This 7 page Study Guide was uploaded by Veronica Barragan on Sunday March 13, 2016. The Study Guide belongs to History 110A at California State University - Fullerton taught by Stefan Chrissanthos in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 163 views. For similar materials see World Civilization to 16th Century in History at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 03/13/16
1. Arrian a. Alexander’s ancient biographer who gives his own accountof the campaigns of Alexander. 2. Hellenistic Kingdoms a. After 45 year of war 276 BC, the Epigoni wars finally come to anend, and where there was once one empire of Alexander, 3 Hellenistic Empires emerged, eachcarvedout by one b. Egypt Ptolemaic Empire c. Macedonia Antigonid Empire d. Syria Seleucid Empire 3. Seleucus I a. Seleucus b. Conquers whatis called the Seleucid Empire, which is by far the biggest of the Hellenistic Empires. c. Seleucus decides that he wants to invade India, so he invades India d. Unfortunately for him most of India had beenunified, unlike whenAlexander had invaded. e. Now the MauryanEmpire had 500,000 soldiers and 5,000 was Elephants f. Therefore Seleucus was unable to conquer anyterritory and was chasedbackout. g. He was forcedtogive up territory in the Middle East 4. Chandragupta Maurya a. Chandragupta Maurya b. Born in the kingdom of Maghada c. The people of India had no written history so the information we have comes from the Greeks d. When he was still young he was involved in a plot to overthrow the king, one of his relatives e. The plot failed, sohe was forcedto flee, he fled to the other side of India f. He took refuge with King Porus g. He was with King Porus when Alexander the Greatinvaded India h. Alexander III fights against an army led by King Porus i. King Porus and his men j. Alexander allows Porus to continue to run his kingdom, but now on behalf of Alexander. k. After the battle Chandragupta met Alexander and was impressedwith whatAlexander had accomplished. l. He begins to conquer territories around northern India after Alexander’s death. m. In 321 he returns to Maghada and Maghada is captured n. This marks the beginning of the MauryanEmpire and for the first time ever most of India would be unified. 5. Mauryan Empire a. In 321 Chandragupta returns to Maghada and Maghada is captured b. This marks the beginning of the MauryanEmpire and for the first time ever most of India would be unified. c. Asoka began his reign by committing numerous atrocities including killing hundreds of his own brothers and killing those who were againstMauryan Empire 6. Megasthenes 7. Dharma a. In Hinduism and Buddhism, the law that governs the universe and specifically human behavior. 8. Hinduism a. The main religion in India. It emphasizes reincarnation, basedon the results of the previous life, and the disability of escaping this cycle. Its various forms feature both asceticism and the pleasures of ordinary life and encompass a multitude of gods as different manifestations of one ultimate reality. 9. Buddhism a. A religion andphilosophy basedon the teachings of Siddhartha Gautama around 500 BCE. Principally practicedin China, India, and other parts of Asia, Buddhism has 360 million followers and is considered a major world religion. 10. Siddhartha Gautama a. Buddhism is based on his teachings 11. Asoka a. He was king from 269-232 BC b. During his reign they conquered most of India c. Army of 700,000 and 7,000 war elephants d. Beganhis reign by committing numerous atrocities including killing hundreds of his own brothers and killing those who were against MauryanEmpire e. He then converts to Buddhism and rules as nicely as possible f. He was thenknown as Asoka the beloved 12. Confucianism a. A system of thought basedon the teachings of Confucius that developed into the ruling ideology of the Chinese state. 13. Legalism a. A Chinese philosophy that arguedthat human beings were bynature evil and would follow the correctonly if coercedby harshlaws and stiff punishments. Adopted as official ideology by the Qin dynasty, it was later rejectedbut remained influential 14. Daoism a. A Chinese philosophy traditionally ascribed to the perhaps legendary LaoTzu, which holds that acceptance andspontaneity are the keys to harmonious interaction with the universal order; an alternative to Confucianism. 15. Ying Cheng a. He was one of the most important Chinese rulers. b. “Wang” means king. c. He was the king of China d. Was king from 249-210BC e. His goal in life was to unify all of China f. He was incredibly ruthless in the pursuit of this goal g. In the end he was successful h. In 221 he completed the conquest of all of China, creating the first unified Chinese state. i. In recognition of his success he gave himself a new title j. He called himself Shih Huang-di k. It meantfirst emperor l. He was the first emperor of China m. As emperor he does everything he canto tie his nation together. n. For example, he imposes one monetary system under all of china o. He imposes standardized weights and measures p. He built thousands of miles of roads q. He imposed one systemof writing on all of China r. He built the first Great Wall of China s. After his death there was a brief civil war 16. Liu Bang a. He sees power andmakes himself emperor of China b. He establishes the Handynasty which is the first greatruling dynasty of Chinese history c. Considered the Golden Age of Chinese history d. Most powerfulcountry on Earth up until this time 17. HanDynasty a. Established by Liu Bang 18. Roman Republic a. Was very similar to a Greek Polis Had a hoplite army It had citizenship and assemblies and voting Roman citizens elected city officials, who had a specific job within the Roman government The citizens voted on all important laws and decisions Appeared to be a democratic polis, which means all male citizen regardless of wealth had a vote and could participate, but in fact it was a very narrow oligarchy. Every office in Rome lasted only one year, except for the Senate Most of the priests were Senators and they used religion to keep political power. b. 146 BC was a key date in Roman history because they destroyed Carthage. Carthage had been the last real threat to Rome, and when they were destroyed Rome was supreme in the Mediterranean world. Rome would remain supreme for the next 600 years. 13 years after defeating Carthage, romans began fighting between themselves. The Roman revolution lasted just over a century, the roman revolution would eventually destroy the roman republic and replaced it with a monarchy. c. Roman Revolution led to the fall of Roman Republic and rise of Roman Empire 19. Senate a. Election to office i. To be part of the Senate, you hadto win a lot of elections. ii. Hadto spend huge amounts of money iii. Hadto have a campaign organization to rally voters iv. Hadto shake voters hand to get them to vote for you as well as giving speeches v. Throw mud atrivals b. Policy i. 300 guys in the Senate,all were wealthy,but all he different ideas on how to run Rome. ii. Differentideas on laws being passedand on how the money should be spent. iii. They never fought on whether or not they should go to war,but instead on how the war should be fought iv. Who receives the important military commands v. Who will lead the Roman army into battle? vi. All senators dreamedto have a huge military victory because itbrought military glory andglory translated to political power in Rome. c. Senators always accepteddefeat,whichmeans that if they lost anelection or a debate on policy, or if they didn’t getthe command they wantedtheywould be upset, but they would acceptit d. They would not do anything unprecedented, illegal, or violent. e. Some senators became corruptedand were willing to do anything for power, evenresort to violence and civil war 20. T. Sempronius Gracchus a. Elected as one of the tentribunes in 133 b. Came from a powerful family c. Realized Rome had some very serious problems that need to be fixed d. He tries to fix twoof the problems i. For the first time in Roman history, they were having trouble finding enough Roman soldiers. ii. Roman soldiers were usually farmers andthe number of farmers haddropped dramatically. 1. There was a huge number of poor people in Rome iii. Many were people who had lost their farms and came to Rome to look for work. iv. Atthis time Rome did not have a welfare system e. He takes his idea to the Senate i. He tells them why not take all the land in Italy, ownedby the state, anddivide it up amongst the poor. ii. By doing this poor get money andare eligible for military service. iii. After intense debate the Senate says no. iv. Gracchus refuses toacceptdefeatandtakes his idea directly to the people in the tribal assembly v. This was not illegal, but it had never beendone before. vi. The people pass his law f. The Senate is veryupset about this and got madder as Gracchus continued to pass laws in the assembly as he continued to ignore the Senate. i. They consider him a traitor to his class, the final straw happens late in the year whenhe announces thathe would run for re-election. ii. In the senate,Publius Cornelius Nasica,along with others were enragedNasica and Gracchus were cousins iii. Nasica is saying that Gracchus is trying to make himself a tyrant iv. Nasica andsome of the other Senators marchout along with armed followers of the Senate. g. Nasica marches upto Capitol Hill and club Tiberius Gracchus to death. i. Gracchus only servedone year,but he accomplished a lot. ii. For the first time ever there has beenviolence in the Roman political process. iii. No city official had ever beenassassinatedbefore. iv. After this, violence will become more common. 21. C. Marius a. Elected as one of the two consuls in Rome b. They are the co-presidents of Rome c. Given a good war tofight, the problem was thathe couldn’t find enough soldiers for his army. d. Marius does something revolutionary, announces thathe will acceptpoor volunteers in to his army andif they cannot affordtheir own stuff the state will provide for them. e. He was a greatgeneraland the soldiers proved they could fight just well as people with money f. Marius and his soldiers win three major wars. g. Marius and his soldiers come backto Rome h. Marius goes to the Senate and asks them to give his soldiers land and says that they fought well for Rome and Rome should help them out. i. Marius doesn’t acceptdefeat. j. Marius goes to one of the tribunes and the tribune proposes the idea directly to the assembly. k. The law passes andsoldiers gettheir land l. Senate doesn’t kill Marius because he has 50,000 soldiers 22. Cn. Pompey Magnus a. Partof the first triumvirate b. Helped Julius Caesar getelected c. Near the end of the decade the alliance began to breakapart d. The first blow came in 54BC when Julia died, important politically because she was married to Pompey. Julia was the daughter of Julius e. Pompey and Julia actually fell in love. f. Julia died in childbirth and the baby dies as well. g. The 2nd blow comes in 53BC, whenCrassus is killed. h. Crassus wentto the eastto attackParthia,unfortunately, he is defeated,captured, andis beheaded, and usedas a prop in a play. i. Pompey and Caesar breakup j. He became jealous of Caesar’s military success k. He usedto be the most popular general, but now its Caesar l. Pompey joins with the Senate to try and bring Caesar down m. They order Caesar togive up his provinces and his army, basically his power n. Caesar refuses toacceptdefeatandhas a large loyal army thatwill backhim up. o. Caesar takes his army and marches into Italy, starting the second Civil War. p. Pompey and the Senate are surprised that he decided to fight because he only had one army and Pompeyand the Senate had 4. q. They didn’t have any of the armies with them so theyflee to Greece. r. Caesar takes over Rome without a fight 23. C. Julius Caesar a. Passedlaws benefitting Pompey and Crassus because theyhelped him getin to office. b. Gets appointed governor of twoprovinces c. Atthe time these twoprovinces were atthe front of the Roman Empire d. Julius Caesar tries to win military glory e. In 58 BC Caesar invades Gaul f. It takes him a while but by 50BC Caesar conquers all of Gaul g. By conquering Gaul, Caesar wonincredible military glory h. By 50BC, he had a very large, well trained, experienced, andloyal army. i. The soldiers loved Caesar andwould follow him anywhere 24. Battle of Pharsalus a. The army of Caesar defeats the armyof Pompey and the Senate b. Pompey flees from Pharsalus and instead of going for another army, he flees to Egypt. c. Ptolemy XIII is king of Egypt at the time d. Descendantof one of the generals of Alexander the Great e. Ptolemy heardabout the battle of Pharsalus and correctlyguessed that Caesar would now rule Rome, so he decides to getin good with Caesar. f. As Pompey gets off the boat in Egypt, he is assassinatedby Ptolemy’s men. g. Caesar arrives a shorttime after and Ptolemy hands Caesar the headof Pompey thinking that Caesar would be happy h. Caesar was nothappy, he claimed he wantedto spare Pompey, so rather than thanking Ptolemy he kicks him of the throne of Egypt and Ptolemy disappears. i. Ptolemy is replacedby his sister Cleopatra and atthe age of 19, she becomes queenof Egypt. j. Caesar spends the next year in Egypt hanging out with Cleopatra and they become an item. k. She gives birth to a boy namedPtolemy Caesarion l. Caesar never lost a battle m. Becomes dictator for 10 years n. In early 44BC, he announces he will be dictator for life. o. Rumors began to fly that he would make himself king of Rome p. Many Senators did not wantto see this happen because theywould lose their power. 25. Cleopatra a. Ptolemy is replacedby his sister Cleopatra and atthe age of 19, she becomes queenof Egypt. b. Caesar spends the next year in Egypt hanging out with Cleopatra and they become an item. c. She gives birth to a boy namedPtolemy Caesarion 26. M. Junius Brutus and C. Cassius Longinus a. They had beensparedby Caesar b. On March15, 44BC Caesar is assassinatedbyBrutus, Cassius and the others. c. After the kill Caesar theytell everyone whatthey did. d. They tell people they restoredliberty e. Atthat moment they realize they might have made a mistake because mostpeople liked Caesar. f. Brutus, Cassius and the others leave Rome and go East g. Brutus and Cassius commit suicide after losing battle of Philippi 27. M. Antonius a. Antonius was Caesar’s secondin command and he becomes verypowerful very quickly. b. After Philippi Antonius goes Eastto rule his provinces and reunites with Cleopatra c. He falls madly in love with Cleopatra, divorces his roman wife and marries Cleopatra. d. Divorce was not acceptable e. The thing that made it worse was thatAntonius was marriedto Octavius’ sister. f. Cleopatra gives birth to twins, a boy and a girl and Antonius announced that all his lands will go to his children with Cleopatra and not his roman children. g. This didn’t go well with the Roman people and Octavius uses this as an excuse 28. C. Octavius Augustus a. Caius Octavius becomes powerful quickly as well b. Also known as Augustus c. He was only 18 years old, but he was Caesars closestmale roman relative. d. He was his Greatnephew, Caesar namedhim his successor in his will. e. Many didn’t take him seriously until it was too late. 29. Octavius and Antonius a. They take their army east,to fight the armyof Brutus and Cassius to fight the battle of Philippi b. The Battle off Philippi c. The armies of Octavius and Antonius win and Brutus and Cassius commit suicide. d. Octavius and Antonius are now rulers of Rome. e. One rules westand the other rules east. f. Octavius wants to getrid of Antonius 30. Battle of Actium a. Octavius says Cleopatra wants to rule the whole world and thatshe must be stopped. b. Declares war onCleopatra and Egypt c. One big battle, the battle of Actium d. The navy of Octavius destroys the navy of Antonius and Cleopatra. e. They flee to Egypt, Antonius commits suicide and she tries to make moves on Octavius and whenthat fails she too commits suicide. f. Octavius becomes Rome’s first emperor in Rome
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